Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 11

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 11
    275
    A Force Measurement Evaluation Tool for Telerobotic Cutting Applications: Development of an Effective Characterization Platform
    Abstract:

    Sensorized instruments that accurately measure the interaction forces (between biological tissue and instrument endeffector) during surgical procedures offer surgeons a greater sense of immersion during minimally invasive robotic surgery. Although there is ongoing research into force measurement involving surgical graspers little corresponding effort has been carried out on the measurement of forces between scissor blades and tissue. This paper presents the design and development of a force measurement test apparatus, which will serve as a sensor characterization and evaluation platform. The primary aim of the experiments is to ascertain whether the system can differentiate between tissue samples with differing mechanical properties in a reliable, repeatable manner. Force-angular displacement curves highlight trends in the cutting process as well the forces generated along the blade during a cutting procedure. Future applications of the test equipment will involve the assessment of new direct force sensing technologies for telerobotic surgery.

    10
    3109
    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) as a Modern Structure for Medical Data
    Abstract:

    The amount and heterogeneity of data in biomedical research, notably in interdisciplinary fields, requires new methods for the collection, presentation and analysis of information. Important data from laboratory experiments as well as patient trials are available but come out of distributed resources. The Charité - University Hospital Berlin has established together with the German Research Foundation (DFG) a new information service centre for kidney diseases and transplantation (Open European Nephrology Science Centre - OpEN.SC). Beside a collaborative aspect to create new research groups every single partner or institution of this science information centre making his own data available is allowed to search the whole data pool of the various involved centres. A core task is the implementation of a non-restricting open data structure for the various different data sources. We decided to use a modern RDF model and in a first phase transformed original data coming from the web-based Electronic Patient Record database TBase©.

    9
    4839
    Semi-Automatic Artifact Rejection Procedure Based on Kurtosis, Renyi's Entropy and Independent Component Scalp Maps
    Abstract:

    Artifact rejection plays a key role in many signal processing applications. The artifacts are disturbance that can occur during the signal acquisition and that can alter the analysis of the signals themselves. Our aim is to automatically remove the artifacts, in particular from the Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. A technique for the automatic artifact rejection, based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the artifact extraction and on some high order statistics such as kurtosis and Shannon-s entropy, was proposed some years ago in literature. In this paper we try to enhance this technique proposing a new method based on the Renyi-s entropy. The performance of our method was tested and compared to the performance of the method in literature and the former proved to outperform the latter.

    8
    9358
    Mechanical Design and Theoretical Analysis of a Four Fingered Prosthetic Hand Incorporating Embedded SMA Bundle Actuators
    Abstract:

    The psychological and physical trauma associated with the loss of a human limb can severely impact on the quality of life of an amputee rendering even the most basic of tasks very difficult. A prosthetic device can be of great benefit to the amputee in the performance of everyday human tasks. This paper outlines a proposed mechanical design of a 12 degree-of-freedom SMA actuated artificial hand. It is proposed that the SMA wires be embedded intrinsically within the hand structure which will allow for significant flexibility for use either as a prosthetic hand solution, or as part of a complete lower arm prosthetic solution. A modular approach is taken in the design facilitating ease of manufacture and assembly, and more importantly, also allows the end user to easily replace SMA wires in the event of failure. A biomimetric approach has been taken during the design process meaning that the artificial hand should replicate that of a human hand as far as is possible with due regard to functional requirements. The proposed design has been exposed to appropriate loading through the use of finite element analysis (FEA) to ensure that it is structurally sound. Theoretical analysis of the mechanical framework was also carried out to establish the limits of the angular displacement and velocity of the finger tip as well finger tip force generation. A combination of various polymers and Titanium, which are suitably lightweight, are proposed for the manufacture of the design.

    7
    9440
    Telemedicine and Medical Informatics: The Global Approach
    Abstract:

    Telemedicine is brought to life by contemporary changes of our world and summarizes the entire range of services that are at the crossroad of traditional healthcare and information technology. It is believed that eHealth can help in solving critical issues of rising costs, care for ageing and housebound population, staff shortage. It is a feasible tool to provide routine as well as specialized health service as it has the potential to improve both the access to and the standard of care. eHealth is no more an optional choice. It has already made quite a way but it still remains a fantastic challenge for the future requiring cooperation and coordination at all possible levels. The strategic objectives of this paper are: 1. To start with an attempt to clarify the mass of terms used nowadays; 2. To answer the question “Who needs eHealth"; 3. To focus on the necessity of bridging telemedicine and medical (health) informatics as well as on the dual relationship between them; as well as 4. To underline the need of networking in understanding, developing and implementing eHealth.

    6
    9799
    Non-Rigid Registration of Medical Images Using an Automated Method
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    This paper presents the application of a signal intensity independent registration criterion for non-rigid body registration of medical images. The criterion is defined as the weighted ratio image of two images. The ratio is computed on a voxel per voxel basis and weighting is performed by setting the ratios between signal and background voxels to a standard high value. The mean squared value of the weighted ratio is computed over the union of the signal areas of the two images and it is minimized using the Chebyshev polynomial approximation. The geometric transformation model adopted is a local cubic B-splines based model.

    5
    10089
    Case Based Reasoning Technology for Medical Diagnosis
    Abstract:

    Case based reasoning (CBR) methodology presents a foundation for a new technology of building intelligent computeraided diagnoses systems. This Technology directly addresses the problems found in the traditional Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, e.g. the problems of knowledge acquisition, remembering, robust and maintenance. This paper discusses the CBR methodology, the research issues and technical aspects of implementing intelligent medical diagnoses systems. Successful applications in cancer and heart diseases developed by Medical Informatics Research Group at Ain Shams University are also discussed.

    4
    10395
    eMedI: Web-Based E-Training for Multimodal Breast Imaging
    Abstract:

    In this paper, a Web-based e-Training platform that is dedicated to multimodal breast imaging is presented. The assets of this platform are summarised in (i) the efficient representation of the curriculum flow that will permit efficient training; (ii) efficient tagging of multimodal content appropriate for the completion of realistic cases and (iii) ubiquitous accessibility and platform independence via a web-based approach.

    3
    10890
    Design of Expert System for Search Allergy and Selection of the Skin Tests using CLIPS
    Abstract:

    This work presents the design of an expert system that aims in the procurement of patient medial background and in the search for suitable skin test selections. Skin testing is the tool used most widely to diagnose allergies. The language of expert systems CLIPS is used as a tool of designing. Finally, we present the evaluation of the proposed expert system which was achieved with the import of certain medical cases and the system produced with suitable successful skin tests.

    2
    11474
    Support Vector Machine Approach for Classification of Cancerous Prostate Regions
    Abstract:

    The objective of this paper, is to apply support vector machine (SVM) approach for the classification of cancerous and normal regions of prostate images. Three kinds of textural features are extracted and used for the analysis: parameters of the Gauss- Markov random field (GMRF), correlation function and relative entropy. Prostate images are acquired by the system consisting of a microscope, video camera and a digitizing board. Cross-validated classification over a database of 46 images is implemented to evaluate the performance. In SVM classification, sensitivity and specificity of 96.2% and 97.0% are achieved for the 32x32 pixel block sized data, respectively, with an overall accuracy of 96.6%. Classification performance is compared with artificial neural network and k-nearest neighbor classifiers. Experimental results demonstrate that the SVM approach gives the best performance.

    1
    14915
    Classification of Prostate Cell Nuclei using Artificial Neural Network Methods
    Abstract:

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the value of neural networks for classification of cancer and noncancer prostate cells. Gauss Markov Random Fields, Fourier entropy and wavelet average deviation features are calculated from 80 noncancer and 80 cancer prostate cell nuclei. For classification, artificial neural network techniques which are multilayer perceptron, radial basis function and learning vector quantization are used. Two methods are utilized for multilayer perceptron. First method has single hidden layer and between 3-15 nodes, second method has two hidden layer and each layer has between 3-15 nodes. Overall classification rate of 86.88% is achieved.