Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 15

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 15
    Technical Support of Intracranial Single Unit Activity Measurement

    The article deals with technical support of intracranial single unit activity measurement. The parameters of the whole measuring set were tested in order to assure the optimal conditions of extracellular single-unit recording. Metal microelectrodes for measuring the single-unit were tested during animal experiments. From signals recorded during these experiments, requirements for the measuring set parameters were defined. The impedance parameters of the metal microelectrodes were measured. The frequency-gain and autonomous noise properties of preamplifier and amplifier were verified. The measurement and the description of the extracellular single unit activity could help in prognoses of brain tissue damage recovery.

    Segmentation of Lungs from CT Scan Images for Early Diagnosis of Lung Cancer
    Segmentation is an important step in medical image analysis and classification for radiological evaluation or computer aided diagnosis. The CAD (Computer Aided Diagnosis ) of lung CT generally first segment the area of interest (lung) and then analyze the separately obtained area for nodule detection in order to diagnosis the disease. For normal lung, segmentation can be performed by making use of excellent contrast between air and surrounding tissues. However this approach fails when lung is affected by high density pathology. Dense pathologies are present in approximately a fifth of clinical scans, and for computer analysis such as detection and quantification of abnormal areas it is vital that the entire and perfectly lung part of the image is provided and no part, as present in the original image be eradicated. In this paper we have proposed a lung segmentation technique which accurately segment the lung parenchyma from lung CT Scan images. The algorithm was tested against the 25 datasets of different patients received from Ackron Univeristy, USA and AGA Khan Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Detection of Action Potentials in the Presence of Noise Using Phase-Space Techniques
    Emerging Bio-engineering fields such as Brain Computer Interfaces, neuroprothesis devices and modeling and simulation of neural networks have led to increased research activity in algorithms for the detection, isolation and classification of Action Potentials (AP) from noisy data trains. Current techniques in the field of 'unsupervised no-prior knowledge' biosignal processing include energy operators, wavelet detection and adaptive thresholding. These tend to bias towards larger AP waveforms, AP may be missed due to deviations in spike shape and frequency and correlated noise spectrums can cause false detection. Also, such algorithms tend to suffer from large computational expense. A new signal detection technique based upon the ideas of phasespace diagrams and trajectories is proposed based upon the use of a delayed copy of the AP to highlight discontinuities relative to background noise. This idea has been used to create algorithms that are computationally inexpensive and address the above problems. Distinct AP have been picked out and manually classified from real physiological data recorded from a cockroach. To facilitate testing of the new technique, an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) noise model has been constructed bases upon background noise of the recordings. Along with the AP classification means this model enables generation of realistic neuronal data sets at arbitrary signal to noise ratio (SNR).
    Use of Heliox during Spontaneous Ventilation: Model Study

    The study deals with the modelling of the gas flow during heliox therapy. A special model has been developed to study the effect of the helium upon the gas flow in the airways during the spontaneous breathing. Lower density of helium compared with air decreases the Reynolds number and it allows improving the flow during the spontaneous breathing. In the cases, where the flow becomes turbulent while the patient inspires air the flow is still laminar when the patient inspires heliox. The use of heliox decreases the work of breathing and improves ventilation. It allows in some cases to prevent the intubation of the patients.

    Constitutive Equations for Human Saphenous Vein Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
    Coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) are widely studied with respect to hemodynamic conditions which play important role in presence of a restenosis. However, papers which concern with constitutive modeling of CABG are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this study is to find a constitutive model for CABG tissue. A sample of the CABG obtained within an autopsy underwent an inflation–extension test. Displacements were recoredered by CCD cameras and subsequently evaluated by digital image correlation. Pressure – radius and axial force – elongation data were used to fit material model. The tissue was modeled as onelayered composite reinforced by two families of helical fibers. The material is assumed to be locally orthotropic, nonlinear, incompressible and hyperelastic. Material parameters are estimated for two strain energy functions (SEF). The first is classical exponential. The second SEF is logarithmic which allows interpretation by means of limiting (finite) strain extensibility. Presented material parameters are estimated by optimization based on radial and axial equilibrium equation in a thick-walled tube. Both material models fit experimental data successfully. The exponential model fits significantly better relationship between axial force and axial strain than logarithmic one.
    New Malate Dehydrogenase-Glutamate Oxaolacetate Aminotransferase Glutamate Oxaloacetate Aminotransferase Enzyme System from Cereals and its Bioengineering Application
    Malate dehydrogenase-glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase (MDh-GOAT) enzyme complex (the EC) was isolated and purified from wheat and rise, their some main physicchemical properties were studied. Michael-s constants of the EC MDh-GOAT to malate, glutamate and NAD were investigated. This kinetic results show a high relationship to glutamate. Taking into account important role of the the EC in catabolism of glutamate – the central amino acid of a nitric exchange, there is a sharp necessity of deeper studying of this enzyme complex. Therefore the basic purpose of the work is studying the basic physical and chemical properties of this enzyme complex discovered by us, which would be very important for understanding the mechanisms of reaction catalyzed by the EC.
    Enhancement of m-FISH Images using Spectral Unmixing
    Breast carcinoma is the most common form of cancer in women. Multicolour fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (m-FISH) is a common method for staging breast carcinoma. The interpretation of m-FISH images is complicated due to two effects: (i) Spectral overlap in the emission spectra of fluorochrome marked DNA probes and (ii) tissue autofluorescence. In this paper hyper-spectral images of m-FISH samples are used and spectral unmixing is applied to produce false colour images with higher contrast and better information content than standard RGB images. The spectral unmixing is realised by combinations of: Orthogonal Projection Analysis (OPA), Alterating Least Squares (ALS), Simple-to-use Interactive Self-Modeling Mixture Analysis (SIMPLISMA) and VARIMAX. These are applied on the data to reduce tissue autofluorescence and resolve the spectral overlap in the emission spectra. The results show that spectral unmixing methods reduce the intensity caused by tissue autofluorescence by up to 78% and enhance image contrast by algorithmically reducing the overlap of the emission spectra.
    Artificial Intelligence Support for Interferon Treatment Decision in Chronic Hepatitis B
    Chronic hepatitis B can evolve to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Interferon is the only effective treatment, for carefully selected patients, but it is very expensive. Some of the selection criteria are based on liver biopsy, an invasive, costly and painful medical procedure. Therefore, developing efficient non-invasive selection systems, could be in the patients benefit and also save money. We investigated the possibility to create intelligent systems to assist the Interferon therapeutical decision, mainly by predicting with acceptable accuracy the results of the biopsy. We used a knowledge discovery in integrated medical data - imaging, clinical, and laboratory data. The resulted intelligent systems, tested on 500 patients with chronic hepatitis B, based on C5.0 decision trees and boosting, predict with 100% accuracy the results of the liver biopsy. Also, by integrating the other patients selection criteria, they offer a non-invasive support for the correct Interferon therapeutic decision. To our best knowledge, these decision systems outperformed all similar systems published in the literature, and offer a realistic opportunity to replace liver biopsy in this medical context.
    Cross Signal Identification for PSG Applications
    The standard investigational method for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) diagnosis is polysomnography (PSG), which consists of a simultaneous, usually overnight recording of multiple electro-physiological signals related to sleep and wakefulness. This is an expensive, encumbering and not a readily repeated protocol, and therefore there is need for simpler and easily implemented screening and detection techniques. Identification of apnea/hypopnea events in the screening recordings is the key factor for the diagnosis of OSAS. The analysis of a solely single-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) signal for OSAS diagnosis, which may be done with portable devices, at patient-s home, is the challenge of the last years. A novel artificial neural network (ANN) based approach for feature extraction and automatic identification of respiratory events in ECG signals is presented in this paper. A nonlinear principal component analysis (NLPCA) method was considered for feature extraction and support vector machine for classification/recognition. An alternative representation of the respiratory events by means of Kohonen type neural network is discussed. Our prospective study was based on OSAS patients of the Clinical Hospital of Pneumology from Iaşi, Romania, males and females, as well as on non-OSAS investigated human subjects. Our computed analysis includes a learning phase based on cross signal PSG annotation.
    A Novel Method for the Characterization of Synchronization and Coupling in Multichannel EEG and ECoG
    In this paper we introduce a novel method for the characterization of synchronziation and coupling effects in multivariate time series that can be used for the analysis of EEG or ECoG signals recorded during epileptic seizures. The method allows to visualize the spatio-temporal evolution of synchronization and coupling effects that are characteristic for epileptic seizures. Similar to other methods proposed for this purpose our method is based on a regression analysis. However, a more general definition of the regression together with an effective channel selection procedure allows to use the method even for time series that are highly correlated, which is commonly the case in EEG/ECoG recordings with large numbers of electrodes. The method was experimentally tested on ECoG recordings of epileptic seizures from patients with temporal lobe epilepsies. A comparision with the results from a independent visual inspection by clinical experts showed an excellent agreement with the patterns obtained with the proposed method.
    Use of Caffeine and Human Pharmaceutical Compounds to Identify Sewage Contamination
    Fecal coliform bacteria are widely used as indicators of sewage contamination in surface water. However, there are some disadvantages in these microbial techniques including time consuming (18-48h) and inability in discriminating between human and animal fecal material sources. Therefore, it is necessary to seek a more specific indicator of human sanitary waste. In this study, the feasibility was investigated to apply caffeine and human pharmaceutical compounds to identify the human-source contamination. The correlation between caffeine and fecal coliform was also explored. Surface water samples were collected from upstream, middle-stream and downstream points respectively, along Rochor Canal, as well as 8 locations of Marina Bay. Results indicate that caffeine is a suitable chemical tracer in Singapore because of its easy detection (in the range of 0.30-2.0 ng/mL), compared with other chemicals monitored. Relative low concentrations of human pharmaceutical compounds (< 0.07 ng/mL) in Rochor Canal and Marina Bay water samples make them hard to be detected and difficult to be chemical tracer. However, their existence can help to validate sewage contamination. In addition, it was discovered the high correlation exists between caffeine concentration and fecal coliform density in the Rochor Canal water samples, demonstrating that caffeine is highly related to the human-source contamination.
    Multiple Mental Thought Parametric Classification: A New Approach for Individual Identification
    This paper reports a new approach on identifying the individuality of persons by using parametric classification of multiple mental thoughts. In the approach, electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded when the subjects were thinking of one or more (up to five) mental thoughts. Autoregressive features were computed from these EEG signals and classified by Linear Discriminant classifier. The results here indicate that near perfect identification of 400 test EEG patterns from four subjects was possible, thereby opening up a new avenue in biometrics.
    Forward Simulation of a Parallel Hybrid Vehicle and Fuzzy Controller Design for Driving/Regenerative Propose
    One of the best ways for achievement of conventional vehicle changing to hybrid case is trustworthy simulation result and using of driving realities. For this object, in this paper, at first sevendegree- of-freedom dynamical model of vehicle will be shown. Then by using of statically model of engine, gear box, clutch, differential, electrical machine and battery, the hybrid automobile modeling will be down and forward simulation of vehicle for pedals to wheels power transformation will be obtained. Then by design of a fuzzy controller and using the proper rule base, fuel economy and regenerative braking will be marked. Finally a series of MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation results will be proved the effectiveness of proposed structure.
    Development of a Microsensor to Minimize Post Cataract Surgery Complications
    This paper presents design and characterization of a microaccelerometer designated for integration into cataract surgical probe to detect hardness of different eye tissues during cataract surgery. Soft posterior lens capsule of eye can be easily damaged in comparison with hard opaque lens since the surgeon can not see directly behind cutting needle during the surgery. Presence of microsensor helps the surgeon to avoid rupturing posterior lens capsule which if occurs leads to severe complications such as glaucoma, infection, or even blindness. The microsensor having overall dimensions of 480 μm x 395 μm is able to deliver significant capacitance variations during encountered vibration situations which makes it capable to distinguish between different types of tissue. Integration of electronic components on chip ensures high level of reliability and noise immunity while minimizes space and power requirements. Physical characteristics and results on performance testing, proves integration of microsensor as an effective tool to aid the surgeon during this procedure.
    Limiting Fiber Extensibility as Parameter for Damage in Venous Wall
    An inflation–extension test with human vena cava inferior was performed with the aim to fit a material model. The vein was modeled as a thick–walled tube loaded by internal pressure and axial force. The material was assumed to be an incompressible hyperelastic fiber reinforced continuum. Fibers are supposed to be arranged in two families of anti–symmetric helices. Considered anisotropy corresponds to local orthotropy. Used strain energy density function was based on a concept of limiting strain extensibility. The pressurization was comprised by four pre–cycles under physiological venous loading (0 – 4kPa) and four cycles under nonphysiological loading (0 – 21kPa). Each overloading cycle was performed with different value of axial weight. Overloading data were used in regression analysis to fit material model. Considered model did not fit experimental data so good. Especially predictions of axial force failed. It was hypothesized that due to nonphysiological values of loading pressure and different values of axial weight the material was not preconditioned enough and some damage occurred inside the wall. A limiting fiber extensibility parameter Jm was assumed to be in relation to supposed damage. Each of overloading cycles was fitted separately with different values of Jm. Other parameters were held the same. This approach turned out to be successful. Variable value of Jm can describe changes in the axial force – axial stretch response and satisfy pressure – radius dependence simultaneously.