Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 5

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 5
    Development of Face Surrogate for Impact Protection Design for Cyclist
    Bicycle usage for exercise, recreation, and commuting to work in Australia shows that pedal cycling is the fourth most popular activity with 10.6% increase in participants between 2001 and 2007. As with other means of transport, accident and injury becomes common although mandatory bicycle helmet wearing has been introduced. The research aims to develop a face surrogate made of sandwich of rigid foam and rubber sheets to represent human facial bone under blunt impact. The facial surrogate will serve as an important test device for further development of facial-impact protection for cyclist. A test procedure was developed to simulate the energy of impact and record data to evaluate the effect of impact on facial bones. Drop tests were performed to establish a suitable combination of materials. It was found that the sandwich structure of rigid extruded-polystyrene foam (density of 40 kg/m3 with a pattern of 6-mm-holes), Neoprene rubber sponge, and Abrasaflex rubber backing, had impact characteristics comparable to that of human facial bone. In particular, the foam thickness of 30 mm and 25 mm was found suitable to represent human zygoma (cheekbone) and maxilla (upper-jaw bone), respectively.
    A Comparative Study of Transient Flow through Cerebral Aneurysms using CFD
    The recent advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be useful in observing the detailed hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms for understanding not only their formation and rupture but also for clinical evaluation and treatment. However, important hemodynamic quantities are difficult to measure in vivo. In the present study, an approximate model of normal middle cerebral artery (MCA) along with two cases consisting broad and narrow saccular aneurysms are analyzed. The models are generated in ANSYS WORKBENCH and transient analysis is performed in ANSYS-CFX. The results obtained are compared for three cases and agree well with the available literature.
    Skin Lesion Segmentation Using Color Channel Optimization and Clustering-based Histogram Thresholding
    Automatic segmentation of skin lesions is the first step towards the automated analysis of malignant melanoma. Although numerous segmentation methods have been developed, few studies have focused on determining the most effective color space for melanoma application. This paper proposes an automatic segmentation algorithm based on color space analysis and clustering-based histogram thresholding, a process which is able to determine the optimal color channel for detecting the borders in dermoscopy images. The algorithm is tested on a set of 30 high resolution dermoscopy images. A comprehensive evaluation of the results is provided, where borders manually drawn by four dermatologists, are compared to automated borders detected by the proposed algorithm, applying three previously used metrics of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity and a new metric of similarity. By performing ROC analysis and ranking the metrics, it is demonstrated that the best results are obtained with the X and XoYoR color channels, resulting in an accuracy of approximately 97%. The proposed method is also compared with two state-of-theart skin lesion segmentation methods.
    Evaluation of a Bio-Mechanism by Graphed Static Equilibrium Forces

    The unique structural configuration found in human foot allows easy walking. Similar movement is hard to imitate even for an ape. It is obvious that human ambulation relates to the foot structure itself. Suppose the bones are represented as vertices and the joints as edges. This leads to the development of a special graph that represents human foot. On a footprint there are point-ofcontacts which have contact with the ground. It involves specific vertices. Theoretically, for an ideal ambulation, these points provide reactions onto the ground or the static equilibrium forces. They are arranged in sequence in form of a path. The ambulating footprint follows this path. Having the human foot graph and the path crossbred, it results in a representation that describes the profile of an ideal ambulation. This profile cites the locations where the point-of-contact experience normal reaction forces. It highlights the significant of these points.

    Automated Optic Disc Detection in Retinal Images of Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy and Risk of Macular Edema

    In this paper, a new automated methodology to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically in retinal images from patients with risk of being affected by Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and Macular Edema (ME) is presented. The detection procedure comprises two independent methodologies. On one hand, a location methodology obtains a pixel that belongs to the OD using image contrast analysis and structure filtering techniques and, on the other hand, a boundary segmentation methodology estimates a circular approximation of the OD boundary by applying mathematical morphology, edge detection techniques and the Circular Hough Transform. The methodologies were tested on a set of 1200 images composed of 229 retinographies from patients affected by DR with risk of ME, 431 with DR and no risk of ME and 540 images of healthy retinas. The location methodology obtained 98.83% success rate, whereas the OD boundary segmentation methodology obtained good circular OD boundary approximation in 94.58% of cases. The average computational time measured over the total set was 1.67 seconds for OD location and 5.78 seconds for OD boundary segmentation.