Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 5

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 5
    Evaluation of a New Method for Detection of Kidney Stone during Laparoscopy Using 3D Conceptual Modeling

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is now being widely used as a preferred choice for various types of operations. The need to detect various tactile properties, justifies the key role of tactile sensing that is currently missing in MIS. In this regard, Laparoscopy is one of the methods of minimally invasive surgery that can be used in kidney stone removal surgeries. At this moment, determination of the exact location of stone during laparoscopy is one of the limitations of this method that no scientific solution has been found for so far. Artificial tactile sensing is a new method for obtaining the characteristics of a hard object embedded in a soft tissue. Artificial palpation is an important application of artificial tactile sensing that can be used in different types of surgeries. In this study, a new method for determining the exact location of stone during laparoscopy is presented. In the present study, the effects of stone existence on the surface of kidney were investigated using conceptual 3D model of kidney containing a simulated stone. Having imitated palpation and modeled it conceptually, indications of stone existence that appear on the surface of kidney were determined. A number of different cases were created and solved by the software and using stress distribution contours and stress graphs, it is illustrated that the created stress patterns on the surface of kidney show not only the existence of stone inside, but also its exact location. So three-dimensional analysis leads to a novel method of predicting the exact location of stone and can be directly applied to the incorporation of tactile sensing in artificial palpation, helping surgeons in non-invasive procedures.

    Extrapolation of Clinical Data from an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Using a Support Vector Machine
    To extract the important physiological factors related to diabetes from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) by mathematical modeling, highly informative but convenient protocols are required. Current models require a large number of samples and extended period of testing, which is not practical for daily use. The purpose of this study is to make model assessments possible even from a reduced number of samples taken over a relatively short period. For this purpose, test values were extrapolated using a support vector machine. A good correlation was found between reference and extrapolated values in evaluated 741 OGTTs. This result indicates that a reduction in the number of clinical test is possible through a computational approach.
    Optical Coherence Tomography Combined with the Confocal Microscopy Method and Fluorescence for Class V Cavities Investigations
    The purpose of this study is to present a non invasive method for the marginal adaptation evaluation in class V composite restorations. Standardized class V cavities, prepared in human extracted teeth, were filled with Premise (Kerr) composite. The specimens were thermo cycled. The interfaces were examined by Optical Coherence Tomography method (OCT) combined with the confocal microscopy and fluorescence. The optical configuration uses two single mode directional couplers with a superluminiscent diode as the source at 1300 nm. The scanning procedure is similar to that used in any confocal microscope, where the fast scanning is enface (line rate) and the depth scanning is much slower (at the frame rate). Gaps at the interfaces as well as inside the composite resin materials were identified. OCT has numerous advantages which justify its use in vivo as well as in vitro in comparison with conventional techniques.
    Modeling and Analysis of the Effects of Nephrolithiasis in Kidney Using a Computational Tactile Sensing Approach
    Having considered tactile sensing and palpation of a surgeon in order to detect kidney stone during open surgery; we present the 2D model of nephrolithiasis (two dimensional model of kidney containing a simulated stone). The effects of stone existence that appear on the surface of kidney (because of exerting mechanical load) are determined. Using Finite element method, it is illustrated that the created stress patterns on the surface of kidney and stress graphs not only show existence of stone inside kidney, but also show its exact location.
    Material Defects Identification in Metal Ceramic Fixed Partial Dentures by En-Face Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography
    The fixed partial dentures are mainly used in the frontal part of the dental arch because of their great esthetics. There are several factors that are associated with the stress state created in ceramic restorations, including: thickness of ceramic layers, mechanical properties of the materials, elastic modulus of the supporting substrate material, direction, magnitude and frequency of applied load, size and location of occlusal contact areas, residual stresses induced by processing or pores, restoration-cement interfacial defects and environmental defects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the capability of Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PSOCT) in detection and analysis of possible material defects in metal-ceramic and integral ceramic fixed partial dentures. As a conclusion, it is important to have a non invasive method to investigate fixed partial prostheses before their insertion in the oral cavity in order to satisfy the high stress requirements and the esthetic function.