Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 12

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 12
    New Wavelet Indices to Assess Muscle Fatigue during Dynamic Contractions
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare new indices based on the discrete wavelet transform with another spectral parameters proposed in the literature as mean average voltage, median frequency and ratios between spectral moments applied to estimate acute exercise-induced changes in power output, i.e., to assess peripheral muscle fatigue during a dynamic fatiguing protocol. 15 trained subjects performed 5 sets consisting of 10 leg press, with 2 minutes rest between sets. Surface electromyography was recorded from vastus medialis (VM) muscle. Several surface electromyographic parameters were compared to detect peripheral muscle fatigue. These were: mean average voltage (MAV), median spectral frequency (Fmed), Dimitrov spectral index of muscle fatigue (FInsm5), as well as other five parameters obtained from the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) as ratios between different scales. The new wavelet indices achieved the best results in Pearson correlation coefficients with power output changes during acute dynamic contractions. Their regressions were significantly different from MAV and Fmed. On the other hand, they showed the highest robustness in presence of additive white gaussian noise for different signal to noise ratios (SNRs). Therefore, peripheral impairments assessed by sEMG wavelet indices may be a relevant factor involved in the loss of power output after dynamic high-loading fatiguing task.
    Pentachlorophenol Removal via Adsorption and Biodegradation
    Removal of PCP by a system combining biodegradation by biofilm and adsorption was investigated here. Three studies were conducted employing batch tests, sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and continuous biofilm activated carbon column reactor (BACCOR). The combination of biofilm-GAC batch process removed about 30% more PCP than GAC adsorption alone. For the SBR processes, both the suspended and attached biomass could remove more than 90% of the PCP after acclimatisation. BACCOR was able to remove more than 98% of PCP-Na at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L, at empty bed contact time (EBCT) ranging from 0.75 to 4 hours. Pure and mixed cultures from BACCOR were tested for use of PCP as sole carbon and energy source under aerobic conditions. The isolates were able to degrade up to 42% of PCP under aerobic conditions in pure cultures. However, mixed cultures were found able to degrade more than 99% PCP indicating interdependence of species.
    Increased Solubility, Dissolution and Physicochemical Studies of Curcumin- Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 Solid Dispersions
    Solid dispersions (SD) of curcuminpolyvinylpyrrolidone in the ratio of 1:2, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, and 1:8 were prepared in an attempt to increase the solubility and dissolution. Solubility, dissolution, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of solid dispersions, physical mixtures (PM) and curcumin were evaluated. Both solubility and dissolution of curcumin solid dispersions were significantly greater than those observed for physical mixtures and intact curcumin. The powder X-ray diffractograms indicated that the amorphous curcumin was obtained from all solid dispersions. It was found that the optimum weight ratio for curcumin:PVP K-30 is 1:6. The 1:6 solid dispersion still in the amorphous from after storage at ambient temperature for 2 years and the dissolution profile did not significantly different from freshly prepared.
    In vitro Anti-tubercular Screening of Newly Synthesized Benzimidazole Derivatives

    A series of 1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-3-(substituted phenyl)-2-propen-1-one were allowed to react with hydrazine hydrate and phenyl hydrazine in submitted reactions to get pyrazoline and phenyl pyrazoline derivatives. All the compounds entered for screening at the Tuberculosis Antimicrobial Acquisition and Coordinating Facility (TAACF) for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain (ATCC 27294) using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) susceptibility test. The results expressed as MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) in μg/mL. Among the fifteen compounds, eight compounds were found to have MIC values less than 10 μg/mL. These were subjected for cytotoxicity assay in VERO cells to determine CC50 (cytotoxic concentration 50%) values and finally SI (Selectivity Index) were calculated. Compound (XV) 2-[5-(4- fluorophenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-3-pyrazolyl]-1Hbenzimidazole was considered the best candidate of the series that could be a good starting point to develop new lead compounds in the fight against tuberculosis.

    Outlier Pulse Detection and Feature Extraction for Wrist Pulse Analysis
    Wrist pulse analysis for identification of health status is found in Ancient Indian as well as Chinese literature. The preprocessing of wrist pulse is necessary to remove outlier pulses and fluctuations prior to the analysis of pulse pressure signal. This paper discusses the identification of irregular pulses present in the pulse series and intricacies associated with the extraction of time domain pulse features. An approach of Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) has been utilized for the identification of outlier pulses in the wrist pulse series. The ambiguity present in the identification of pulse features is resolved with the help of first derivative of Ensemble Average of wrist pulse series. An algorithm for detecting tidal and dicrotic notch in individual wrist pulse segment is proposed.
    Derivative Spectrophotometry Applied to the Determination of Triprolidine Hydrochloride and Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride in Tablets and Dissolution Testing

    A spectrophotometric method was developed for simultaneous quantification of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PSE) triprolidine hydrochloride (TRI) using second derivative method (zero-crossing technique). The second derivative amplitudes of PSE and TRI were measured at 271 and 321 nm, respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 200 to 1,000 g/ml for PSE and 10 to 50 g/ml for TRI. The method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. The proposed method was applied to the assaying and dissolution of PSE and TRI in commercial tablets without any chemical separation. The results were compared with those obtained by the official USP31 method and statistical tests showed that there is no significant between the methods at 95% confidence level. The proposed method is simple, rapid and suitable for the routine quality control application. KeywordsTriprolidine, Pseudoephedrine, Derivative spectrophotometry, Dissolution testing.

    Endometrial Cancer Recognition via EEG Dependent upon 14-3-3 Protein Leading to an Ontological Diagnosis
    The purpose of my research proposal is to demonstrate that there is a relationship between EEG and endometrial cancer. The above relationship is based on an Aristotelian Syllogism; since it is known that the 14-3-3 protein is related to the electrical activity of the brain via control of the flow of Na+ and K+ ions and since it is also known that many types of cancer are associated with 14-3-3 protein, it is possible that there is a relationship between EEG and cancer. This research will be carried out by well-defined diagnostic indicators, obtained via the EEG, using signal processing procedures and pattern recognition tools such as neural networks in order to recognize the endometrial cancer type. The current research shall compare the findings from EEG and hysteroscopy performed on women of a wide age range. Moreover, this practice could be expanded to other types of cancer. The implementation of this methodology will be completed with the creation of an ontology. This ontology shall define the concepts existing in this research-s domain and the relationships between them. It will represent the types of relationships between hysteroscopy and EEG findings.
    In vitro Studies of Mucoadhesiveness and Release of Nicotinamide Oral Gels Prepared from Bioadhesive Polymers
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mucoadhesion and the release of nicotinamide gel formulations using in vitro methods. An agar plate technique was used to investigate the adhesiveness of the gels whereas a diffusion apparatus was employed to determine the release of nicotinamide from the gels. In this respect, 10% w/w nicotinamide gels containing bioadhesive polymers: Carbopol 934P (0.5-2% w/w), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) (4-10% w/w), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) (4-6% w/w) and methylcellulose 4000 (MC) (3-5% w/w) were prepared. The gel formulations had pH values in the range of 7.14 - 8.17, which were considered appropriate to oral mucosa application. In general, the rank order of pH values appeared to be SCMC > MC4000 > HPMC > Carbopol 934P. Types and concentrations of polymers used somewhat affected the adhesiveness. It was found that anionic polymers (Carbopol 934 and SCMC) adhered more firmly to the agar plate than the neutral polymers (HPMC and MC 4000). The formulation containing 0.5% Carbopol 934P (F1) showed the highest release rate. With the exception of the formulation F1, the neutral polymers tended to give higher relate rates than the anionic polymers. For oral tissue treatment, the optimum has to be balanced between the residence time (adhesiveness) of the formulations and the release rate of the drug. The formulations containing the anionic polymers: Carbopol 934P or SCMC possessed suitable physical properties (appearance, pH and viscosity). In addition, for anionic polymer formulations, justifiable mucoadhesive properties and reasonable release rates of nicotinamide were achieved. Accordingly, these gel formulations may be applied for the treatment of oral mucosal lesions.
    ME/CFS Health Outcomes: The Interaction of Mode of Illness Onset and Psychiatric Comorbidity
    The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between mode of illness onset and psychiatric comorbidity on the health outcomes of persons with ME/CFS. A total of 114 individuals with ME/CFS participated in this study. Individuals completed a battery of baseline measures including the fatigue severity scale and measures of disability. Findings indicated that those with sudden illness onset had more impaired physical health functioning. In addition, among individuals with sudden onset, those without psychiatric comorbidity had greater fatigue severity and lower overall physical health than those with psychiatric comordibity. In contrast, among individuals with gradual illness onset, those with psychiatric comorbity had higher fatigue severity than those without comorbid psychiatric disorders. The health outcomes of individuals who have ME/CFS with or without psychiatric comorbidity are impacted by the mode of illness onset and this suggest that it is important to examine these factors in future research.
    Anxiolytic-like Effects of Dichloromethane Extracts of Valerian (DEV) in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Anxiety is a common disorder that attacks many people in society and often accompanied by physiological sensations such as tachycardia, chest pain, shortness of breath, insensitivity and etc. The purpose of this study is to characterize the putative anxiolytic-like effects of DEV (dichloromethane extracts of valerian) using the elevated plus maze (EPM) in rats. DEV was dissolved in DMSO and orally administered at different doses to adult male wistar rats, 0.5, 1.5 and 3 hours before behavioral evaluation in an EPM respectively. Control rats were treated with an equal volume of DMSO. Single treatment of DEV (at 0.1,0.2. 0.3, and 0.4 g/kg) significantly increased time-spent and arm entries into open arms of EPM versus control groups (p<0.05).However, no changes in the locomotor activity ccured. This result suggests that DEV might prove to be an effective anxiolytic agent.

    Formulation and Evaluation of Vaginal Suppositories Containing Lactobacillus
    The objective of this study was to develop vaginal suppository containing lactobacillus. Four kinds of vaginal suppositories containing Lactobacillus paracasei HL32 were formulated: 1) a conventional suppository with Witepsol H-15 as a base, 2) a conventional suppository with mixed polyethylene glycols (PEGs) as a base, 3) a hollow-type suppository with Witepsol H-15 as a base and 4) a hollow-type suppository with mixed PEGs as a base. The release studies demonstrated that the hollow-type suppository with mixed PEGs as the base gave the highest release of L. paracasei HL32 and was microbiological stable after storage at 2- 8°C over the period of 3 months.
    New Simultaneous High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Determination of NSAIDs and Opioid Analgesics in Advanced Drug Delivery Systems and Human Plasma
    A new and cost effective RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of non steroidal anti inflammatory dugs Diclofenac sodium (DFS), Flurbiprofen (FLP) and an opioid analgesic Tramadol (TMD) in advanced drug delivery systems (Liposome and Microcapsules), marketed brands and human plasma. Isocratic system was employed for the flow of mobile phase consisting of 10 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer and acetonitrile in molar ratio of 67: 33 with adjusted pH of 3.2. The stationary phase was hypersil ODS column (C18, 250×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) with controlled temperature of 30 C°. DFS in liposomes, microcapsules and marketed drug products was determined in range of 99.76-99.84%. FLP and TMD in microcapsules and brands formulation were 99.78 - 99.94 % and 99.80 - 99.82 %, respectively. Single step liquid-liquid extraction procedure using combination of acetonitrile and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) as protein precipitating agent was employed. The detection limits (at S/N ratio 3) of quality control solutions and plasma samples were 10, 20, and 20 ng/ml for DFS, FLP and TMD, respectively. The Assay was acceptable in linear dynamic range. All other validation parameters were found in limits of FDA and ICH method validation guidelines. The proposed method is sensitive, accurate and precise and could be applicable for routine analysis in pharmaceutical industry as well as in human plasma samples for bioequivalence and pharmacokinetics studies.