Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 6

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 6
    The Possibility-Probability Relationship for Bloodstream Concentrations of Physiologically Active Substances
    If a possibility distribution and a probability distribution are describing values x of one and the same system or process x(t), can they relate to each other? Though in general the possibility and probability distributions might be not connected at all, we can assume that in some particular cases there is an association linked them. In the presented paper, we consider distributions of bloodstream concentrations of physiologically active substances and propose that the probability to observe a concentration x of a substance X can be produced from the possibility of the event X = x . The proposed assumptions and resulted theoretical distributions are tested against the data obtained from various panel studies of the bloodstream concentrations of the different physiologically active substances in patients and healthy adults as well.
    Agent-based Simulation for Blood Glucose Control in Diabetic Patients
    This paper employs a new approach to regulate the blood glucose level of type I diabetic patient under an intensive insulin treatment. The closed-loop control scheme incorporates expert knowledge about treatment by using reinforcement learning theory to maintain the normoglycemic average of 80 mg/dl and the normal condition for free plasma insulin concentration in severe initial state. The insulin delivery rate is obtained off-line by using Qlearning algorithm, without requiring an explicit model of the environment dynamics. The implementation of the insulin delivery rate, therefore, requires simple function evaluation and minimal online computations. Controller performance is assessed in terms of its ability to reject the effect of meal disturbance and to overcome the variability in the glucose-insulin dynamics from patient to patient. Computer simulations are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed technique and to show its superiority in controlling hyperglycemia over other existing algorithms
    Extraction of Craniofacial Landmarks for Preoperative to Intraoperative Registration
    This paper presents the automated methods employed for extracting craniofacial landmarks in white light images as part of a registration framework designed to support three neurosurgical procedures. The intraoperative space is characterised by white light stereo imaging while the preoperative plan is performed on CT scans. The registration aims at aligning these two modalities to provide a calibrated environment to enable image-guided solutions. The neurosurgical procedures can then be carried out by mapping the entry and target points from CT space onto the patient-s space. The registration basis adopted consists of natural landmarks (eye corner and ear tragus). A 5mm accuracy is deemed sufficient for these three procedures and the validity of the selected registration basis in achieving this accuracy has been assessed by simulation studies. The registration protocol is briefly described, followed by a presentation of the automated techniques developed for the extraction of the craniofacial features and results obtained from tests on the AR and FERET databases. Since the three targeted neurosurgical procedures are routinely used for head injury management, the effect of bruised/swollen faces on the automated algorithms is assessed. A user-interactive method is proposed to deal with such unpredictable circumstances.
    Preoperative to Intraoperative Space Registration for Management of Head Injuries
    A registration framework for image-guided robotic surgery is proposed for three emergency neurosurgical procedures, namely Intracranial Pressure (ICP) Monitoring, External Ventricular Drainage (EVD) and evacuation of a Chronic Subdural Haematoma (CSDH). The registration paradigm uses CT and white light as modalities. This paper presents two simulation studies for a preliminary evaluation of the registration protocol: (1) The loci of the Target Registration Error (TRE) in the patient-s axial, coronal and sagittal views were simulated based on a Fiducial Localisation Error (FLE) of 5 mm and (2) Simulation of the actual framework using projected views from a surface rendered CT model to represent white light images of the patient. Craniofacial features were employed as the registration basis to map the CT space onto the simulated intraoperative space. Photogrammetry experiments on an artificial skull were also performed to benchmark the results obtained from the second simulation. The results of both simulations show that the proposed protocol can provide a 5mm accuracy for these neurosurgical procedures.
    Genetic Variants and Atherosclerosis
    Atherosclerosis is the condition in which an artery wall thickens as the result of a build-up of fatty materials such as cholesterol. It is a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels, a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries, in large part due to the accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by low density (especially small particle) lipoproteins (plasma proteins that carry cholesterol and triglycerides) without adequate removal of fats and cholesterol from the macrophages by functional high density lipoproteins (HDL). It is commonly referred to as a hardening or furring of the arteries. It is caused by the formation of multiple plaques within the arteries.
    Influence of Apo E Polymorphism on Coronary Artery Disease

    The ε4 allele of the ε2, ε3 and ε4 protein isoform polymorphism in the gene encoding apolipoprotein E (Apo E) has previously been associated with increased cardiac artery disease (CAD); therefore to investigate the significance of this polymorphism in pathogenesis of CAD in Iranian patients with stenosis and control subjects. To investigate the association between  Apo E polymorphism and coronary artery disease we performed a comparative case control study of the frequency of Apo E  polymorphism in One hundred CAD patients with stenosis who underwent coronary angiography (>50% stenosis) and 100 control subjects (<10% stenosis). The Apo E alleles and genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). We observed an association between the Apo E polymorphism and CAD in this study. These data suggest that the Apo ε4 and ε2 alleles increase the risk for CAD in Iranian population (χ2 =4.26, p= 0.05, OR=2 and χ2 =0.38, p=0.53, OR=1.2). These results suggest that ε4 and ε2 alleles are risk factors for stenosis.