Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 10

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 10
    1546
    Effect of Magnetic Field on the Biological Clock through the Radical Pair Mechanism
    Abstract:
    There is an ongoing controversy in the literature related to the biological effects of weak, low frequency electromagnetic fields. The physical arguments and interpretation of the experimental evidence are inconsistent, where some physical arguments and experimental demonstrations tend to reject the likelihood of any effect of the fields at extremely low level. The problem arises of explaining, how the low-energy influences of weak magnetic fields can compete with the thermal and electrical noise of cells at normal temperature using the theoretical studies. The magnetoreception in animals involve radical pair mechanism. The same mechanism has been shown to be involved in the circadian rhythm synchronization in mammals. These reactions can be influenced by the weak magnetic fields. Hence, it is postulated the biological clock can be affected by weak magnetic fields and these disruptions to the rhythm can cause adverse biological effects. In this paper, likelihood of altering the biological clock via the radical pair mechanism is analyzed to simplify these studies of controversy.
    9
    3129
    Automated Thickness Measurement of Retinal Blood Vessels for Implementation of Clinical Decision Support Systems in Diagnostic Diabetic Retinopathy
    Abstract:
    The structure of retinal vessels is a prominent feature, that reveals information on the state of disease that are reflected in the form of measurable abnormalities in thickness and colour. Vascular structures of retina, for implementation of clinical diabetic retinopathy decision making system is presented in this paper. Retinal Vascular structure is with thin blood vessel, whose accuracy is highly dependent upon the vessel segmentation. In this paper the blood vessel thickness is automatically detected using preprocessing techniques and vessel segmentation algorithm. First the capture image is binarized to get the blood vessel structure clearly, then it is skeletonised to get the overall structure of all the terminal and branching nodes of the blood vessels. By identifying the terminal node and the branching points automatically, the main and branching blood vessel thickness is estimated. Results are presented and compared with those provided by clinical classification on 50 vessels collected from Bejan Singh Eye hospital..
    8
    3741
    A Novel Approach towards Segmentation of Breast Tumors from Screening Mammograms for Efficient Decision Support System
    Abstract:
    This paper presents a novel approach to finding a priori interesting regions in mammograms. In order to delineate those regions of interest (ROI-s) in mammograms, which appear to be prominent, a topographic representation called the iso-level contour map consisting of iso-level contours at multiple intensity levels and region segmentation based-thresholding have been proposed. The simulation results indicate that the computed boundary gives the detection rate of 99.5% accuracy.
    7
    7428
    Adherence of Alveolar Fibroblasts and Microorganisms on Titanium Implants
    Abstract:
    An implant elicits a biological response in the surrounding tissue which determines the acceptance and long-term function of the implant. Dental implants have become one of the main therapy methods in clinic after teeth lose. A successful implant is in contact with bone and soft tissue represent by fibroblasts. In our study we focused on the interaction between six different chemically and physically modified titanium implants (Tis-MALP, Tis-O, Tis- OA, Tis-OPAAE, Tis-OZ, Tis-OPAE) with alveolar fibroblasts as well as with five type of microorganisms (S. epidermis, S.mutans, S. gordonii, S. intermedius, C.albicans). The analysis of microorganism adhesion was determined by CFU (colony forming unite) and biofilm formation. The presence of α3β1 and vinculin expression on alveolar fibroblasts was demonstrated using phospho specific cell based ELISA (PACE). Alveolar fibroblasts have the highest expression of these proteins on Tis-OPAAE and Tis-OPAE. It corresponds with results from bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation and it was related to the lowest production of collagen I by alveolar fibroblasts on Tis-OPAAE titanium disc.
    6
    8448
    Polymerisation Shrinkage of Light−Cured Hydroxyapatite (HA)−Reinforced Dental Composites
    Abstract:
    The dental composites are preferably used as filling materials due to their esthetic appearances. Nevertheless one of the major problems, during the application of the dental composites, is shape change named as “polymerisation shrinkage" affecting clinical success of the dental restoration while photo-polymerisation. Polymerisation shrinkage of composites arises basically from the formation of a polymer due to the monomer transformation which composes of an organic matrix phase. It was sought, throughout this study, to detect and evaluate the structural polymerisation shrinkage of prepared dental composites in order to optimize the effects of various fillers included in hydroxyapatite (HA)-reinforced dental composites and hence to find a means to modify the properties of these dental composites prepared with defined parameters. As a result, the shrinkage values of the experimental dental composites were decreased by increasing the filler content of composites and the composition of different fillers used had effect on the shrinkage of the prepared composite systems.
    5
    10245
    Simulating Dynamics of Thoracolumbar Spine Derived from Life MOD under Haptic Forces
    Abstract:
    In this paper, the construction of a detailed spine model is presented using the LifeMOD Biomechanics Modeler. The detailed spine model is obtained by refining spine segments in cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions into individual vertebra segments, using bushing elements representing the intervertebral discs, and building various ligamentous soft tissues between vertebrae. In the sagittal plane of the spine, constant force will be applied from the posterior to anterior during simulation to determine dynamic characteristics of the spine. The force magnitude is gradually increased in subsequent simulations. Based on these recorded dynamic properties, graphs of displacement-force relationships will be established in terms of polynomial functions by using the least-squares method and imported into a haptic integrated graphic environment. A thoracolumbar spine model with complex geometry of vertebrae, which is digitized from a resin spine prototype, will be utilized in this environment. By using the haptic technique, surgeons can touch as well as apply forces to the spine model through haptic devices to observe the locomotion of the spine which is computed from the displacement-force relationship graphs. This current study provides a preliminary picture of our ongoing work towards building and simulating bio-fidelity scoliotic spine models in a haptic integrated graphic environment whose dynamic properties are obtained from LifeMOD. These models can be helpful for surgeons to examine kinematic behaviors of scoliotic spines and to propose possible surgical plans before spine correction operations.
    4
    10303
    Effectiveness of Dominant Color Descriptor Technique in Medical Image Retrieval Application
    Abstract:
    This paper presents a dominant color descriptor technique for medical image retrieval. The medical image system will collect and store into medical database. The purpose of dominant color descriptor (DCD) technique is to retrieve medical image and to display similar image using queried image. First, this technique will search and retrieve medical image based on keyword entered by user. After image is found, the system will assign this image as a queried image. DCD technique will calculate the image value of dominant color. Then, system will search and retrieve again medical image based on value of dominant color query image. Finally, the system will display similar images with the queried image to user. Simple application has been developed and tested using dominant color descriptor. Result based on experiment indicates this technique is effective and can be used for medical image retrieval.
    3
    13392
    Proteomic Analysis of Tumor Tissue after Treatment with Ascorbic Acid
    Abstract:
    Tumor cells have an invasive and metastatic phenotype that is the main cause of death for cancer patients. Tumor establishment and penetration consists of a series of complex processes involving multiple changes in gene expression. In this study, intraperitoneal administration of a high concentration of ascorbic acid inhibited tumor establishment and decreased tumor mass in BALB/C mice implanted with S-180 sarcoma cancer cells. To identify proteins involved in the ascorbic acid-mediated inhibition of tumor progression, changes in the tumor proteome associated with ascorbic acid treatment of BALB/C mice implanted with S-180 were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Twenty protein spots were identified whose expression was different between control and ascorbic acid treatment groups.
    2
    13653
    Electromagnetic Field Modeling in Human Tissue
    Abstract:
    For investigations of electromagnetic field distributions in biological structures by Finite Element Method (FEM), a method for automatic 3D model building of human anatomical objects is developed. Models are made by meshed structures and specific electromagnetic material properties for each tissue type. Mesh is built according to specific FEM criteria for achieving good solution accuracy. Several FEM models of anatomical objects are built. Formulation using magnetic vector potential and scalar electric potential (A-V, A) is used for modeling of electromagnetic fields in human tissue objects. The developed models are suitable for investigations of electromagnetic field distributions in human tissues exposed in external fields during magnetic stimulation, defibrillation, impedance tomography etc.
    1
    13931
    Synthetic Transmit Aperture Method in Medical Ultrasonic Imaging
    Abstract:
    The work describes the use of a synthetic transmit aperture (STA) with a single element transmitting and all elements receiving in medical ultrasound imaging. STA technique is a novel approach to today-s commercial systems, where an image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time that puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the amount of data needed for high image quality. The STA imaging allows to acquire data simultaneously from all directions over a number of emissions, and the full image can be reconstructed. In experiments a 32-element linear transducer array with 0.48 mm inter-element spacing was used. Single element transmission aperture was used to generate a spherical wave covering the full image region. The 2D ultrasound images of wire phantom are presented obtained using the STA and commercial ultrasound scanner Antares to demonstrate the benefits of the SA imaging.