Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 21

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 21
    915
    A Trainable Neural Network Ensemble for ECG Beat Classification
    Abstract:
    This paper illustrates the use of a combined neural network model for classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) beats. We present a trainable neural network ensemble approach to develop customized electrocardiogram beat classifier in an effort to further improve the performance of ECG processing and to offer individualized health care. We process a three stage technique for detection of premature ventricular contraction (PVC) from normal beats and other heart diseases. This method includes a denoising, a feature extraction and a classification. At first we investigate the application of stationary wavelet transform (SWT) for noise reduction of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Then feature extraction module extracts 10 ECG morphological features and one timing interval feature. Then a number of multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) neural networks with different topologies are designed. The performance of the different combination methods as well as the efficiency of the whole system is presented. Among them, Stacked Generalization as a proposed trainable combined neural network model possesses the highest recognition rate of around 95%. Therefore, this network proves to be a suitable candidate in ECG signal diagnosis systems. ECG samples attributing to the different ECG beat types were extracted from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database for the study.
    20
    1817
    The Method of Evaluation Artery Diameter from Ultrasound Video
    Abstract:
    The cardiovascular system has become the most important subject of clinical research, particularly measurement of arterial blood flow. Therefore correct determination of arterial diameter is crucial. We propose a novel, semi-automatic method for artery lumen detection. The method is based on Gaussian probability function. Usability of our proposed method was assessed by analyzing ultrasound B-mode CFA video sequences acquired from eleven healthy volunteers. The correlation coefficient between the manual and semi-automatic measurement of arterial diameter was 0.996. Our proposed method for detecting artery boundary is novel and accurate enough for the measurement of artery diameter.
    19
    1979
    Machine Vision for the Inspection of Surgical Tasks: Applications to Robotic Surgery Systems
    Abstract:
    The use of machine vision to inspect the outcome of surgical tasks is investigated, with the aim of incorporating this approach in robotic surgery systems. Machine vision is a non-contact form of inspection i.e. no part of the vision system is in direct contact with the patient, and is therefore well suited for surgery where sterility is an important consideration,. As a proof-of-concept, three primary surgical tasks for a common neurosurgical procedure were inspected using machine vision. Experiments were performed on cadaveric pig heads to simulate the two possible outcomes i.e. satisfactory or unsatisfactory, for tasks involved in making a burr hole, namely incision, retraction, and drilling. We identify low level image features to distinguish the two outcomes, as well as report on results that validate our proposed approach. The potential of using machine vision in a surgical environment, and the challenges that must be addressed, are identified and discussed.
    18
    2329
    Applications of Artificial Neural Network to Building Statistical Models for Qualifying and Indexing Radiation Treatment Plans
    Abstract:
    The main goal in this paper is to quantify the quality of different techniques for radiation treatment plans, a back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) combined with biomedicine theory was used to model thirteen dosimetric parameters and to calculate two dosimetric indices. The correlations between dosimetric indices and quality of life were extracted as the features and used in the ANN model to make decisions in the clinic. The simulation results show that a trained multilayer back-propagation neural network model can help a doctor accept or reject a plan efficiently. In addition, the models are flexible and whenever a new treatment technique enters the market, the feature variables simply need to be imported and the model re-trained for it to be ready for use.
    17
    3356
    The Study of the Variability of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in Recurrent Non-specific LBP Patients
    Abstract:
    The study of the variability of the postural strategies in low back pain patients, as a criterion in evaluation of the adaptability of this system to the environmental demands is the purpose of this study. A cross-sectional case-control study was performed on 21 recurrent non-specific low back pain patients and 21 healthy volunteers. The electromyography activity of Deltoid, External Oblique (EO), Transverse Abdominis/Internal Oblique (TrA/IO) and Erector Spine (ES) muscles of each person was recorded in 75 rapid arm flexion with maximum acceleration. Standard deviation of trunk muscles onset relative to deltoid muscle onset were statistically analyzed by MANOVA . The results show that chronic low back pain patients exhibit less variability in their anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) in comparison with the control group. There is a decrease in variability of postural control system of recurrent non-specific low back pain patients that can result in the persistence of pain and chronicity by decreasing the adaptability to environmental demands.
    16
    4680
    Pathogenetic Mechanism of Alcohol's Effect on Academic Performance
    Abstract:

    The regulatory competence of blood glucose homeostasis might determine the degree of academic performance. The aim of this study was to produce a model of students' alcohol use based on glucose homeostasis control and cognitive functions that might define the pathogenetic mechanism of alcohol's effect on academic performance. The study took six hours and thirty minutes on fasting, involving thirteen male students. Disturbances in cognitive functions, precisely a decrease in the effectiveness of active attention and a faster development of fatigue after four to six hours of mental work in alcohol users, compared to abstainers was statistically proven. These disturbances in alcohol users were retained even after seven to ten days of moderate alcohol use and might be the reason for the low academic performances among students who use alcoholic beverages.

    15
    5804
    Frontal EEG Asymmetry Based Classification of Emotional Valence using Common Spatial Patterns
    Abstract:
    In this work we evaluate the possibility of predicting the emotional state of a person based on the EEG. We investigate the problem of classifying valence from EEG signals during the presentation of affective pictures, utilizing the "frontal EEG asymmetry" phenomenon. To distinguish positive and negative emotions, we applied the Common Spatial Patterns algorithm. In contrast to our expectations, the affective pictures did not reliably elicit changes in frontal asymmetry. The classifying task thereby becomes very hard as reflected by the poor classifier performance. We suspect that the masking of the source of the brain activity related to emotions, coming mostly from deeper structures in the brain, and the insufficient emotional engagement are among main reasons why it is difficult to predict the emotional state of a person.
    14
    7377
    Mechanical Evaluation of Stainless Steel and Titanium Dynamic Hip Screws for Trochanteric Fracture
    Abstract:
    This study aimed to present the mechanical performance evaluation of the dynamic hip screw (DHS) for trochanteric fracture by means of finite element method. The analyses were performed based on stainless steel and titanium implant material definitions at various stages of bone healing and including implant removal. The assessment of the mechanical performance used two parameters, von Mises stress to evaluate the strength of bone and implant and elastic strain to evaluate fracture stability. The results show several critical aspects of dynamic hip screw for trochanteric fracture stabilization. In the initial stage of bone healing process, partial weight bearing should be applied to avoid the implant failure. In the late stage of bone healing, stainless steel implant should be removed.
    13
    7547
    The Effect of Electrical Stimulation Intensity on VEGF Expression and Biomechanical Properties during Wound
    Abstract:
    We evaluated the effect of sensory (direct current (DC), 600μA) and motor (monophasic current, pulse duration 300μs, 100 Hz, 2.5-3mA) intensities of cathodal electrical stimulation (ES) current to release VEGF and biomechanical properties of wound. 54 male Sprague-dawley rats were randomly assigned into one control and two experimental groups. A full thickness skin incision was made on animals- dorsal region. The experimental groups received ES for 1h/day and every other day. VEGF expression was measured in skin on the 7th day after surgical incision and tensile strength was measured on 21st day. On the 7th day, the values of skin VEGF in the sensory group were significantly greater than those of the other groups (p < 0.05). Sensory and Motor intensity stimulation, can not improve the biomechanical properties of the repaired wounds. It seems the mechanical environment induced by sensory and motor intensity of electrical stimulation, could not simulate the role of normal daily stress and strain to maturation of collagen fibers and their cross links. Further work is needed to determine the relationship between VEGF expression after ES and its effect on tensile strength of healed wound.
    12
    7691
    Influence of Radio Frequency Identification Technology in Logistic, Inventory Control and Supply Chain Optimization
    Abstract:
    The main aim of Supply Chain Management (SCM) is to produce, distribute, logistics and deliver goods and equipment in right location, right time, right amount to satisfy costumers, with minimum time and cost waste. So implementing techniques that reduce project time and cost, and improve productivity and performance is very important. Emerging technologies such as the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) are now making it possible to automate supply chains in a real time manner and making them more efficient than the simple supply chain of the past for tracing and monitoring goods and products and capturing data on movements of goods and other events. This paper considers concepts, components and RFID technology characteristics by concentration of warehouse and inventories management. Additionally, utilization of RFID in the role of improving information management in supply chain is discussed. Finally, the facts of installation and this technology-s results in direction with warehouse and inventory management and business development will be presented.
    11
    8355
    Shannon-Weaver Biodiversity of Neutrophils in Fractal Networks of Immunofluorescence for Medical Diagnostics
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    We develop new nonlinear methods of immunofluorescence analysis for a sensitive technology of respiratory burst reaction of DNA fluorescence due to oxidative activity in the peripheral blood neutrophils. Histograms in flow cytometry experiments represent a fluorescence flashes frequency as functions of fluorescence intensity. We used the Shannon-Weaver index for definition of neutrophils- biodiversity and Hurst index for definition of fractal-s correlations in immunofluorescence for different donors, as the basic quantitative criteria for medical diagnostics of health status. We analyze frequencies of flashes, information, Shannon entropies and their fractals in immunofluorescence networks due to reduction of histogram range. We found the number of simplest universal correlations for biodiversity, information and Hurst index in diagnostics and classification of pathologies for wide spectra of diseases. In addition is determined the clear criterion of a common immunity and human health status in a form of yes/no answers type. These answers based on peculiarities of information in immunofluorescence networks and biodiversity of neutrophils. Experimental data analysis has shown the existence of homeostasis for information entropy in oxidative activity of DNA in neutrophil nuclei for all donors.
    10
    8608
    Effect of Local Dual Frequency Sonication on Drug Distribution from Nanomicelles
    Abstract:
    The nanosized polymeric micelles release the drug due to acoustic cavitation, which is enhanced in dual frequency ultrasonic fields. In this study, adult female Balb/C mice were transplanted with spontaneous breast adenocarcinoma tumors and were injected with a dose of 1.3 mg/kg doxorubicin in one of three forms: free doxorubicin, micellar doxorubicin without sonication and micellar doxorubicin with sonication. To increase cavitation yield, the tumor region was sonicated with low level dual frequency of 3 MHz and 28 kHz. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after injection, and their tumor, heart, spleen, liver, kidneys and plasma were separated and homogenized. The drug content in their tumor, heart, spleen, liver, kidneys and plasma was determined using tissue fluorimetry. The results show that in the group that received micellar doxorubicin with sonication, the drug concentration in the tumor tissue was nine and three times higher than in the free doxorubicin group and the micellar doxorubicin without sonication group, respectively. In the micellar doxorubicin with sonication group, the drug concentration in other tissues was lower than other groups (p
    9
    9024
    Association of G-174C Polymorphism of the Interleukin-6 Gene Promoter with Obesity in Iranian Population
    Abstract:
    Expression and secretion of inflammation markers are disturbed in obesity. Interleukin-6 reduces body fat mass. The common G-174C polymorphism in the promoter of IL-6 gene has been reported that effects on transcriptional regulation. The objective was to investigate association of the common polymorphism G-174C with obesity in Iranian population. The present study is cross sectional association study that included 242 individuals (110 men and 132 women). Serum IL-6 levels, C-reactive protein, fasting blood glucose and blood lipids profile were measured .BMI and WHR were calculated. Genotyping is carried out by PCR and RFLP. The frequencies of G and C allele were 64.5% and 35.5%, respectively. The G-174C polymorphism was not associated with BMI and WHR. However in obese individual, fasting blood glucose was significantly higher in carrier of C allele compared with the noncarrier. The IL-6 G-174C polymorphism is not a risk factor for obesity in Iranian population.
    8
    10165
    Quantitative Indicator of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Risk Based on its Geometric Parameters
    Abstract:

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms rupture (AAAs) is one of the main causes of death in the world. This is a very complex phenomenon that usually occurs “without previous warning". Currently, criteria to assess the aneurysm rupture risk (peak diameter and growth rate) can not be considered as reliable indicators. In a first approach, the main geometric parameters of aneurysms have been linked into five biomechanical factors. These are combined to obtain a dimensionless rupture risk index, RI(t), which has been validated preliminarily with a clinical case and others from literature. This quantitative indicator is easy to understand, it allows estimating the aneurysms rupture risks and it is expected to be able to identify the one in aneurysm whose peak diameter is less than the threshold value. Based on initial results, a broader study has begun with twelve patients from the Clinic Hospital of Valladolid-Spain, which are submitted to periodic follow-up examinations.

    7
    10868
    Comparison between Antibacterial Effects of Ethanolic and Isopropyl: Hexan (7:3) Extracts of Zingiber officinale Rose
    Abstract:
    In this investigation, the antibacterial effects of ethanolic and 7:3 isopropyl –hexane mixture extracts of Zingiber officinale were evaluated against three Gram positive bacteria, B. cereus, S.epidermidis, S. aureus and three Gram negative bacteria, E. coli, K.pneumonia and P.areuginosa. Utilizing paper disk diffusion and well methods in-vitro, MIC and MBC were determined by macrodilution. The results showed that ethanolic rhizome extract of ginger had significantly active than Isopropyl –hexan extract. Further work needs to be done in these extracts including fractionation to isolate active constituents and subsequent pharmacological evaluation.
    6
    11141
    Prevalence Study among University Students in Belarus: To What Extent Do Foreigners Experience Alcohol Problems?
    Abstract:
    There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of alcohol use and related problems among foreign students in Belarus. We therefore screen for the prevalence of alcohol related problems among the general foreign students- population in Minsk, Belarus. Participants were 135 male university foreign students (average age – 21) from three major universities in Minsk, Belarus. All respondents were administered questionnaire, containing the AUDIT, CAGE, MAST and other alcohol related questions. Overall, 62.2% (n=84) alcohol users and 31.1% (n=42) problem drinkers were identified on the AUDIT. There was a significant increase (from 39.3% to 60.7%) of the total alcohol users after arrival in Belarus (¤ç2 = 7.714, p
    5
    11892
    Localisation of Anatomical Soft Tissue Landmarks of the Head in CT Images
    Abstract:
    In this paper, algorithms for the automatic localisation of two anatomical soft tissue landmarks of the head the medial canthus (inner corner of the eye) and the tragus (a small, pointed, cartilaginous flap of the ear), in CT images are describet. These landmarks are to be used as a basis for an automated image-to-patient registration system we are developing. The landmarks are localised on a surface model extracted from CT images, based on surface curvature and a rule based system that incorporates prior knowledge of the landmark characteristics. The approach was tested on a dataset of near isotropic CT images of 95 patients. The position of the automatically localised landmarks was compared to the position of the manually localised landmarks. The average difference was 1.5 mm and 0.8 mm for the medial canthus and tragus, with a maximum difference of 4.5 mm and 2.6 mm respectively.The medial canthus and tragus can be automatically localised in CT images, with performance comparable to manual localisation
    4
    11972
    Analysis of Gender Differences in Alcohol Use and Related Problems among University Students in Minsk, Belarus
    Abstract:
    There is a variety of inconsistencies in the differences in alcohol use and related problems between male and female genders. This study was aimed at analyzing the gender differences in alcohol use and related problems among university students in Minsk, Belarus. A total of 465 male (average age of 21) and 1030 female (average age of 20.5) students from four major universities in Minsk, Belarus were administered WHO recommended standardized screening instruments – AUDIT, MAST, CAGE questionnaire, as well as other alcohol related questions. The male to female ratio for the prevalence of alcohol problems according to the AUDIT was 3.34, while the ratio for alcohol users was 0.97. There are a wide gender differences in the pattern of alcohol use and preference for different alcoholic beverages, cause for drinking, and other alcohol related problems like injuries and blackouts.
    3
    13545
    Increase of Peroxidase Activity of Haptoglobin (2-2)-Hemoglobin at Pathologic Temperature and Presence of Antibiotics
    Abstract:
    Free Hemoglobin promotes the accumulation of hydroxyl radicals by the heme iron, which can react with endogenous hydrogen peroxide to produce free radicals which may cause severe oxidative cell damage. Haptoglobin binds to Hemoglobin strongly and Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin binding is irreversible. Peroxidase activity of Haptoglobin(2-2)-Hemoglobin complex was assayed by following increase of absorption of produced tetraguaiacol as the second substrate of Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin complex at 470 nm and 42°C by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results have shown that peroxidase activity of Haptoglobin(2-2)-Hemoglobin complex is modulated via homotropic effect of hydrogen peroxide as allostric substrate. On the other hand antioxidant property of Haptoglobin(2- 2)-Hemoglobin was increased via heterotropic effect of the two drugs (especially ampicillin) on peroxidase activity of the complex. Both drugs also have mild effect on quality of homotropic property of peroxidase activity of Haptoglobin(2-2)-Hemoglobin complex. Therefore, in vitro studies show that the two drugs may help Hp-Hb complex to remove hydrogen peroxide from serum at pathologic temperature ature (42 C).
    2
    14797
    Effects of Bay Leaves on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profiles on the Patients with Type 1 Diabetes
    Abstract:
    Bay leaves have been shown to improve insulin function in vitro but the effects on people have not been determined. The objective of this study was to determine if bay leaves may be important in the prevention and/or alleviation of type 1 diabetes. Methods: Fifty five people with type 1 diabetes were divided into two groups, 45 given capsules containing 3 g of bay leaves per day for 30 days and 10 given a placebo capsules. Results All the patients consumed bay leaves shows reduced serum glucose with significant decreases 27% after 30 d. Total cholesterol decreased, 21 %, after 30 days with larger decreases in low density lipoprotein (LDL) 24%. High density lipoprotein (HDL) increased 20% and Triglycerides also decreased 26%. There were no significant changes in the placebo group. Conclusion, this study demonstrates that consumption of bay leaves, 3 g/d for 30 days, decreases risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and suggests that bay leaves may be beneficial for people with type 1 diabetes.
    1
    15420
    Mechanism of Alcohol Related Disruption of the Error Monitoring and Processing System
    Abstract:
    The error monitoring and processing system, EMPS is the system located in the substantia nigra of the midbrain, basal ganglia and cortex of the forebrain, and plays a leading role in error detection and correction. The main components of EMPS are the dopaminergic system and anterior cingulate cortex. Although, recent studies show that alcohol disrupts the EMPS, the ways in which alcohol affects this system are poorly understood. Based on current literature data, here we suggest a hypothesis of alcohol-related glucose-dependent system of error monitoring and processing, which holds that the disruption of the EMPS is related to the competency of glucose homeostasis regulation, which in turn may determine the dopamine level as a major component of EMPS. Alcohol may indirectly disrupt the EMPS by affecting dopamine level through disorders in blood glucose homeostasis regulation.