Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 9

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 9
    Study on Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of Some Herbal Extracts
    The potential of antioxidant activities of the plant extract Gynura procumbens, Achyranthes aspera and Polygenum tomentosum were studied by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) .Antioxidant activity was qualitatively and quantitatively determined. In this analysis , Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was used as the standard .The antioxidant activities were observed all three plant extracts and the EC50 values of G procumbens A.aspera and P.tomemtosum were 13.7 μg /ml,14.37 μg /ml and 14.35 μg /ml. Among these plants, G.procumbens is more potent antioxidant activity then others. Antitumor activities were found with A.aspera (s2) extracts in the dose of 100ppm in carrot disks and G.procumbens (s1) and P.tomentosum (s3) in the dose of 1000 ppm. Therefore, these herbal plants are used in traditional medicines.
    Sequence Relationships Similarity of Swine Influenza a (H1N1) Virus
    In April 2009, a new variant of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 emerged in Mexico and spread all over the world. The influenza has three subtypes in human (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2) Types B and C influenza tend to be associated with local or regional epidemics. Preliminary genetic characterization of the influenza viruses has identified them as swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the Haemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) are similar to each other and the majority of their genes of swine influenza viruses, two genes coding for the neuraminidase (NA) and matrix (M) proteins are similar to corresponding genes of swine influenza. Sequence similarity between the 2009 A (H1N1) virus and its nearest relatives indicates that its gene segments have been circulating undetected for an extended period. Nucleic acid sequence Maximum Likelihood (MCL) and DNA Empirical base frequencies, Phylogenetic relationship amongst the HA genes of H1N1 virus isolated in Genbank having high nucleotide sequence homology. In this paper we used 16 HA nucleotide sequences from NCBI for computing sequence relationships similarity of swine influenza A virus using the following method MCL the result is 28%, 36.64% for Optimal tree with the sum of branch length, 35.62% for Interior branch phylogeny Neighber – Join Tree, 1.85% for the overall transition/transversion, and 8.28% for Overall mean distance.
    Recent Trends in Nonlinear Methods of HRV Analysis: A Review
    The linear methods of heart rate variability analysis such as non-parametric (e.g. fast Fourier transform analysis) and parametric methods (e.g. autoregressive modeling) has become an established non-invasive tool for marking the cardiac health, but their sensitivity and specificity were found to be lower than expected with positive predictive value
    Evaluation of the Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf Extract of Aloe vera(Aloe barbadensis Miller)
    Aloe vera has been used worldwide both for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of biological activities of some of its metabolites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal and antioxidant activities of the leaf extract. The antifungal activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method against plant and human fungal pathogens. The methanol and ethanol portions of the extracts studied were more bioactive than ethyl acetate portion. It was also observed that the activity was more pronounced on plant pathogen than human pathogen except Candida albicans. This is an indication that the extract has the potential to treat plant fungal infections. The Aloe extract showed the significant antioxidant activity by the DPPH radical scavenging method. Therefore, the Aloe extract provided as natural antioxidant has been used in health foods for medical and preservative purposes.
    A Novel Method for Blood Glucose Measurement by Noninvasive Technique Using Laser
    A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on atomic gas (He-Ne) laser operating at 632.8nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.
    Quantitative Determination of Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Anti-tumor Activity of Some Myanmar Herbal Plants
    Antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts of Ardisia japonica Blume., Ageartum conyzoides Linn., and Cocculus hirsutus Linn Diels. leaves was determined qualitatively and quantitatively in this research. 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical solution was used to investigate free radical scavenging activity of these leaves extracts. Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was used as the standard. In the present investigation, it is found that all of these extracts have remarkable antioxidant activities. The EC50 values of these ethanolic extracts were 12.72 μg/ml for A. japonica, 15.19 μg/ml for A. conyzoides, 10.68 μg/ml for C. hirsutus respectively. Among these Myanmar medicinal plants, C. hirsutus showed higher antioxidant activities as well as free radical scavenging activity than black tea (Camellia sinensis), the famous antioxidant, and A. japonica and A. conyzoides showed a rather lower antioxidant activity than tea extracts. According to results from bioassay with carrot discs infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, all extracts showed anti-tumor activity after 3 weeks of incubation. No gall was detected in carrot disks treated with C. hirsutus and A. japonica extracts in the dose of 100ppm and in carrot discs treated with A. conyzoides extract in the dose of 1000 ppm. Therefore, the research clearly indicates that these weedy plants of dry farm land are exceptionally advantageous for human health.
    Swarmed Discriminant Analysis for Multifunction Prosthesis Control
    One of the approaches enabling people with amputated limbs to establish some sort of interface with the real world includes the utilization of the myoelectric signal (MES) from the remaining muscles of those limbs. The MES can be used as a control input to a multifunction prosthetic device. In this control scheme, known as the myoelectric control, a pattern recognition approach is usually utilized to discriminate between the MES signals that belong to different classes of the forearm movements. Since the MES is recorded using multiple channels, the feature vector size can become very large. In order to reduce the computational cost and enhance the generalization capability of the classifier, a dimensionality reduction method is needed to identify an informative yet moderate size feature set. This paper proposes a new fuzzy version of the well known Fisher-s Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) feature projection technique. Furthermore, based on the fact that certain muscles might contribute more to the discrimination process, a novel feature weighting scheme is also presented by employing Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for estimating the weight of each feature. The new method, called PSOFLDA, is tested on real MES datasets and compared with other techniques to prove its superiority.
    Formulation Development and Moiturising Effects of a Topical Cream of Aloe vera Extract
    This study was designed to formulate, pharmaceutically evaluate a topical skin-care cream (w/o emulsion) of Aloe Vera versus its vehicle (Base) as control and determine their effects on Stratum Corneum (SC) water content and Transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Base containing no extract and a Formulation containing 3% concentrated extract of Aloe Vera was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of w/o emulsion (cream). Lemon oil was incorporated to improve the odor. Both the Base and Formulation were stored at 8°C ±0.1°C (in refrigerator), 25°C±0.1°C, 40°C±0.1°C and 40°C± 0.1°C with 75% RH (in incubator) for a period of 4 weeks to predict their stability. The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, type of emulsion, phase separation, electrical conductivity, centrifugation, liquefaction and pH. Both the Base and Formulation were applied to the cheeks of 21 healthy human volunteers for a period of 8 weeks Stratum corneum (SC) water content and Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were monitored every week to measure any effect produced by these topical creams. The expected organoleptic stability of creams was achieved from 4 weeks in-vitro study period. Odor was disappeared with the passage of time due to volatilization of lemon oil. Both the Base and Formulation produced significant (p≤0.05) changes in TEWL with respect to time. SC water content was significantly (p≤0.05) increased by the Formulation while the Base has insignificant (p 0.05) effects on SC water content. The newly formulated cream of Aloe Vera, applied is suitable for improvement and quantitative monitoring of skin hydration level (SC water content/ moisturizing effects) and reducing TEWL in people with dry skin.
    Pharmaceutical Microencapsulation Technology for Development of Controlled Release Drug Delivery systems
    This article demonstrated development of controlled release system of an NSAID drug, Diclofenac sodium employing different ratios of Ethyl cellulose. Diclofenac sodium and ethyl cellulose in different proportions were processed by microencapsulation based on phase separation technique to formulate microcapsules. The prepared microcapsules were then compressed into tablets to obtain controlled release oral formulations. In-vitro evaluation was performed by dissolution test of each preparation was conducted in 900 ml of phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.2 maintained at 37 ± 0.5 °C and stirred at 50 rpm. At predetermined time intervals (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hrs). The drug concentration in the collected samples was determined by UV spectrophotometer at 276 nm. The physical characteristics of diclofenac sodium microcapsules were according to accepted range. These were off-white, free flowing and spherical in shape. The release profile of diclofenac sodium from microcapsules was found to be directly proportional to the proportion of ethylcellulose and coat thickness. The in-vitro release pattern showed that with ratio of 1:1 and 1:2 (drug: polymer), the percentage release of drug at first hour was 16.91 and 11.52 %, respectively as compared to 1:3 which is only 6.87 % with in this time. The release mechanism followed higuchi model for its release pattern. Tablet Formulation (F2) of present study was found comparable in release profile the marketed brand Phlogin-SR, microcapsules showed an extended release beyond 24 h. Further, a good correlation was found between drug release and proportion of ethylcellulose in the microcapsules. Microencapsulation based on coacervation found as good technique to control release of diclofenac sodium for making the controlled release formulations.