Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 4

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

  • 2017
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  • 4
    3079
    Automatic Segmentation of Dermoscopy Images Using Histogram Thresholding on Optimal Color Channels
    Abstract:
    Automatic segmentation of skin lesions is the first step towards development of a computer-aided diagnosis of melanoma. Although numerous segmentation methods have been developed, few studies have focused on determining the most discriminative and effective color space for melanoma application. This paper proposes a novel automatic segmentation algorithm using color space analysis and clustering-based histogram thresholding, which is able to determine the optimal color channel for segmentation of skin lesions. To demonstrate the validity of the algorithm, it is tested on a set of 30 high resolution dermoscopy images and a comprehensive evaluation of the results is provided, where borders manually drawn by four dermatologists, are compared to automated borders detected by the proposed algorithm. The evaluation is carried out by applying three previously used metrics of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity and a new metric of similarity. Through ROC analysis and ranking the metrics, it is shown that the best results are obtained with the X and XoYoR color channels which results in an accuracy of approximately 97%. The proposed method is also compared with two state-ofthe- art skin lesion segmentation methods, which demonstrates the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed segmentation method.
    3
    4022
    An Adaptive Memetic Algorithm With Dynamic Population Management for Designing HIV Multidrug Therapies
    Abstract:
    In this paper, a mathematical model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is utilized and an optimization problem is proposed, with the final goal of implementing an optimal 900-day structured treatment interruption (STI) protocol. Two type of commonly used drugs in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) and protease inhibitors (PI), are considered. In order to solving the proposed optimization problem an adaptive memetic algorithm with population management (AMAPM) is proposed. The AMAPM uses a distance measure to control the diversity of population in genotype space and thus preventing the stagnation and premature convergence. Moreover, the AMAPM uses diversity parameter in phenotype space to dynamically set the population size and the number of crossovers during the search process. Three crossover operators diversify the population, simultaneously. The progresses of crossover operators are utilized to set the number of each crossover per generation. In order to escaping the local optima and introducing the new search directions toward the global optima, two local searchers assist the evolutionary process. In contrast to traditional memetic algorithms, the activation of these local searchers is not random and depends on both the diversity parameters in genotype space and phenotype space. The capability of AMAPM in finding optimal solutions compared with three popular metaheurestics is introduced.
    2
    5274
    Predicting Dietary Practice Behavior among Type 2 Diabetics Using the Theory of Planned Behavior and Mixed Methods Design
    Abstract:
    This study applied the Theory of Planned Behavior model in predicting dietary behavior among Type 2 diabetics in a Kenyan environment. The study was conducted for three months within the diabetic clinic at Kisii Hospital in Nyanza Province in Kenya and adopted sequential mixed methods design combing both qualitative and quantitative phases. Qualitative data was analyzed using grounded theory analysis method. Structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood was used to analyze quantitative data. The results based on the common fit indices revealed that the theory of planned behavior fitted the data acceptably well among the Type 2 diabetes and within dietary behavior {χ2 = 223.3, df = 77, p = .02, χ2/df = 2.9, n=237; TLI = .93; CFI =.91; RMSEA (90CI) = .090(.039, .146)}. This implies that the Theory of Planned Behavior holds and forms a framework for promoting dietary practice among Type 2 diabetics.
    1
    10175
    Pro-inflammatory Phenotype of COPD Fibroblasts not Compatible with Repair in COPD Lung
    Abstract:
    COPD is characterized by loss of elastic fibers from small airways and alveolar walls, with the decrease in elastin increasing with disease severity. It is unclear why there is a lack of repair of elastic fibers. We have examined fibroblasts cultured from lung tissue from normal and COPD subjects to determine if the secretory profile explains lack of tissue repair. In this study, fibroblasts were cultured from lung parenchyma of bronchial carcinoma patients with varying degrees of COPD; controls (non-COPD, n=5), mild COPD (GOLD 1, n=5) and moderate-severe COPD (GOLD 2-3, n=12). Measurements were made of proliferation, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase-1, mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-8, MMP-1, tropoelastin and versican, and protein levels for IL-6, IL-8, PGE2, tropoelastin, insoluble elastin, and versican. It was found that GOLD 2-3 fibroblasts proliferated more slowly (p