Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 23

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 23
    Gene Expression Signature for Classification of Metastasis Positive and Negative Oral Cancer in Homosapiens

    Cancer classification to their corresponding cohorts has been key area of research in bioinformatics aiming better prognosis of the disease. High dimensionality of gene data has been makes it a complex task and requires significance data identification technique in order to reducing the dimensionality and identification of significant information. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach for classification of oral cancer into metastasis positive and negative patients. We have used significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) for identifying significant genes which constitutes gene signature. 3 different gene signatures were identified using SAM from 3 different combination of training datasets and their classification accuracy was calculated on corresponding testing datasets using k-Nearest Neighbour (kNN), Fuzzy C-Means Clustering (FCM), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN). A final gene signature of only 9 genes was obtained from above 3 individual gene signatures. 9 gene signature-s classification capability was compared using same classifiers on same testing datasets. Results obtained from experimentation shows that 9 gene signature classified all samples in testing dataset accurately while individual genes could not classify all accurately.

    A Fuzzy Tumor Volume Estimation Approach Based On Fuzzy Segmentation of MR Images

    Quantitative measurements of tumor in general and tumor volume in particular, become more realistic with the use of Magnetic Resonance imaging, especially when the tumor morphological changes become irregular and difficult to assess by clinical examination. However, tumor volume estimation strongly depends on the image segmentation, which is fuzzy by nature. In this paper a fuzzy approach is presented for tumor volume segmentation based on the fuzzy connectedness algorithm. The fuzzy affinity matrix resulting from segmentation is then used to estimate a fuzzy volume based on a certainty parameter, an Alpha Cut, defined by the user. The proposed method was shown to highly affect treatment decisions. A statistical analysis was performed in this study to validate the results based on a manual method for volume estimation and the importance of using the Alpha Cut is further explained.

    The Practical Delivery Room Experience of Nursing Students at Suranaree University of Technology
    The purpose of this study was to study the practical delivery room experience of nursing students. The respondents were 6 junior nursing students of Suranaree University of Technology who had a direct experience from practicing in a delivery room between January 9 and March 30, 2012 as part of Nursing Care of the Family and Midwifery 3. The data was collected by using in-depth interview, observation, and reflective report. The results of the study found that the practical delivery room experience of nursing students consisted of three issues: 1) stress and coping with stress during practical exercise, 2) changes in daily routine, and 3) source during practical exercise. The results of this study would lead to the understanding of the meaning of the practical exercise of nursing students.
    A Preliminary Study of Drug Perfusion Enhancement by Microstreaming Induced by an Oscillating Microbubble

    Microbubbbles incorporating ultrasound have been used to increase the efficacy of targeted drug delivery, because microstreaming induced by cavitating bubbles affects the drug perfusion into the target cells and tissues. In order to clarify the physical effects of microstreaming on drug perfusion into tissues, a preliminary experimental study of perfusion enhancement by a stably oscillating microbubble was performed. Microstreaming was induced by an oscillating bubble at 15 kHz, and perfusion of dye into an agar phantom was optically measured by histology on agar phantom. Surface color intensity and the penetration length of dye in the agar phantom were increased more than 70% and 30%, respectively, due to the microstreaming induced by an oscillating bubble. The mass of dye perfused into a tissue phantom for 30 s was increased about 80% in the phantom with an oscillating bubble. This preliminary experiment shows the physical effects of steady streaming by an oscillating bubble can enhance the drug perfusion into the tissues while minimizing the biological effects.

    Textronic System to Muscle Electrostimulation
    In the paper the research of flat textile products for use as electrodes was presented. Material-s resistance measurements were carried out to determine the suitability of the textiles. Based on the received results of studies different types of textile electrodes were designed. Textile electrodes tests were carried out on human phantoms. The electro-conductive properties of human forearm phantom were also described. Based on this results special electroconductive hydrogels with electro-conductive particles were feasible. The hydrogel is an important element of the forearm-s phantom model of a survey of electrodes for muscle electrostimulation. The hydrogel is an equivalent human skin and tissue. The hydrogel should have a permanence and recurrence of the electro-conductive properties.
    Modeling and Simulating Human Arm Movement Using a 2 Dimensional 3 Segments Coupled Pendulum System

    A two dimensional three segments coupled pendulum system that mathematically models human arm configuration was developed along with constructing and solving the equations of motions for this model using the energy (work) based approach of Lagrange. The equations of motion of the model were solved iteratively both as an initial value problem and as a two point boundary value problem. In the initial value problem solutions, both the initial system configuration (segment angles) and initial system velocity (segment angular velocities) were used as inputs, whereas, in the two point boundary value problem solutions initial and final configurations and time were used as inputs to solve for the trajectory of motion. The results suggest that the model solutions are sensitive to small changes in the dynamic forces applied to the system as well as to the initial and boundary conditions used. To overcome the system sensitivity a new approach is suggested.

    MITAutomatic ECG Beat Tachycardia Detection Using Artificial Neural Network
    The application of Neural Network for disease diagnosis has made great progress and is widely used by physicians. An Electrocardiogram carries vital information about heart activity and physicians use this signal for cardiac disease diagnosis which was the great motivation towards our study. In our work, tachycardia features obtained are used for the training and testing of a Neural Network. In this study we are using Fuzzy Probabilistic Neural Networks as an automatic technique for ECG signal analysis. As every real signal recorded by the equipment can have different artifacts, we needed to do some preprocessing steps before feeding it to our system. Wavelet transform is used for extracting the morphological parameters of the ECG signal. The outcome of the approach for the variety of arrhythmias shows the represented approach is superior than prior presented algorithms with an average accuracy of about %95 for more than 7 tachy arrhythmias.
    UWB Bowtie Slot Antenna for Breast Cancer Detection
    UWB is a very attractive technology for many applications. It provides many advantages such as fine resolution and high power efficiency. Our interest in the current study is the use of UWB radar technique in microwave medical imaging systems, especially for early breast cancer detection. The Federal Communications Commission FCC allowed frequency bandwidth of 3.1 to 10.6 GHz for this purpose. In this paper we suggest an UWB Bowtie slot antenna with enhanced bandwidth. Effects of varying the geometry of the antenna on its performance and bandwidth are studied. The proposed antenna is simulated in CST Microwave Studio. Details of antenna design and simulation results such as return loss and radiation patterns are discussed in this paper. The final antenna structure exhibits good UWB characteristics and has surpassed the bandwidth requirements.
    Variant Polymorphisms of GST and XRCC Genes and the Early Risk of Age Associated Disease in Kazakhstan

    It is believed that DNA damaging toxic metabolites contributes to the development of different pathological conditions. To prevent harmful influence of toxic agents, cells developed number of protecting mechanisms, such as enzymatic reaction of detoxification of reactive metabolites and repair of DNA damage. The aim of the study was to examine the association between polymorphism of GSTT1/GSTM1 and XRCC1/3 genes and coronary artery disease (CAD) incidence. To examine a polymorphism of these genes in CAD susceptibility in patients and controls, PCR based genotyping assay was performed. For GST genes, frequency of GSTM1 null genotype among CAD affected group was significantly increased than in control group (P<0.001). Frequencies of the GSTT1 null and positive alleles are almost equal in both groups (P>0.1). We found that neither XRCC1 Arg399Gln nor XRCC3 Thr241Met were associated with CAD risk. Obtained data suggests that GSTM1 null genotype carriers are more susceptible to CAD development.

    A Sensorless Robust Tracking Control of an Implantable Rotary Blood Pump for Heart Failure Patients

    Physiological control of a left ventricle assist device (LVAD) is generally a complicated task due to diverse operating environments and patient variability. In this work, a tracking control algorithm based on sliding mode and feed forward control for a class of discrete-time single input single output (SISO) nonlinear uncertain systems is presented. The controller was developed to track the reference trajectory to a set operating point without inducing suction in the ventricle. The controller regulates the estimated mean pulsatile flow Qp and mean pulsatility index of pump rotational speed PIω that was generated from a model of the assist device. We recall the principle of the sliding mode control theory then we combine the feed-forward control design with the sliding mode control technique to follow the reference trajectory. The uncertainty is replaced by its upper and lower boundary. The controller was tested in a computer simulation covering two scenarios (preload and ventricular contractility). The simulation results prove the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed controller

    Application of an in vitro Alveolus Model in Evaluating the Alveolar Response to Pressure- Induced Injury

    In an effort to understand the preliminary effects of aerodynamic stress on alveolar epithelial cells, we developed a multifluidic cell culture platform capable of supporting alveolar cultures at an air-liquid interface under constant air flow and exposure to varying pressure stimuli on the apical side while providing nourishment on the basolateral plane. Our current study involved utilizing the platform to study the effect of basement membrane coating and addition of dexamethasone on cellular response to pressure in A549 and H441 alveolar epithelial cells.

    Contrast-Enhanced Multispectal Upconversion Fluorescence Analysis for High-Resolution in-vivo Deep Tissue Imaging

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles which can convert near-infrared lights to visible lights have attracted growing interest because of their great potentials in fluorescence imaging. Upconversion fluorescence imaging technique with excitation in the near-infrared (NIR) region has been used for imaging of biological cells and tissues. However, improving the detection sensitivity and decreasing the absorption and scattering in biological tissues are as yet unresolved problems. In this present study, a novel NIR-reflected multispectral imaging system was developed for upconversion fluorescent imaging in small animals. Based on this system, we have obtained the high contrast images without the autofluorescence when biocompatible UCPs were injected near the body surface or deeply into the tissue. Furthermore, we have extracted respective spectra of the upconversion fluorescence and relatively quantify the fluorescence intensity with the multispectral analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first time to analyze and quantify the upconversion fluorescence in the small animal imaging.

    In silico Analysis of Human microRNAs Targeting Influenza a Viruses (subtype H1N1, H5N1 and H3N2)

    In this study, three subtypes of influenza A viruses (pH1N1, H5N1 and H3N2) which naturally infected human were analyzed by bioinformatic approaches to find candidate human cellular miRNAs targeting viral genomes. There were 76 miRNAs targeting influenza A viruses. Among these candidates, 70 miRNAs were subtypes specifically targeting each subtype of influenza A virus including 21 miRNAs targeted subtype H1N1, 27 miRNAs targeted subtype H5N1 and 22 miRNAs targeted subtype H3N2. The remaining 6 miRNAs target on multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses. Uniquely, hsa-miR-3145 is the only one candidate miRNA targeting PB1 gene of all three subtypes. Obviously, most of the candidate miRNAs are targeting on polymerase complex genes (PB2, PB1 and PA) of influenza A viruses. This study predicted potential human miRNAs targeting on different subtypes of influenza A viruses which might be useful for inhibition of viral replication and for better understanding of the interaction between virus and host cell.

    Comparative Study of QRS Complex Detection in ECG
    The processing of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal consists essentially in the detection of the characteristic points of signal which are an important tool in the diagnosis of heart diseases. The most suitable are the detection of R waves. In this paper, we present various mathematical tools used for filtering ECG using digital filtering and Discreet Wavelet Transform (DWT) filtering. In addition, this paper will include two main R peak detection methods by applying a windowing process: The first method is based on calculations derived, the second is a time-frequency method based on Dyadic Wavelet Transform DyWT.
    Finite Element Analysis of Full Ceramic Crowns with and without Zirconia Framework
    Simulation of occlusal function during laboratory material-s testing becomes essential in predicting long-term performance before clinical usage. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of chamfer preparation depth on failure risk of heat pressed ceramic crowns with and without zirconia framework by means of finite element analysis. 3D models of maxillary central incisor, prepared for full ceramic crowns with different depths of the chamfer margin (between 0.8 and 1.2 mm) and 6-degree tapered walls together with the overlying crowns were generated using literature data (Fig. 1, 2). The crowns were designed with and without a zirconia framework with a thickness of 0.4 mm. For all preparations and crowns, stresses in the pressed ceramic crown, zirconia framework, pressed ceramic veneer, and dentin were evaluated separately. The highest stresses were registered in the dentin. The depth of the preparations had no significant influence on the stress values of the teeth and pressed ceramics for the studied cases, only for the zirconia framework. The zirconia framework decreases the stress values in the veneer.
    Can Nipple Be Used as a Good Indicator of Breast in Breast Motion Research?

    There were many studies on how to alleviate breast discomfort by reducing breast motion, in which nipple motion was used to represent breast motion. However, this assumption had not been experimentally validated. The aim of this paper was to experimentally validate if nipple can be used as a good indicator of breast. Seven participants (average of 24.4 years old) were recruited to walk and run on the treadmill at 5km h-1 and 10km h-1 respectively. Six markers were pasted on their bodies to collect motion data of different parts of breasts. The results of Friedman test combined with the relationship among the five markers on the same breast revealed that nipple could be used as a good indicator of breast. Wilcoxon test showed that there was no significant (P<0.05) between left and right nipple-s motion, so left nipple and right nipple could both be used to represent breast motion.

    Noninvasive, Wireless Textronic System to Breath Frequency Measurement
    In this paper authors presented the research of textile electroconductive materials, which can be used to construction sensory textronic shirt to breath frequency measurement. The full paper also will present results of measurements carried out on unique measurement stands.
    An EEG Case Study of Arithmetical Reasoning by Four Individuals Varying in Imagery and Mathematical Ability: Implications for Mathematics Education
    The main issue of interest here is whether individuals who differ in arithmetical reasoning ability and levels of imagery ability display different brain activity during the conduct of mental arithmetical reasoning tasks. This was a case study of four participants who represented four extreme combinations of Maths –Imagery abilities: ie., low-low, high-high, high-low, low-high respectively. As the Ps performed a series of 60 arithmetical reasoning tasks, 128-channel EEG recordings were taken and the pre-response interval subsequently analysed using EGI GeosourceTM software. The P who was high in both imagery and maths ability showed peak activity prior to response in BA7 (superior parietal cortex) but other Ps did not show peak activity in this region. The results are considered in terms of the diverse routes that may be employed by individuals during the conduct of arithmetical reasoning tasks and the possible implications of this for mathematics education.
    Arterial CO2 Pressure Drives Ventilation with a Time Delay during Recovery from an Impulse-like Exercise without Metabolic Acidosis

    We investigated this hypothesis that arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2) drives ventilation (V.E) with a time delay duringrecovery from short impulse-like exercise (10 s) with work load of 200 watts. V.E and end tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2) were measured continuously during rest, warming up, exercise and recovery periods. PaCO2 was predicted (PaCO2 pre) from PETCO2 and tidal volume (VT). PETCO2 and PaCO2 pre peaked at 20 s of recovery. V.E increased and peaked at the end of exercise and then decreased during recovery; however, it peaked again at 30 s of recovery, which was 10 s later than the peak of PaCO2 pre. The relationship between V. E and PaCO2pre was not significant by using data of them obtained at the same time but was significant by using data of V.E obtained 10 s later for data of PaCO2 pre. The results support our hypothesis that PaCO2 drives V.E with a time delay.

    The Results of the Fetal Weight Estimation of the Infants Delivered in the Delivery Room At Dan Khunthot Hospital by Johnson-s Method

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy to estimation fetal weight by Johnson-s method and compares it with actual birth weight. The sample group was 126 infants delivered in Dan KhunThot hospital from January March 2012. Fetal weight was estimated by measuring fundal height according to Johnson-s method. The information was collected by studying historical delivery records and then analyzed by using the statistics of frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. Finally, the difference was analyzed by a paired t-test.The results showed had an average birth weight was 3093.57 ± 391.03 g (mean ± SD) and 3,455 ± 454.55 g average estimated fetal weight by Johnson-s method higher than average actual birth weight was 384.09 grams. When classifying the infants according to birth weight found that low birth weight (<2500 g) and the appropriate birth weight (2500-3999g) actual birth weight less than estimate fetal weight . But the high birth weight (> 4000 g) actual birth weight was more than estimated fetal weight. The difference was found between actual birth weight and estimation fetal weight of the minimum weight in high birth weight ( > 4000 g) , the appropriate birth weight (2500-3999g) and low birth weight (<2500 g) respectively. The rate of estimates fetal weight within 10% of actual birth weight was 35.7%. Actual birth weight were compared with the found that the difference is statistically significant (p <.000). Employing Johnson-s method to estimate fetal weight can estimate initial fetal weight before passing to special examinations, which may require excessive high cost. A variety of methods should be employed to estimate fetal weight more precisely, which will help plan care for mother-s and infant-s safety.

    Finite Element Study on Corono-Radicular Restored Premolars
    Restoration of endodontically treated teeth is a common problem in dentistry, related to the fractures occurring in such teeth and to concentration of forces little information regarding variation of basic preparation guidelines in stress distribution has been available. To date, there is still no agreement in the literature about which material or technique can optimally restore endodontically treated teeth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the core height and restoration materials on corono-radicular restored upper first premolar. The first step of the study was to achieve 3D models in order to analyze teeth, dowel and core restorations and overlying full ceramic crowns. The FEM model was obtained by importing the solid model into ANSYS finite element analysis software. An occlusal load of 100 N was conducted, and stresses occurring in the restorations, and teeth structures were calculated. Numerical simulations provide a biomechanical explanation for stress distribution in prosthetic restored teeth. Within the limitations of the present study, it was found that the core height has no important influence on the stress generated in coronoradicular restored premolars. It can be drawn that the cervical regions of the teeth and restorations were subjected to the highest stress concentrations.
    Detecting Abnormal ECG Signals Utilising Wavelet Transform and Standard Deviation

    ECG contains very important clinical information about the cardiac activities of the heart. Often the ECG signal needs to be captured for a long period of time in order to identify abnormalities in certain situations. Such signal apart of a large volume often is characterised by low quality due to the noise and other influences. In order to extract features in the ECG signal with time-varying characteristics at first need to be preprocessed with the best parameters. Also, it is useful to identify specific parts of the long lasting signal which have certain abnormalities and to direct the practitioner to those parts of the signal. In this work we present a method based on wavelet transform, standard deviation and variable threshold which achieves 100% accuracy in identifying the ECG signal peaks and heartbeat as well as identifying the standard deviation, providing a quick reference to abnormalities.

    Fusion of Colour and Depth Information to Enhance Wound Tissue Classification
    Patients with diabetes are susceptible to chronic foot wounds which may be difficult to manage and slow to heal. Diagnosis and treatment currently rely on the subjective judgement of experienced professionals. An objective method of tissue assessment is required. In this paper, a data fusion approach was taken to wound tissue classification. The supervised Maximum Likelihood and unsupervised Multi-Modal Expectation Maximisation algorithms were used to classify tissues within simulated wound models by weighting the contributions of both colour and 3D depth information. It was found that, at low weightings, depth information could show significant improvements in classification accuracy when compared to classification by colour alone, particularly when using the maximum likelihood method. However, larger weightings were found to have an entirely negative effect on accuracy.