Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 12

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 12
    A Ring-Shaped Tri-Axial Force Sensor for Minimally Invasive Surgery

    This paper presents the design of a ring-shaped tri-axial fore sensor that can be incorporated into the tip of a guidewire for use in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The designed sensor comprises a ring-shaped structure located at the center of four cantilever beams. The ringdesign allows surgical tools to be easily passed through which largely simplified the integration process. Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are used aspiezoresistive sensing elementsembeddedon the four cantilevers of the sensor to detect the resistance change caused by the applied load.An integration scheme with new designed guidewire tip structure having two coils at the distal end is presented. Finite element modeling has been employed in the sensor design to find the maximum stress location in order to put the SiNWs at the high stress regions to obtain maximum output. A maximum applicable force of 5 mN is found from modeling. The interaction mechanism between the designed sensor and a steel wire has been modeled by FEM. A linear relationship between the applied load on the steel wire and the induced stress on the SiNWs were observed.

    Highly Sensitive Label Free Biosensor for Tumor Necrosis Factor
    We present a label-free biosensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for the detection of proinflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α). Secretion of TNF-α has been correlated to the onset of various diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn-s disease etc. Gold electrodes were patterned on a silicon substrate and self assembled monolayer of dithiobis-succinimidyl propionate was used to develop the biosensor which achieved a detection limit of ~57fM. A linear relationship was also observed between increasing TNF-α concentrations and chargetransfer resistance within a dynamic range of 1pg/ml – 1ng/ml.
    The Robot Hand System that can Control Grasping Power by SEMG
    SEMG (Surface Electromyogram) is one of the bio-signals and is generated from the muscle. And there are many research results that use forearm EMG to detect hand motions. In this paper, we will talk about our developed the robot hand system that can control grasping power by SEMG. In our system, we suppose that muscle power is proportional to the amplitude of SEMG. The power is estimated and the grip power of a robot hand is able to be controlled using estimated muscle power in our system. In addition, to perform a more precise control can be considered to build a closed loop feedback system as an object to a subject to pressure from the edge of hand. Our objectives of this study are the development of a method that makes perfect detection of the hand grip force possible using SEMG patterns, and applying this method to the man-machine interface.
    An Anatomically-Based Model of the Nerves in the Human Foot

    Sensory nerves in the foot play an important part in the diagnosis of various neuropathydisorders, especially in diabetes mellitus.However, a detailed description of the anatomical distribution of the nerves is currently lacking. A computationalmodel of the afferent nerves inthe foot may bea useful tool for the study of diabetic neuropathy. In this study, we present the development of an anatomically-based model of various major sensory nerves of the sole and dorsal sidesof the foot. In addition, we presentan algorithm for generating synthetic somatosensory nerve networks in the big-toe region of a right foot model. The algorithm was based on a modified version of the Monte Carlo algorithm, with the capability of being able to vary the intra-epidermal nerve fiber density in differentregionsof the foot model. Preliminary results from the combinedmodel show the realistic anatomical structure of the major nerves as well as the smaller somatosensory nerves of the foot. The model may now be developed to investigate the functional outcomes of structural neuropathyindiabetic patients.

    Microneedles-Mediated Transdermal Delivery
    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of hollow microneedles for enhancing the transdermal delivery of Bovine Serum Albumin (MW~66,000 Da)-Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (BSA-FITC) conjugate, a hydrophilic large molecular compound. Moreover, the effect of different formulations was evaluated. The series of binary mixtures composed of propylene glycol (PG) and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was prepared and used as a medium for BSA-FITC. The results showed that there was no permeation of BSA-FITC solution across the neonatal porcine skin without using hollow microneedles, whereas the cumulative amount of BSA-FITC released at 8 h through the neonatal porcine skin was about 60-70% when using hollow microneedles. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the higher volume of PG in binary mixtures injected, the lower cumulative amount of BSA-FITC released and release rate of BSA-FITC from skin. These release profiles of BSA-FITC in binary mixtures were expressed by Fick-s law of diffusion. These results suggest the utilization of hollow microneedle to enhance transdermal delivery of protein and provide useful information for designing an effective hollow microneedle system.
    Dextran Modified Silicon Photonic Microring Resonator Sensors
    We present a dextran modified silicon microring resonator sensor for high density antibody immobilization. An array of sensors consisting of three sensor rings and a reference ring was fabricated and its surface sensitivity and the limit of detection were obtained using polyelectrolyte multilayers. The mass sensitivity and the limit of detection of the fabricated sensor ring are 0.35 nm/ng mm-2 and 42.8 pg/mm2 in air, respectively. Dextran modified sensor surface was successfully prepared by covalent grafting of oxidized dextran on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modified silicon sensor surface. The antibody immobilization on hydrogel dextran matrix improves 40% compared to traditional antibody immobilization method via APTES and glutaraldehyde linkage.
    The Comparation of Activation Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta (NFKB) at Rattus Novergicus Strain Wistar Induced by Various Duration High Fat Diet (HFD)
    NFκB is a transcription factor regulating many function of the vessel wall. In the normal condition , NFκB is revealed diffuse cytoplasmic expressionsuggesting that the system is inactive. The presence of activation NFκB provide a potential pathway for the rapid transcriptional of a variety of genes encoding cytokines, growth factors, adhesion molecules and procoagulatory factors. It is likely to play an important role in chronic inflamatory disease involved atherosclerosis. There are many stimuli with the potential to active NFκB, including hyperlipidemia. We used 24 mice which was divided in 6 groups. The HFD given by et libitum procedure during 2, 4, and 6 months. The parameters in this study were the amount of NFKB activation ,H2O2 as ROS and VCAM-1 as a product of NFKB activation. H2O2 colorimetryc assay performed directly using Anti Rat H2O2 ELISA Kit. The NFKB and VCAM-1 detection obtained from aorta mice, measured by ELISA kit and imunohistochemistry. There was a significant difference activation of H2O2, NFKB and VCAM-1 level at induce HFD after 2, 4 and 6 months. It suggest that HFD induce ROS formation and increase the activation of NFKB as one of atherosclerosis marker that caused by hyperlipidemia as classical atheroschlerosis risk factor.
    Optimization of Breast Tumor Cells Isolation Efficiency and Purity by Membrane Filtration
    Size based filtration is one of the common methods employed to isolate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood. It is well known that this method suffers from isolation efficiency to purity tradeoff. However, this tradeoff is poorly understood. In this paper, we present the design and manufacturing of a special rectangular slit filter. The filter was designed to retain maximal amounts of nucleated cells, while minimizing the pressure on cells, thereby preserving their morphology. The key parameter, namely, input pressure, was optimized to retain the maximal number of tumor cells, whilst maximizing the depletion of normal blood cells (red and white blood cells and platelets). Our results indicate that for a slit geometry of 5 × 40 μm on a 13 mm circular membrane with a fill factor of 21%, a pressure of 6.9 mBar yields the optimum for maximizing isolation of MCF-7 and depletion of normal blood cells.
    Comparative Evaluation of the Biopharmaceutical and Chemical Equivalence of the Some Commercial Brands of Paracetamol Tablets

    Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) tablets are popular OTC products among patients as analgesics and antipyretics. Paracetamol is marketed by a lot of suppliers around the world. The aim of the present investigation was to compare between many types of paracetamol tablets obtained from different suppliers (six brands produced by different pharmaceutical companies in middle east countries, and Panadol® manufactured in Ireland), by different quality control tests according to USP pharmacopeia.Using Non official tests-hardness and friability; official tests- disintegration, dissolution, and drug content. Additionally, evaluate the influence of temperatures 4°C, 25°C and 40°C at 75% relative humidity on the stability of the same brands in their original packaging has been conducted for two months. The results revealed that all paracetamol tablet brands complied with the official USP specifications. In conclusion, paracetamol tablets preferred to be stored at 25°C. All the tested brands being biopharmaceutically and chemically equivalent.

    Agrowaste: Phytosterol from Durian Seed
    Presence of phytosterol compound in Durian seed (Durio zibethinus) or known as King of fruits has been discovered from screening work using reagent test. Further analysis work has been carried out using mass spectrometer in order to support the priliminary finding. Isolation and purification of the major phytosterol has been carried out using an open column chromatography. The separation was monitored using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Major isolated compounds and purified phytosterol were identified using mass spectrometer and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This novel finding could promote utilization of durian seeds as a functional ingredient in food products through production of standardized extract based on phytosterol content.
    Antimicrobial Effect of Essential oil of Plant Trigonella focnum greacum on some Bacteria Pathogens
    The plant world is the source of many medicines. Recently, researchers have estimated that there are approximately 400,000 plant species worldwide, of which about a quarter or a third have been used by societies for medicinal purposes. The human uses of plants for thousands of years to treat various ailments, in many developing countries, much of the population trust in traditional doctors and their collections of medicinal plants to treat them. Essential oils have many therapeutic properties. In herbal medicine, they are used for their antiseptic properties against infectious diseases of fungal origin, against dermatophytes, those of bacterial origin. The aim of our study is to determine the antimicrobial effect of essential oils of the plant Trigonella focnum greacum on some pathogenic bacteria, it is a medicinal plant used in traditional therapy. The test adopted is based on the diffusion method on solid medium (Antibiogram), this method determines the sensitivity or resistance of a microorganism vis-à-vis the extract studied. Our study reveals that the essential oil of the plant Trigonella focnum greacum has a different effect on the resistance of germs. For staphiloccocus Pseudomonnas aeroginosa and Krebsilla, are moderately sensitive strains, also Escherichia coli and Candida albicans represents a high sensitivity. By against Proteus is a strain that represents a weak sensitivity.
    A Research of the Influence that MP3 Sound Gives EEG of the Person
    Currently, many types of no-reversible compressed sound source, represented by MP3 (MPEG Audio Layer-3) are popular in the world and they are widely used to make the music file size smaller. The sound data created in this way has less information as compared to pre-compressed data. The objective of this study is by analyzing EEG to determine if people can recognize such difference as differences in sound. A measurement system that can measure and analyze EEG when a subject listens to music were experimentally developed. And ten subjects were studied with this system. In this experiment, a WAVE formatted music data and a MP3 compressed music data that is made from the WAVE formatted data were prepared. Each subject was made to hear these music sources at the same volume. From the results of this experiment, clear differences were confirmed between two wound sources.