Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 18

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 18
    Theoretical Analysis of a Crossed-Electrode 2D Array for 3D Imaging

    Planar systems of electrodes arranged on both sides of dielectric piezoelectric layer are applied in numerous transducers. They are capable of electronic beam-steering of generated wave both in azimuth and elevation. The wave-beam control is achieved by addressable driving of two-dimensional transducer through proper voltage supply of electrodes on opposite surfaces of the layer. In this paper a semi-analytical method of analysis of the considered transducer is proposed, which is a generalization of the well-known BIS-expansion method. It was earlier exploited with great success in the theory of interdigital transducers of surface acoustic waves, theory of elastic wave scattering by cracks and certain advanced electrostatic problems. The corresponding nontrivial electrostatic problem is formulated and solved numerically.

    Comparison between Associative Classification and Decision Tree for HCV Treatment Response Prediction

    Combined therapy using Interferon and Ribavirin is the standard treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C. However, the number of responders to this treatment is low, whereas its cost and side effects are high. Therefore, there is a clear need to predict patient’s response to the treatment based on clinical information to protect the patients from the bad drawbacks, Intolerable side effects and waste of money. Different machine learning techniques have been developed to fulfill this purpose. From these techniques are Associative Classification (AC) and Decision Tree (DT). The aim of this research is to compare the performance of these two techniques in the prediction of virological response to the standard treatment of HCV from clinical information. 200 patients treated with Interferon and Ribavirin; were analyzed using AC and DT. 150 cases had been used to train the classifiers and 50 cases had been used to test the classifiers. The experiment results showed that the two techniques had given acceptable results however the best accuracy for the AC reached 92% whereas for DT reached 80%.

    The Effect of Micro Tools Fabricated Dent on Alumina/Alumina Oxide Interface

    The tribological outcomes of micro dent are found to be outstanding in many engineering and natural surfaces. Ceramic (Al2O3) is considered one of the most potential material to bearing surfaces particularly, artificial hip or knee implant. A well-defined micro dent on alumina oxide interface could further decrease friction and wear rate, thus increase their stability and durability. In this study we fabricated circular micro dent surface profiles (Dia: 400µm, Depth 20µm, P: 1.5mm; Dia: 400µm, Depth 20µm, P: 2mm) on pure Al2O3 (99.6%) substrate by using a micro tool machines. A preliminary tribological experiment was carried out to compare friction coefficient of these fabricated dent surfaces with that of non-textured surfaces. The experiment was carried on well know pin-on-disk specimens while other experimental parameters such as hertz pressure, speed, lubrication, and temperature were maintained to standard of simulated hip joints condition. The experiment results revealed that micro dent surface texture reduced 15%, 8% and 4% friction coefficient under 0.132,0.162, 0.187 GPa contact pressure respectively. Since this is a preliminary tribological study, we will pursue further experiments considering higher ranges of dent profiles and longer run experiments. However, the preliminary results confirmed the suitability of fabricating dent profile to ceramic surfaces by using micro tooling, and also their improved tribological performance in simulated hip joints.

    Multifunctional Cell Processing with Plasmonic Nanobubbles

    Cell processing techniques for gene and cell therapies use several separate procedures for gene transfer and cell separation or elimination, because no current technology can offer simultaneous multi-functional processing of specific cell sub-sets in heterogeneous cell systems. Using our novel on-demand nonstationary intracellular events instead of permanent materials, plasmonic nanobubbles, generated with a short laser pulse only in target cells, we achieved simultaneous multifunctional cell-specific processing with the rate up to 50 million cells per minute.

    Pulse Oximeter Concept for Vascular Occlusion Test

    Microcirculatory dysfunction is very common in sepsis and may results in organ failure and increased risk of death. Analyzing oxygen utilization can potentially assess microcirculation function of an individual. In this study, a modified pulse oximeter is used to extract information signals due to absorption of red (R) and infrared (IR) light. IR and R signal are related to the overall blood volume and reduced hemoglobin, respectively. Differences between these two signals thus represent the amount of oxygenated hemoglobin. Avascular occlusion test has been conducted on healthy individuals to validate the pulse oximeter concept. In this test, both R and IR signals rapidly changed according to the occlusion process. The pulse oximeter concept presented is capable of extracting valuable information to assess microcirculation condition. Implementing this concept on ICU patients has the potential to aid sepsis diagnosis and provide more accurate tracking of patient state and sepsis status.

    Determinants of Knowledge-Based Improving Workflow and Communication within Surgical Team

    Surgical team consists of variety types of medical specialists possessing different kind of knowledge, motivations, personalities or abilities. This together with poor knowledge transfer, lack of information and communication technologies (ICT) implementations in hospitals can cause protraction of patient care processes and even jeopardize patient safety. There is presented in the article the outcomes of studies on communication and workflow in surgical team in the background of different collaboration levels in healthcare system. As a result the five determinants of improving workflow and communication within surgical team were indicated as well as knowledge-based tools and supporting information technology were proposed.

    Biomechanics Analysis When Delivering Baby

    Plenty of analyses based on Biomechanics were carried out on many jobs in manufactures or services. Now Biomechanics analysis is being applied on mothers who are giving birth. The analysis conducted in terms of normal condition of the birth process without Gyn Bed (Obstetric Bed). The aim of analysis is to study whether it is risky or not when choosing the position of mother’s postures when delivering the baby. This investigation was applied on two positions that generally appear in common birth process. Results will show the analysis of both positions to support the birth process based on the Biomechanics analysis (Ergonomic approaches). 

    Increased Signal to Noise Ratio in P300 Potentials by the Method of Coherent Self-Averaging in BCI Systems

    The coherent Self-Averaging (CSA), is a new method proposed in this work; applied to simulated signals evoked potentials related to events (ERP) to find the wave P300, useful systems in the brain computer interface (BCI). The CSA method cleans signal in the time domain of white noise through of successive averaging of a single signal. The method is compared with the traditional method, coherent averaging or synchronized (CA), showing optimal results in the improvement of the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The method of CSA is easy to implement, robust and applicable to any physiological time series contaminated with white noise

    Measuring the Cognitive Abilities of Teenage Basketball Players in Singapore

    This paper discusses the use of a computerized test to measure the decision-making abilities of teenage basketball players in Singapore. There are five sections in this test – Competitive state anxiety inventory-2 (CSAI-2) questionnaire (measures player’s cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence), Corsi block-tapping task (measures player’s short-term spatial memory), situation awareness global assessment technique (SAGAT) (measures players’ situation awareness in a basketball game), multiple choice questions on basketball knowledge (measures players’ knowledge of basketball rules and concepts), and lastly, a learning test that requires participants to recall and recognize basketball set plays (measures player’s ability to learn and recognize set plays). A total of 25 basketball players, aged 14 to 16 years old, from three secondary school teams participated in this experiment. The results that these basketball players obtained from this cognitive test were then used to compare with their physical fitness and basketball performance.

    Can EEG Test Helps in Identifying Brain Tumor?

    Brain tumor is inherently serious and life-threatening disease. Brain tumor builds the intracranial pressure in the brain, by shifting the brain or pushing against the skull, and also damaging nerves and healthy brain tissues. This intracranial pressure affects and interferes with normal brain functionality, which results in generation of abnormal electrical activities from brain. With recent development in the medical engineering and instruments, EEG instruments are able to record the brain electric activities with high accuracy, which establishes EEG as a primary tool for diagnosing the brain abnormalities. Research scholars and general physicians, often face difficulty in understanding EEG patterns. This paper presents the EEG patterns associated with brain tumor by combing medicine theory and neurologist experience. Paper also explains the pros-cons of the EEG based brain tumor identification.

    Antimicrobial Activity of Girardinia heterophylla

    In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare the crude extracts of leaves and stem of ‘Girardinia heterophylla’ by using various solvents like petroleum ether, ethanol and double distilled water. The samples were given the code NGLS 1, NGLS 2, NGLS 3 and NGSS 1, NGSS 2 and NGSS 3 respectively. All the extracts were used to study their antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria e.g. Bacillus subtilis, gram negative bacteria e.g. E. coli and K. pneumonia and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. The results of the antimicrobial activity showed that all the crude extracts of the plant possesses antibacterial activity. Maximum antibacterial activity was shown by NGLS 2, NGLS 3 and NGSS 3 against K. pneumonia. The growth of fungus A. niger was also inhibited by all the crude extracts. Maximum inhibition was shown by NGSS 2 followed by NGSS 1.

    Theoretical Analysis of a Crossed-Electrode 2D Array for 3D Imaging

    Planar systems of electrodes arranged on both sides of dielectric piezoelectric layer are applied in numerous transducers. They are capable of electronic beam-steering of generated wave both in azimuth and elevation. The wave-beam control is achieved by addressable driving of two-dimensional transducer through proper voltage supply of electrodes on opposite surfaces of the layer. In this paper a semi-analytical method of analysis of the considered transducer is proposed, which is a generalization of the well-known BIS-expansion method. It was earlier exploited with great success in the theory of interdigital transducers of surface acoustic waves, theory of elastic wave scattering by cracks and certain advanced electrostatic problems. The corresponding nontrivial electrostatic problem is formulated and solved numerically.

    Laxative Potential of The Konjac Flour (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) in Treatment of Loperamide Induced Constipation on Sprague Dawley Rats

    There is long history of konjac tubers being used as a cure for certain diseases in China and Japan. Konjac flour is prepared from konjac tubers and it contains high concentration of glucomannan. Konjac Glucomannan (KGM) is dietary fiber and the role of which has been demonstrated in weight reduction, lowering blood cholesterol and sugar level, promoting intestinal activity etc. Konjac glucomanan has a property of swelling by absorbing water, more than a hundred times its own weight. Therefore it helps increasing weight of feces, water content of feces, and promotes satiety feeling. Mode of actions of dietary fibre as laxatives agents includes holding water inside the bowel lumen, inhibition of water absorption in the colon and stimulating colonic motility. Number of fecal pellets did not effected in rats were fed on 300 and 600 mg/kg of konjac flour, as well as constipated control and Dulcolax treatment. Water content, weight of fecal pellets and gastrointestinal transit ratio were higher in rats treated with 600 mg/kg than 300 mg/kg of konjac flour. Rats were administered with Dulcolax showed the highest gastrointestinal transit ratio, followed by 600 mg/kg konjac flour. The lowest feed consumption was noted in 600 mg/kg konjac flour diet group.

    Microcontroller Based EOG Guided Wheelchair

    A new cost effective, eye controlled method was introduced to guide and control a wheel chair for disable people, based on Electrooculography (EOG). The guidance and control is effected by eye ball movements within the socket. The system consists of a standard electric wheelchair with an on-board microcontroller system attached. EOG is a new technology to sense the eye signals for eye movements and these signals are captured using electrodes, signal processed such as amplification, noise filtering, and then given to microcontroller which drives the motors attached with wheel chair for propulsion. This technique could be very useful in applications such as mobility for handicapped and paralyzed persons.

    Incidence of Gastrointestinal Parasites among Workers in Major Abattoirs in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

    Gastrointestinal parasitic infections are common health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross- sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among workers in major abattoirs in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. These abattoirs are located in Trans-Amadi, Rumuodumaya, Mile III and Easter-by-Pass. Formol-ether concentration technique was used to isolate the ova and cysts from faecal samples. Out of 201 workers (herdsmen, butchers, and cleaners) investigated for the presence of these parasites, 89 (44.2%) were infected with one or more parasites. The prevalence of the parasites among herdsmen and cleaners was significantly (P<0.05) higher. However, there was no significant (P>0.05) difference in the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in relation to age. Parasites identified included Ascaris lumbricoide (33.3%), tapeworm (4.97%), Entamoeba histolytica (5.47%), hookworms (13.9%), Trichuris trichiura (9.95%), Gardia lamblia (3.48%), and Schistosoma mansoni (1.9%). The frequency of A. lumbricoide was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other parasites. Many workers (65.2%) had single infection than double (23.6%) and triple infection (11.2%). Sanitary improvements, increased level of personal hygiene, routine surveillance by public health practitioners and veterinary experts as well as hygienic operation using modern technologies to process meat at these abattoirs will go a long way to control occupational gastrointestinal parasites among workers.

    Effect of a Multiple Stenosis on Blood Flow through a Tube

    The development of double stenosis in an artery can have serious consequences and can disrupt the normal functioning of the circulatory system. It has been realized that various hydrodynamics effects (i.e. wall shear, pressure distribution etc.) play important role in the development of this disease. Generally in the literature, the cross-section of the artery is assumed to be uniform with a single stenosis. However, in real situation the multiple stenosis develops in series along the length of artery whose cross-section varies slowly. Therefore, the flow of blood is laminar through a small diameter artery with axisymmetric identical double stenosis in series.

    A Study of Cardio Pulmonary Changes during Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a commonly performed diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and has many adverse effects like cardiopulmonary complications, complications related to sedation, infectious complications, bleeding and perforation. So this study was undertaken to evaluate important variables like patient’s age, gender and stage of the procedure in relation to the cardiopulmonary changes during diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy by monitoring oxygen saturation, blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram. This is a prospective longitudinal hospital based study involving a total of 140 consecutive patients, at Sri. B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre. Cardiopulmonary changes during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy are more common in the age groups of 51-60 years, with equal frequency in both male and female. Oxygen saturation levels decreased by about 4% in both sexes during introduction of endoscopy. Mild to moderate hypoxia was found in 32% of the study group. Severe hypoxia was found in 5% of the patients, mostly in those patients who are above 50 years of age. Tachycardia was noted in 88% of the study group patients. Blood pressure increased to hypertension levels in 22 patients (15.7%) which returned to normal within few minutes after the procedure. S-T depression was noticed in 4% of patients and T wave inversion in 8% of patients during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All these changes disappeared after 10 minutes after the endoscopy. Cardiopulmonary changes are common during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Maximum changes in oxygen saturation, heart rate and blood pressure occurred immediately after the introduction of endoscope. The cardiopulmonary changes did not manifest into any identifiable clinical symptoms. The rate of recovery was faster in younger age groups and women.

    Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    This study aimed to determine the possible protective effects of L‐carnitine against gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity. Forty male albino rats were divided into 4 groups (10 rats each); Group 1: normal control, group 2: induced nephrotoxicity (gentamicin 50 mg/kg/day S.C; 8 days), group 3: treated with L‐ carnitine (40 mg/kg/d SC for 12 days) and group 4: treated with L‐ carnitine 4 days before and for 8 days in concomitant with gentamicin. Gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity (group 2): caused significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, urinary N‐acetyl‐B‐D‐ glucosaminidase (NAG), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), urinary total protein and kidney tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) with significant decrease in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum catalase and creatinine clearance and marked tubular necrosis in the proximal convoluted tubules with interruption in the basement membrane around the necrotic tubule compared to the normal control group. L‐carnitine 4 days before and for 8 days in concomitant with gentamicin (group 4) offered marked decrease in serum urea, serum creatinine, urinary NAG, urinary GGT, urinary proteins and kidney tissue MDA, with marked increase in serum SOD, serum catalase and creatinine clearance with marked improvement in the tubular damage compared to gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity group. L‐carnitine administered for 12 days produced no change in the parameters mentioned above as compared to the normal control group. In conclusion: L‐carnitine could reduce most of the biochemical parameters and also improve the histopathological features of kidney asscociated with gentamicin induced‐nephrotoxicity.