Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 7

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 7
    Anomaly Based On Frequent-Outlier for Outbreak Detection in Public Health Surveillance

    Public health surveillance system focuses on outbreak detection and data sources used. Variation or aberration in the frequency distribution of health data, compared to historical data is often used to detect outbreaks. It is important that new techniques be developed to improve the detection rate, thereby reducing wastage of resources in public health. Thus, the objective is to developed technique by applying frequent mining and outlier mining techniques in outbreak detection. 14 datasets from the UCI were tested on the proposed technique. The performance of the effectiveness for each technique was measured by t-test. The overall performance shows that DTK can be used to detect outlier within frequent dataset. In conclusion the outbreak detection technique using anomaly-based on frequent-outlier technique can be used to identify the outlier within frequent dataset.

    The Use of Information for Inventory Decision in the Healthcare Industry

    In this study, we explore the use of information for inventory decision in the healthcare organization (HO). We consider the scenario when the HO can make use of the information collected from some correlated products to enhance its inventory planning. Motivated by our real world observations that HOs adopt RFID and bar-coding system for information collection purpose, we examine the effectiveness of these systems for inventory planning with Bayesian information updating. We derive the optimal ordering decision and study the issue of Pareto improvement in the supply chain. Our analysis demonstrates that RFID system will outperform the bar-coding system when the RFID system installation cost and the tag cost reduce to a level that is comparable with that of the barcoding system. We also show how an appropriately set wholesale pricing contract can achieve Pareto improvement in the HO supply chain.

    Characterization of Lubricity of Mucins at Polymeric Surfaces for Biomedical Applications
    The lubricating properties of commercially available mucins originating from different animal organs, namely bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) and porcine gastric mucin (PGM), have been characterized at polymeric surfaces for biomedical applications. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and pin-on-disk tribometry have been employed for tribological studies at nanoscale and macroscale contacts, respectively. Polystyrene (PS) was employed to represent ‘rigid’ contacts, whereas poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was employed to represent ‘soft contacts’. To understand the lubricating properties of mucins in correlation with the coverage on surfaces, adsorption properties of mucins onto the polymeric substrates have been characterized by means of optical waveguide light-mode spectroscopy (OWLS). Both mucins showed facile adsorption onto both polymeric substrates, but the lubricity was highly dependent upon the pH change between 2 and 7.
    Sterility Examination and Comparative Analyses of Inhibitory Effect of Honey on Some Gram Negative and Gram Positive Food Borne Pathogens in South West Nigeria
    Food borne illnesses have been reported to be a global health challenge. Annual incidences of food–related diseases involve 76 million cases, of which only 14 million can be traced to known pathogens. Poor hygienic practices have contributed greatly to this. It has been reported that in the year 2000 about 2.1 million people died from diarrheal diseases, hence, there is a need to ensure food safety at all level. This study focused on the sterility examination and inhibitory effect of honey samples on selected gram negative and gram positive food borne pathogen from South West Nigeria. The laboratory examinations revealed the presence of some bacterial and fungal contaminations of honey samples and that inhibitory activity of the honey sample was more pronounced on the gram negative bacteria than the gram positive bacterial isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity test conducted on the different bacterial isolates also showed that honey was able to inhibit the proliferation of the tested bacteria than the employed antibiotics.
    A User - Requirements Approach in Medical Devices Maintenance System Development: A Case Study from an Industry Perspective
    This paper is a part of research, in which the way the biomedical engineers follow in their work is analyzed. The goal of this paper is to present a method for specification of user requirements in the medical devices maintenance process. Data Gathering Methods, Research Model Phases and Descriptive Analysis is presented. These technology and verification rules can be implemented in Medical devices maintenance management process to the maintenance process.
    Evaluation of the Possible Effect of Gender, Age and Duration of Diabetes on the Serum Zinc Levels of Diabetic Patients in Murzuk Area-Libya
    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the possible effect of some variables such as age, gender, blood sugar level, and duration of diabetes on the serum level of zinc in diabetic individuals from Murzuk area. Serum zinc (Zn), Fasting blood sugar (FBS), hemoglobin HbA1c (HbA1c) were evaluated in 46 type I diabetic subjects (group 1), 48 type II diabetic subjects (group 2) and 43 healthy individuals (control) of both genders aged (30-81) years. Data showed that both diabetic groups have significantly higher (P0.05) differences in serum Zn levels were observed between Males and Females. Serum Zn levels were non-significantly decreased with increasing age. In type II diabetic subjects, serum Zn levels were non-significantly decreased with increasing duration of disease whereas those in type I were non-significantly increased.
    The Visual Inspection of Surgical Tasks Using Machine Vision: Applications to Robotic Surgery

    In this paper, the feasibility of using machine vision to assess task completion in a surgical intervention is investigated, with the aim of incorporating vision based inspection in robotic surgery systems. The visually rich operative field presents a good environment for the development of automated visual inspection techniques in these systems, for a more comprehensive approach when performing a surgical task. As a proof of concept, machine vision techniques were used to distinguish the two possible outcomes i.e. satisfactory or unsatisfactory, of three primary surgical tasks involved in creating a burr hole in the skull, namely incision, retraction, and drilling. Encouraging results were obtained for the three tasks under consideration, which has been demonstrated by experiments on cadaveric pig heads. These findings are suggestive for the potential use of machine vision to validate successful task completion in robotic surgery systems. Finally, the potential of using machine vision in the operating theatre, and the challenges that must be addressed, are identified and discussed.