Biocompatibility of NiTi Alloy Implants in vivo
In this study, the powders of Ni and Ti with 50.5 at.%
Ni for 12 h were blended and cold pressed at the different pressures
(50, 75 and100 MPa).The porous product obtained after Ni-Ti
compacts were synthesized by SHS (self-propagating hightemperature
synthesis) in the different preheating temperatures (200,
250 and 300oC) and heating rates (30, 60 and 90oC/min). The effects
of the pressure, preheating temperature and heating rate were
investigated on biocompatibility in vivo. The porosity in the
synthesized products was in the range of 50.7–59.7 vol. %. The
pressure, preheating temperature and heating rate were found to have
an important effect on the biocompatibility in-vivo of the synthesized
products. Max. fibrotic tissue within the porous implant was found in
vivo periods (6 months), in which compacting pressure 100MPa.
X-Ray Intensity Measurement Using Frequency Output Sensor for Computed Tomography
Quality of 2D and 3D cross-sectional images produce
by Computed Tomography primarily depend upon the degree of
precision of primary and secondary X-Ray intensity detection.
Traditional method of primary intensity detection is apt to errors.
Recently the X-Ray intensity measurement system along with smart
X-Ray sensors is developed by our group which is able to detect
primary X-Ray intensity unerringly. In this study a new smart X-Ray
sensor is developed using Light-to-Frequency converter TSL230
from Texas Instruments which has numerous advantages in terms of
noiseless data acquisition and transmission. TSL230 construction is
based on a silicon photodiode which converts incoming X-Ray
radiation into the proportional current signal. A current to frequency
converter is attached to this photodiode on a single monolithic CMOS
integrated circuit which provides proportional frequency count to
incoming current signal in the form of the pulse train. The frequency
count is delivered to the center of PICDEM FS USB board with
PIC18F4550 microcontroller mounted on it. With highly compact
electronic hardware, this Demo Board efficiently read the smart
sensor output data. The frequency output approaches overcome
nonlinear behavior of sensors with analog output thus un-attenuated
X-Ray intensities could be measured precisely and better
normalization could be acquired in order to attain high resolution.
On the Design of Shape Memory Alloy Locking Mechanism: A Novel Solution for Laparoscopic Ligation Process
The blood ducts must be occluded to avoid loss of
blood from vessels in laparoscopic surgeries. This paper presents a
locking mechanism to be used in a ligation laparoscopic procedure
(LigLAP I), as an alternative solution for a stapling procedure.
Currently, stapling devices are being used to occlude vessels. Using
these devices may result in some problems, including injury of bile
duct, taking up a great deal of space behind the vessel, and bile leak.
In this new procedure, a two-layer suture occludes a vessel. A
locking mechanism is also required to hold the suture. Since there is
a limited space at the device tip, a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)
actuator is used in this mechanism. Suitability for cleanroom
applications, small size, and silent performance are among the
advantages of SMA actuators in biomedical applications. An
experimental study is conducted to examine the function of the
locking mechanism. To set up the experiment, a prototype of a
locking mechanism is built using nitinol, which is a nickel-titanium
shape memory alloy. The locking mechanism successfully locks a
polymer suture for all runs of the experiment. In addition, the effects
of various surface materials on the applied pulling forces are studied.
Various materials are mounted at the mechanism tip to compare the
maximum pulling forces applied to the suture for each material. The
results show that the various surface materials on the device tip
provide large differences in the applied pulling forces.
Processing the Medical Sensors Signals Using Fuzzy Inference System
Sensors possess several properties of physical
measures. Whether devices that convert a sensed signal into an
electrical signal, chemical sensors and biosensors, thus all these
sensors can be considered as an interface between the physical and
electrical equipment. The problem is the analysis of the multitudes of
saved settings as input variables. However, they do not all have the
same level of influence on the outputs. In order to identify the most
sensitive parameters, those that can guide users in gathering
information on the ground and in the process of model calibration
and sensitivity analysis for the effect of each change made.
Mathematical models used for processing become very complex.
In this paper a fuzzy rule-based system is proposed as a solution
for this problem. The system collects the available signals
information from sensors. Moreover, the system allows the study of
the influence of the various factors that take part in the decision
system. Since its inception fuzzy set theory has been regarded as a
formalism suitable to deal with the imprecision intrinsic to many
problems. At the same time, fuzzy sets allow to use symbolic models.
In this study an example was applied for resolving variety of
physiological parameters that define human health state. The
application system was done for medical diagnosis help. The inputs
are the signals expressed the cardiovascular system parameters, blood
pressure, Respiratory system paramsystem was done, it will be able
to predict the state of patient according any input values.
Mass Casualty Acute Pepper Spray Inhalation Respiratory Effect Severity
Pepper spray use has gained momentum since 1992
and although the active ingredient is readily available, it is considered
a weapon with restricted use in many regions, including The
Bahamas. In light of controversy in the literature regarding the
severity of presenting respiration complaints among individuals postacute
exposure of pepper spray inhalation, this descriptive case series
study was conducted to assess the respiratory status of persons
evaluated during a mass casualty in The Bahamas. Parameters noted
were patients- demographics and respiration severity determined via
clinical examination findings, disposition and follow-up review of the
20 persons. Their most common complaint was difficulty breathing
post exposure. Two required admission and stayed for
Electromyographic Activity of the Medial Gastrocnemius and Lateral Gastrocnemius Muscle during Salat-s and Specific Exercise
This paper investigates the activity of the
gastrocnemius (Gas) muscle in healthy subjects during salat (ruku-
position) and specific exercise [Unilateral Plantar Flexion Exercise
(UPFE)] using electromyography (EMG). Both lateral and medial
Gas muscles were assessed. A group of undergraduates aged between
19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric
activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding
indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat
and exercise with almost same EMG-s level. From the result,
Wilcoxon-s Rank Sum test showed no significant difference between
ruku- and UPFE for both medial (p=0.082) and lateral (p=0.226) of
GAS muscles. Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening
exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities.
Why We Are Taller in the Morning than Going to Bed at Night – An in vivo and in vitro Study
Intradiscal and intervertebral pressure transducers
were developed. They were used to map the pressures in the nucleus
and within the annulus of the human spinal segments. Their stressrelaxation
were recorded over a period of time for nucleus
pressure, applied load, and peripherial strain against time. The
results show that for normal discs, pressures in the nucleus are
viscoelastic in nature with the applied compressive load.
Mechanical strains which develop around the periphery of the
vertebral body are also viscoelastic with the applied compressive
load. Applied compressive load against time also shows viscoelastic
behavior. However, annulus does not respond viscoelastically with
the applied load. It showed a linear response to compressive loading.
Analysis of Plasmids and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Hospitals- AL Jouf Region- KSA
Abstract–The objectives of the current study are to determine the
prevalence, etiological agents, drug susceptibility pattern and plasmid
profile of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Hospital-Acquired
Infections (HAI) at Community Hospital, Al Jouf Province, Saudi
Arabia. A total of 1890 patients had developed infection during
hospital admission and were included in the study. Among those who
developed nosocomial infections, 15(9.4), 10(2.7) and 118 (12.7) had
respiratory tract infection (RTI), blood stream infections (BSI) and
urinary tract (UTI) respectively. A total of 268 bacterial isolates were
isolated from nosocomial infection. S. aureus was reported in 23.5%
for of the total isolates followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.5%), E.
coli (17.2%), P. aeruginosa (11.9%), coagulase negative
staphylococcus (9%), A. baumannii (7.1%), Enterobacter spp.
(3.4%), Citrobacter freundii (3%), Proteus mirabilis (2.6%), and
Proteus vulgaris and Enterococcous faecalis (0.7%). Isolated
organisms are multi-drug resistant, predominantly Gram-positive
pathogens with a high incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus,
extended spectrum beta lactamase and vancomycin resistant
enterococci organisms. The RFLP (Fragment Length Polymorphisms)
patterns of plasmid preparations from isolated A. baumannii isolates
had altered RFLP patterns, possibly due to the presence of plasmid(s).
Five A. baumannii isolates harbored plasmids all of which were not
less than 2.71kbp in molecular weight. Hence, it showed that the gene
coding for the isolates were located on the plasmid DNA while the
remaining isolates which have no plasmid might showed gene coding
for antibiotic resistance being located on chromosomal DNA.
Nosocomial infections represent a current problem in Community
Hospital, Al Jouf Province, Saudi Arabia. Problems associated with
SSI include infection with multidrug resistant pathogens which are
difficult to treat and are associated with increased mortality.
Algorithm for Bleeding Determination Based On Object Recognition and Local Color Features in Capsule Endoscopy
Automatic determination of blood in less bright or
noisy capsule endoscopic images is difficult due to low S/N ratio.
Especially it may not be accurate to analyze these images due to the
influence of external disturbance. Therefore, we proposed detection
methods that are not dependent only on color bands. In locating
bleeding regions, the identification of object outlines in the frame and
features of their local colors were taken into consideration. The results
showed that the capability of detecting bleeding was much improved.
Preparation and Bioevaluation of DOTA-Cyclic RGD Peptide Dimer Labeled with 68Ga
Radiolabeled cyclic RGD peptides targeting integrin αvβ3 are reported as promising agents for the early diagnosis of metastatic tumors. With an aim to improve tumor uptake and retention of the peptide, cyclic RGD peptide dimer E[c (RGDfK)] 2 (E = Glutamic acid, f = phenyl alanine, K = lysine) coupled to the bifunctional chelator DOTA was custom synthesized and radiolabelled with 68Ga. Radiolabelling of cyclic RGD peptide dimer with 68Ga was carried out using HEPES buffer and biological evaluation of the complex was done in nude mice bearing HT29 tumors.
Image Processing Using Color and Object Information for Wireless Capsule Endoscopy
Wireless capsule endoscopy provides real-time images in the digestive tract. Capsule images are usually low resolution and are diverse images due to travel through various regions of human body. Color information has been a primary reference in predicting abnormalities such as bleeding. Often color is not sufficient for this purpose. In this study, we took morphological shapes into account as additional, but important criterion. First, we processed gastric images in order to indentify various objects in the image. Then, we analyzed color information in the object. In this way, we could remove unnecessary information and increase the accuracy. Compared to our previous investigations, we could handle images of various degrees of brightness and improve our diagnostic algorithm.
Swelling Behavior and Cytotoxicity of Maleic Acid Grafted Chitosan
Chitosan is an attractive polysaccharide obtained by
deacetylation of an abundant natural biopolymer called chitin. Chitin
and chitosan are excellent materials. To improve the potential of
chitin and chitosan modification is needed. In the present study,
grafting of maleic acid on to chitosan by cerium ammonium nitrate in
acetic acid solution was investigated with use of a microwave and
reflux system. The grafted chitosan was characterized by using a
Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. The solubility and swelling
behavior of grafted chitosans were determined in acetate buffer (pH
3.6), citrophosphate buffer (pH 5.6 and pH 7.0), and boric buffer (pH
9.2) solutions. The sample obtained by microwave system with use of
a chitosan/maleic anhydride/ceric ammonium nitrate 0.2/3.922/0.99
gram of raw material within 30 minute showed the maximum
swelling ratio (13.6) in boric buffer solution.
Whole Body CT for a Patient with Sepsis
This study retrospectively investigated the significance of whole body CT (WCT) for patients with sepsis. A medical chart review was retrospectively performed for all patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome that were treated initially between April 2011 and March 2012. The subjects were divided into a WCT group that underwent WCT on arrival and a control group. Results of this study suggested that WCT for sepsis was useful for elderly patients whose chief complaint or physiological findings could not suggest the anatomical site of infection, to determine the infectious focus and indications/method for surgery, to diagnose the basic diseases associated with opportunistic infections and to evaluate complicated diseases
The Effects of Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy on Pain, Function, Range of Motion, and Strength in Patients with Insertional Achilles Tendinosis
Increased physical fitness participation has been
paralleled by increasedoveruse injuries such as insertional Achilles
tendinosis (AT). Treatment has provided inconsistentresults. The use
of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) offers a new
treatment consideration.The purpose of this study was to assess the
effects of ECSWTon pain, function, range of motion (ROM), joint
mobility and strength in patients with AT. Thirty subjects were
treated with ECSWT and measures were takenbefore and three
months after treatment. There was significant differences in visual
analog scale (VAS) scores for pain at rest (p=0.002); after activity
(p= 0.0001); overall improvement(p=0.0001); Lower Extremity
Functional Scale (LEFS) scores (p=0.002); dorsiflexion range of
motion (ROM) (p=0.0001); plantarflexion strength (p=0.025);
talocrural joint anterior glide (p=0.046); and subtalar joint medial and
lateral glide (p=0.025).ECSWT offers a new intervention that may
limit the progression of the disorder and the long term healthcare
costs associated with AT.
Effects of a Recreational Workout Program on Task-Analyzed Exercise Performance of Adults with Severe Cognitive Impairments
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a recreational workout program for adults with disabilities over two semesters. This investigation was an action study conducted in a naturalistic setting. Participants included equal numbers of adults with severe cognitive impairments (n = 35) and adults without disabilities (n = 35). Adults with disabilities severe cognitive impairments were trained 6 self-initiated workout activities over two semesters by adults without disabilities. The numbers of task-analyzed steps of each activity performed correctly by each participant at the first and last weeks of each semester were used for data analysis. Results of the paired t-tests indicate that across two semesters, significant differences between the first and last weeks were found on 4 out of the 6 task-analyzed workout activities at a statistical level of significance p < .05. The recreational workout program developed in this study was effective.
Cannabidiol Treatment Ameliorates Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice
The possible therapeutic effect of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, was investigated against acute hepatotoxicity induced by a single oral dose of acetaminophen (500mg/kg) in mice. Cannabidiol (two intraperitoneal injections, 5mg/kg, each) was given 1 hour and 12 hours following acetaminophen administration. Acetaminophen administration caused significant elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase, and hepatic malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide levels, and a significant decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione. Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the deterioration in the measured biochemical parameters resulted from acetaminophen administration. Also, histopathological examination showed that cannabidiol markedly attenuated ameliorated acetaminophen-induced liver tissue damage. These results emphasize that cannabidiol represents a potential therapeutic option to protect against acetaminophen hepartotoxicity which is a common clinical problem.
Antioxidant Biosensor Using Microbe
The antioxidant compounds are needed for the food, beverages, and pharmaceuticals industry. For this purpose, an appropriate method is required to measure the antioxidant properties in various types of samples. Spectrophotometric method usually used has some weaknesses, including the high price, long sample preparation time, and less sensitivity. Among the alternative methods developed to overcome these weaknesses is antioxidant biosensor based on superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. Therefore, this study was carried out to measure the SOD activity originating from Deinococcus radiodurans and to determine its kinetics properties. Carbon paste electrode modified with ferrocene and immobilized SOD exhibited anode and cathode current peak at potential of +400 and +300mv respectively, in both pure SOD and SOD of D. radiodurans. This indicated that the current generated was from superoxide catalytic dismutation reaction by SOD. Optimum conditions for SOD activity was at pH 9 and temperature of 27.50C for D. radiodurans SOD, and pH 11 and temperature of 200C for pure SOD. Dismutation reaction kinetics of superoxide catalyzed by SOD followed the Lineweaver-Burk kinetics with D. radiodurans SOD KMapp value was smaller than pure SOD. The result showed that D. radiodurans SOD had higher enzyme-substrate affinity and specificity than pure SOD. It concluded that D. radiodurans SOD had a great potential as biological recognition component for antioxidant biosensor.
The Effects of Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy on Pain, Function, Range of Motion and Strength in Patients with Plantar Fasciitis
Ten percent of the population will develop plantar
fasciitis (PF) during their lifetime. Two million people are treated
yearly accounting for 11-15% of visits to medical professionals.
Treatment ranges from conservative to surgical intervention. The
purpose of this study was to assess the effects of extracorporeal
shockwave therapy (ECSWT) on heel pain, function, range of motion
(ROM), and strength in patients with PF. One hundred subjects were
treated with ECSWT and measures were taken before and three
months after treatment. There was significant differences in visual
analog scale scores for pain at rest (p=0.0001); after activity (p=
0.0001) and; overall improvement (p=0.0001). There was also
significant improvement in Lower Extremity Functional Scale scores
(p=0.0001); ankle plantarflexion (p=0.0001), dorsiflexion (p=0.001),
and eversion (p=0.017),and first metatarsophalangeal joint flexion
(p=0.002) and extension (p=0.003) ROM. ECSWT is an effective
treatment improving heel pain, function and ROM in patients with
Development of a Brain Glutamate Microbiosensor
This work attempts to improve the permselectivity of poly-ortho-phenylenediamine (PPD) coating for glutamate biosensor applications on Pt microelectrode, using constant potential amperometry and cyclic voltammetry. Percentage permeability of the modified PPD microelectrode was carried out towards hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ascorbic acid (AA) whereas permselectivity represents the percentage interference by AA in H2O2 detection. The 50-μm diameter Pt disk microelectrode showed a good permeability value toward H2O2 (95%) and selectivity against AA (0.01%) compared to other sizes of electrode studied here. The electrode was further modified with glutamate oxidase (GluOx) that was immobilized and cross linked with glutaraldehyde (GA, 0.125%), resulting in Pt/PPD/GluOx-GA electrode design. The maximum current density Jmax and apparent Michaelis constant, KM, obtained on Pt/PPD/GluOx-GA electrodes were 48 μA cm-2 and 50 μM, respectively. The linear region slope (LRS) was 0.96 μA cm-2 mM-1. The detection limit (LOD) for glutamate was 3.0 ± 0.6 μM. This study shows a promising glutamate microbiosensor for brain glutamate detection.
Could One-Hand Chest Compression for a Small Child Cause Intra-Abdominal Injuries?
We examined whether children ( < 18 years old) had risk of intra-thoracic trauma during 'one-handed' chest compressions through MDCT images. We measured the length of the lower half of the sternum (Stotal/2~X). We also measured the distance from the diaphragm to the midpoint of the sternum (Stotal/2~D) and half the width of an adult hand (Wtotal/2). All the 1 year-old children had Stotal/2~X and Stotal/2~D less than Wtotal/2. Among the children aged 2 years, 6 (60.0%) had Stotal/2~X and Stotal/2~D less than Wtotal/2. Among those aged 3 years, 4 (26.7%) had Stotal/2~X and Stotal/2~D less than Wtotal/2, and among those aged 4 years, 2 (13.3%) had Stotal/2~X and Stotal/2~D less than Wtotal/2. However, Stotal/2~X and Stotal/2~D were greater than Wtotal/2 in children aged 5 years or more. We knew that small children may be at an increased risk of intra-thoracic trauma during 'one-handed' chest compressions.
Microorganisms Isolated from Surgical Wounds Infection and Treatment with Different Natural Products and Medications
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most common
nosocomial infection in surgical patients resulting in significant
increases in postoperative morbidity and mortality. The commonly
causative bacteria developed resistance to virtually all antibiotics
available. The aim of this study was to isolation and identification the
most common bacteria that cause SSIs in Medical Research Institute,
and to compare their sensitivity to selected group of antibiotics and
natural products (garlic, oregano, olive, and Nigella sativa oils). The
isolated pathogens collected from infected surgical wounds were
identified, and their sensitivities to the antibiotics commonly
available for clinical use, and also to the different concentrations of
the used natural products were investigated. The results indicate to
the potential therapeutic effect of the tested natural products in
treatment of surgical wound infections.
Automatic Microaneurysm Quantification for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening
Microaneurysm is a key indicator of diabetic retinopathy that can potentially cause damage to retina. Early detection and automatic quantification are the keys to prevent further damage. In this paper, which focuses on automatic microaneurysm detection in images acquired through non-dilated pupils, we present a series of experiments on feature selection and automatic microaneurysm pixel classification. We found that the best feature set is a combination of 10 features: the pixel-s intensity of shade corrected image, the pixel hue, the standard deviation of shade corrected image, DoG4, the area of the candidate MA, the perimeter of the candidate MA, the eccentricity of the candidate MA, the circularity of the candidate MA, the mean intensity of the candidate MA on shade corrected image and the ratio of the major axis length and minor length of the candidate MA. The overall sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy are 84.82%, 99.99%, 89.01%, and 99.99%, respectively.
Hospitals Disaster Preparedness during Arab Spring in Yemen
Objective: The objective of this paper is to assess the
hospitals preparedness for emergency using WHO standards.
Method: This is a cross-sectional study, consisted of site visit,
questionnaire survey, 16 health facilities were included. The WHO
standard for emergency preparedness of health facilities was used to
evaluate and assess the hospitals preparedness of health facilities.
Result: 13 hospitals were responded. They scored below average
in all measure >75%), while above average score was in 7 out 9 nine
measure with a range of 8%-25%. Un acceptable below average was
noted in two measures only.
Discussion: The biggest challenge facing the hospitals in their
emergency intervention is the lack of pre-emergency and emergency
preparedness plans as well as the coordination of the hospitals
Conclusion: The studied hospitals presently are far from
international disasters preparedness protocols. That necessitates
improvements in emergency preparedness, as well as in physician
skills for injury management.
Hydrogels Based on Carrageenan Extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii
Preparation of hydrogel based on carrageenan
extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii was conducted with film
immersion in glutaraldehyde solution (GA 4%w/w) for 2min and
then followed by thermal curing at 110°C for 25min. The method of
carrageenan recovery strongly determines the properties of
crosslinked carrageenan. Hydrogel obtained from alkali treated
carrageenan showed higher swelling ability compared to hydrogel
from nonalkali treated carrageenan. Hydrogel from alkali treated
showed the ability of sensitive to pH media.
Implication and Genetic Variations on Lipid Profile of the Fasting Respondent
PPARs function as regulators of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The aim of the study was to compare the lipid profile between two phases of fasting and to examine the frequency and relationship of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, PPARα gene polymorphisms to lipid profile in fasting respondents. We conducted a case-control study protocol, which included 21 healthy volunteers without gender discrimination at the age of 18 years old. 3 ml of blood sample was drawn before the fasting phase and during the fasting phase (in Ramadhan month). 1ml of serum for the lipid profile was analyzed by using the automated chemistry analyser (Olympus, AU 400) and the data were analysed using the Paired T-Test (SPSS ver.20). DNA was extracted and PCR was conducted utilising 6 sets of primer. Primers were designed within 6 exons of interest in PPARα gene. Genetic and metabolic characteristics of fasting respondents and controls were estimated and compared. Fasting respondents were significantly have lowered the LDL levels (p=0.03). There were no polymorphisms detected except in exon 1 with 5% of this population study respectively. The polymorphisms in exon 1 of the PPARα gene were found in low frequency. Regarding the 1375G/T and 1386G/T polymorphisms in the exon 1 of the PPARα gene, the T-allele in fasting phase had no association with the decreased LDL levels (Fisher Exact Test). However this association is more promising when the sample size is larger in order to elucidate the precise impact of the polymorphisms on lipid profile in the population. In conclusion, the PPARα gene polymorphisms do not appear to affect the LDL of fasting respondents.