Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 15

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 15
    A Comparison on Healing Effects of an Ayurvedic Preparation and Silver Sulfadiazine on Burn Wounds in Albino Rats

    To compare Healing Effects of an Ayurvedic Preparation and Silver Sulfadiazine on burn wounds in Albino Rats. Methods: Albino rats– 30 male / female rats weighing between 150-200 g were used in the study. They were individually housed and maintained on normal diet and water ad libitum. Partial thickness burn wounds were inflicted, on overnight-starved animals under pentobarbitone (30mg/kg, i.p.) anaesthesia, by pouring hot molten wax at 80oC into a plastic cylinder of 300 mm2 circular openings placed on the shaven back of the animal. Apart from the drugs under investigation no local/ systemic chemotherapeutic cover will be provided to animals. All the animals were assessed for the percentage of wound contraction, signs of infection, scab formation and histopathological examination. Results: Percentage of wound healing was significantly better in the test ointment group compared to the standard. Signs of infection were observed in more animals in the test ointment group compared to the standard. Scab formation also took place earlier in the test ointment group compared to standard. Epithelial regeneration and healing profile was better in the test ointment compared to the standard. Moreover the test ointment group did not show any raised margins in the wound or blackish discoloration as was observed in silver sulfadiazine group. Conclusion: The burn wound healing effect of the ayurvedic ointment under study is better in comparison to standard therapy of silver sulfadiazine. The problem of infection encountered with the test ointment can be overcome by changing the concentrations and proportions of the ingredients in the test ointment which constitutes the further plan of the study.

    Video-Based Tracking of Laparoscopic Instruments Using an Orthogonal Webcams System

    This paper presents a system for tracking the movement of laparoscopic instruments which is based on an orthogonal system of webcams and video image processing. The movements are captured with two webcams placed orthogonally inside of the physical trainer. On the image, the instruments were detected by using color markers placed on the distal tip of each instrument. The 3D position of the tip of the instrument within the work space was obtained by linear triangulation method. Preliminary results showed linearity and repeatability in the motion tracking with a resolution of 0.616 mm in each axis; the accuracy of the system showed a 3D instrument positioning error of 1.009 ± 0.101 mm. This tool is a portable and low-cost alternative to traditional tracking devices and a trustable method for the objective evaluation of the surgeon’s surgical skills.

    Analysis of Metallothionein Gene MT1A (rs11076161) and MT2A (rs10636) Polymorphisms as a Molecular Marker in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Malay Population

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disorder that characterized by the presence of high glucose in blood that cause from insulin resistance and insufficiency due to deterioration β-cell Langerhans functions. T2DM is commonly caused by the combination of inherited genetic variations as well as our own lifestyle. Metallothionein (MT) is a known cysteine-rich protein responsible in helping zinc homeostasis which is important in insulin signaling and secretion as well as protection our body from reactive oxygen species (ROS). MT scavenged ROS and free radicals in our body happen to be one of the reasons of T2DM and its complications. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of MT1A and MT2A polymorphisms between T2DM and control subjects among Malay populations. This study involved 150 T2DM and 120 Healthy individuals of Malay ethnic with mixed genders. The genomic DNA was extracted from buccal cells and amplified for MT1A and MT2A loci; the 347bp and 238bp banding patterns were respectively produced by mean of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The PCR products were digested with Mlucl and Tsp451 restriction enzymes respectively and producing fragments lengths of (158/189/347bp) and (103/135/238bp) respectively. The ANOVA test was conducted and it shown that there was a significant difference between diabetic and control subjects for age, BMI, WHR, SBP, FPG, HBA1C, LDL, TG, TC and family history with (P<0.05). While the HDL, CVD risk ratio and DBP does not show any significant difference with (P>0.05). The genotype frequency for AA, AG and GG of MT1A polymorphisms was 72.7%, 22.7% and 4.7% in cases and 15%, 55% and 30% in control respectively. As for MT2A, genotype frequency of GG, GC and CC was 42.7%, 27.3% and 30% in case and 5%, 40% and 55% for control respectively. Both polymorphisms show significant difference between two investigated groups with (P=0.000). The Post hoc test was conducted and shows a significant difference between the genotypes within each polymorphism (P=0. 000). The MT1A and MT2A polymorphisms were believed to be the reliable molecular markers to distinguish the T2DM subjects from healthy individuals in Malay populations.

    Chase Trainer Exercise Program in Athlete with Unilateral Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS)

    We investigated the effects of modified preprogrammed training mode Chase Trainer from Balance Trainer (BT3, HurLab, Tampere, Finland) on athlete who experienced unilateral Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS). Twenty-seven athletes with mean age= 14.23 ±1.31 years, height = 164.89 ± 7.85 cm, weight = 56.94 ± 9.28 kg were randomly assigned to two groups: experiment (EG; n = 14) and injured (IG; n = 13). EG performed a series of Chase Trainer program which required them to shift their body weight at different directions, speeds and angle of leaning twice a week for duration of 8 weeks. The static postural control and perceived pain level measures were taken at baseline, after 6 weeks and 8 weeks of training. There was no significant difference in any of tested variables between EG and IG before and after 6-week the intervention period. However, after 8-week of training, the postural control (eyes open) and perceived pain level of EG improved compared to IG (p<0.05). The postural control with eyes closed of EG improved (p<0.05) but the values were not significantly different compared to IG after training. The results suggest that using Chase Trainer exercise program it is possible to improve individual postural control and decreased perceived pain level in athlete with unilateral Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS).

    Pre-Clinical Studying of Antitumor Ramon Preparation: Specific Activity

    In article the data of pre-clinical researches of Ramon preparation is described. Antitumor activity of Ramon has been studied on 19 strains of transplantated tumors of different hystogenesis.

    Synthesis and Characterization of PEG-Silane Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoparticle as MRI T2 Contrast Agent

    Iron oxide nanoparticle was synthesized by reactive-precipitation method followed by high speed centrifuge and phase transfer in order to stabilized nanoparticles in the solvent. Particle size of SPIO was 8.2 nm by SEM, and the hydraulic radius was 17.5 nm by dynamic light scattering method. Coercivity and saturated magnetism were determined by VSM (vibrating sample magnetometer), coercivity of nanoparticle was lower than 10 Hc, and the saturated magnetism was higher than 65 emu/g. Stabilized SPIO was then transferred to aqueous phase by reacted with excess amount of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) silane. After filtration and dialysis, the SPIO T2 contrast agent was ready to use. The hydraulic radius of final product was about 70~100 nm, the relaxation rates R2 (1/T2) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was larger than 200(sec-1).

    A Predictive Rehabilitation Software for Cerebral Palsy Patients

    Young patients suffering from Cerebral Palsy are facing difficult choices concerning heavy surgeries. Diagnosis settled by surgeons can be complex and on the other hand decision for patient about getting or not such a surgery involves important reflection effort. Proposed software combining prediction for surgeries and post surgery kinematic values, and from 3D model representing the patient is an innovative tool helpful for both patients and medicine professionals. Beginning with analysis and classification of kinematics values from Data Base extracted from gait analysis in 3 separated clusters, it is possible to determine close similarity between patients. Prediction surgery best adapted to improve a patient gait is then determined by operating a suitable preconditioned neural network. Finally, patient 3D modeling based on kinematic values analysis, is animated thanks to post surgery kinematic vectors characterizing the closest patient selected from patients clustering.

    An Intelligent System for Knee and Ankle Rehabilitation

    The paper is concerned with the state examination as well as the problems during the post surgical (orthopedic) rehabilitation of the knee and ankle joint. An observation of the current appliances for a passive rehabilitation devices is presented. The major necessary and basic features of the intelligent rehabilitation devices are considered. An approach for a new intelligent appliance is suggested. The main advantages of the device are: both active as well as passive rehabilitation of the patient based on the human - patient reactions and a real time feedback. The basic components: controller; electrical motor; encoder, force – torque sensor are discussed in details. The main modes of operation of the device are considered.

    Pre-Clinical Studying of Antitumor Ramon Preparation: Acute Toxicity

    In article the data of acute toxicity for pre-clinical researches of Ramon preparation is described. Ramon effects to clinical characteristics of blood, cardio-vascular system, hepatotoxic and diuretic effects were studied.

    Pre-Clinical Studying of Antitumor Ramon Preparation: Chronic Toxicity

    In article the data of chronic toxicity for pre-clinical researches of Ramon preparation is described. Ramon effects to hormone system and gastrointestinal tract; local irritative effect, allergic, pyrogenic properties and reaction to the immune system were studied.

    Segmenting Ultrasound B-Mode Images Using RiIG Distributions and Stochastic Optimization

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for delineating the endocardial wall from a human heart ultrasound scan. We assume that the gray levels in the ultrasound images are independent and identically distributed random variables with different Rician Inverse Gaussian (RiIG) distributions. Both synthetic and real clinical data will be used for testing the algorithm. Algorithm performance will be evaluated using the expert radiologist evaluation of a soft copy of an ultrasound scan during the scanning process and secondly, doctor’s conclusion after going through a printed copy of the same scan. Successful implementation of this algorithm should make it possible to differentiate normal from abnormal soft tissue and help disease identification, what stage the disease is in and how best to treat the patient. We hope that an automated system that uses this algorithm will be useful in public hospitals especially in Third World countries where problems such as shortage of skilled radiologists and shortage of ultrasound machines are common. These public hospitals are usually the first and last stop for most patients in these countries.

    Analysis of a Population of Diabetic Patients Databases with Classifiers

    Data mining can be called as a technique to extract information from data. It is the process of obtaining hidden information and then turning it into qualified knowledge by statistical and artificial intelligence technique. One of its application areas is medical area to form decision support systems for diagnosis just by inventing meaningful information from given medical data. In this study a decision support system for diagnosis of illness that make use of data mining and three different artificial intelligence classifier algorithms namely Multilayer Perceptron, Naive Bayes Classifier and J.48. Pima Indian dataset of UCI Machine Learning Repository was used. This dataset includes urinary and blood test results of 768 patients. These test results consist of 8 different feature vectors. Obtained classifying results were compared with the previous studies. The suggestions for future studies were presented.

    Blood Lactate, Heart Rate, and Rating of Perceived Exertion in Collegiate Sprint, Middle Distance, and Long Distance Runners after 400 and 1600 Meter Runs

    The aim of this studywas toinvestigate the effect ofrunning classification (sprint, middle, and long distance)and two distances on blood lactate (BLa), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) Borg scale ratings in collegiate athletes. On different days, runners (n = 15) ran 400m and 1600m at a five min mile pace, followed by a two min 6mph jog, and a two min 3mph walk as part of the cool down. BLa, HR, and RPE were taken at baseline, post-run, plus 2 and 4 min recovery times. The middle and long distance runners exhibited lower BLa concentrations than sprint runners after two min of recovery post 400 m runs, immediately after, and two and four min recovery periods post 1600 m runs. When compared to sprint runners, distance runners may have exhibited the ability to clear BLa more quickly, particularly after running 1600 m.

    Is Curcumine Effect Comparable to 5- Aminosalicylic Acid or Budesonide on a Rat Model of Ulcerative Colitis Induced by Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid?

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing-remitting condition that afflicts millions of people throughout the world and impairs their daily functions and quality of life. Treatment of IBD depends largely on 5-aminosalicylic acid (5- ASA) and corticosteroids. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of 5-aminosalicylic acid, budesonide and currcumin on 90 male albino rats against trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNB) induced colitis. TNB was injected intrarectally to 50 rats. The other 40 rats served as control groups. Both 5-ASA (in a dose of 120 mg/kg) and budesonide (in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg) were administered daily for one week whereas currcumin was injected intraperitonially (in a dose of 30 mg/kg daily) for 14 days after injection of either TNB in the colitis rats (group B) or saline in control groups (group A). The study included estimation of macroscopic score index, histological examination of H&E stained sections of the colonic tissue, biochemical estimation of myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and caspase-3 levels, in addition to studying the effect of tested drugs on colonic motility. It was found that budesonide and curcumin improved mucosal healing, reduced both NO production and caspase- 3 level. They had the best impact on the disturbed colonic motility in TNBS-model of colitis.

    Feasibility of Risk Assessment for Type 2 Diabetes in Community Pharmacies Using Two Different Approaches: A Pilot Study in Thailand

    Aims: To evaluate the application of non-invasive diabetes risk assessment tool in community pharmacy setting. Methods: Thai diabetes risk score was applied to assess individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Interactive computer-based risk screening (IT) and paper-based risk screening (PT) tools were applied. Participants aged over 25 years with no known diabetes were recruited in six participating pharmacies. Results: A total of 187 clients, mean aged (+SD) was 48.6 (+10.9) years. 35% were at high risk. The mean value of willingness-to-pay for the service fee in IT group was significantly higher than PT group (p=0.013). No significant difference observed for the satisfaction between groups. Conclusions: Non-invasive risk assessment tool, whether paper-based or computerized-based can be applied in community pharmacy to support the enhancing role of pharmacists in chronic disease management. Long term follow up is needed to determine the impact of its application in clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes.