Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 16

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 16
    Relevance of the Variation in the Angulation of Palatal Throat Form to the Orientation of the Occlusal Plane: A Cephalometric Study
    The posterior reference for the ala tragal line is a cause of confusion, with different authors suggesting different locations as to the superior, middle or inferior part of the tragus. This study was conducted on 200 subjects to evaluate if any correlation exists between the variation of angulation of palatal throat form and the relative parallelism of occlusal plane to ala-tragal line at different tragal levels. A custom made Occlusal Plane Analyzer was used to check the parallelism between the ala-tragal line and occlusal plane. A lateral cephalogram was shot for each subject to measure the angulation of the palatal throat form. Fisher’s exact test was used to evaluate the correlation between the angulation of the palatal throat form and the relative parallelism of occlusal plane to the ala tragal line. Also, a classification was formulated for the palatal throat form, based on confidence interval. From the results of the study, the inferior part, middle part and superior part of the tragus were seen as the reference points in 49.5%, 32% and 18.5% of the subjects respectively. Class I palatal throat form (41degree-50 degree), Class II palatal throat form (below 41 degree) and Class III palatal throat form (above 50 degree) were seen in 42%, 43% and 15% of the subjects respectively. It was also concluded that there is no significant correlation between the variation in the angulations of the palatal throat form and the relative parallelism of occlusal plane to the ala-tragal line.
    The Effect of Choke on the Efficiency of Coaxial Antenna for Percutaneous Microwave Coagulation Therapy for Hepatic Tumor
    There are many perceived advantages of microwave ablation have driven researchers to develop innovative antennas to effectively treat deep-seated, non-resectable hepatic tumors. In this paper a coaxial antenna with a miniaturized sleeve choke has been discussed for microwave interstitial ablation therapy, in order to reduce backward heating effects irrespective of the insertion depth into the tissue. Two dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to simulate and measure the results of miniaturized sleeve choke antenna. This paper emphasizes the importance of factors that can affect simulation accuracy, which include mesh resolution, surface heating and reflection coefficient. Quarter wavelength choke effectiveness has been discussed by comparing it with the unchoked antenna with same dimensions.
    Contrast Enhancement of Masses in Mammograms Using Multiscale Morphology
    Mammography is widely used technique for breast cancer screening. There are various other techniques for breast cancer screening but mammography is the most reliable and effective technique. The images obtained through mammography are of low contrast which causes problem for the radiologists to interpret. Hence, a high quality image is mandatory for the processing of the image for extracting any kind of information from it. Many contrast enhancement algorithms have been developed over the years. In the present work, an efficient morphology based technique is proposed for contrast enhancement of masses in mammographic images. The proposed method is based on Multiscale Morphology and it takes into consideration the scale of the structuring element. The proposed method is compared with other stateof- the-art techniques. The experimental results show that the proposed method is better both qualitatively and quantitatively than the other standard contrast enhancement techniques.
    Gold-Mediated Modification of Apoferritin Surface with Targeting Antibodies
    To ensure targeting of apoferritin nanocarrier with encapsulated doxorubicin drug, we used a peptide linker based on a protein G with N-terminus affinity towards Fc region of antibodies. To connect the peptide to the surface of apoferritin, the C-terminus of peptide was made of cysteine with affinity to gold. The surface of apoferritin with encapsulated doxorubicin (APODOX) was coated either with gold nanoparticles (APODOX-Nano) or gold(III) chloride hydrate reduced with sodium borohydride (APODOX-HAu). The reduction with sodium borohydride caused a loss of doxorubicin fluorescent properties and probably accompanied with the loss of its biological activity. Fluorescent properties of APODOX-Nano were similar to the unmodified APODOX; therefore it was more suited for the intended use. To evaluate the specificity of apoferritin modified with antibodies, ELISA-like method was used with the surface of microtitration plate wells coated by the antigen (goat anti-human IgG antibodies). To these wells, the nanocarrier was applied. APODOX without the modification showed 5× lower affinity to the antigen than APODOX-Nano modified gold and targeting antibodies (human IgG antibodies).
    EEG Correlates of Trait and Mathematical Anxiety during Lexical and Numerical Error-Recognition Tasks
    EEG correlates of mathematical and trait anxiety level were studied in 52 healthy Russian-speakers during execution of error-recognition tasks with lexical, arithmetic and algebraic conditions. Event-related spectral perturbations were used as a measure of brain activity. The ERSP plots revealed alpha/beta desynchronizations within a 500-3000 ms interval after task onset and slow-wave synchronization within an interval of 150-350 ms. Amplitudes of these intervals reflected the accuracy of error recognition, and were differently associated with the three conditions. The correlates of anxiety were found in theta (4-8 Hz) and beta2 (16- 20 Hz) frequency bands. In theta band the effects of mathematical anxiety were stronger expressed in lexical, than in arithmetic and algebraic condition. The mathematical anxiety effects in theta band were associated with differences between anterior and posterior cortical areas, whereas the effects of trait anxiety were associated with inter-hemispherical differences. In beta1 and beta2 bands effects of trait and mathematical anxiety were directed oppositely. The trait anxiety was associated with increase of amplitude of desynchronization, whereas the mathematical anxiety was associated with decrease of this amplitude. The effect of mathematical anxiety in beta2 band was insignificant for lexical condition but was the strongest in algebraic condition. EEG correlates of anxiety in theta band could be interpreted as indexes of task emotionality, whereas the reaction in beta2 band is related to tension of intellectual resources.
    A Fuzzy Approach to Liver Tumor Segmentation with Zernike Moments
    In this paper, we present a new segmentation approach for liver lesions in regions of interest within MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). This approach, based on a two-cluster Fuzzy CMeans methodology, considers the parameter variable compactness to handle uncertainty. Fine boundaries are detected by a local recursive merging of ambiguous pixels with a sequential forward floating selection with Zernike moments. The method has been tested on both synthetic and real images. When applied on synthetic images, the proposed approach provides good performance, segmentations obtained are accurate, their shape is consistent with the ground truth, and the extracted information is reliable. The results obtained on MR images confirm such observations. Our approach allows, even for difficult cases of MR images, to extract a segmentation with good performance in terms of accuracy and shape, which implies that the geometry of the tumor is preserved for further clinical activities (such as automatic extraction of pharmaco-kinetics properties, lesion characterization, etc.).
    The Intensity of Load Experienced by Female Basketball Players during Competitive Games
    This study compares the intensity of game load among player positions and between the 1st and the 2nd half of the games. Two guards, three forwards, and three centers (female basketball players) participated in this study. The heart rate (HR) and its development were monitored during two competitive games. Statistically insignificant differences in the intensity of game load were recorded between guards, forwards, and centers below and above 85% of the maximal heart rate (HRmax) and in the mean HR as % of HRmax (87.81±3.79%, 87.02±4.37%, and 88.76±3.54%, respectively). Moreover, when the 1st and the 2nd half of the games were compared in the mean HR (87.89±4.18% vs. 88.14±3.63% of HRmax), no statistical significance was recorded. This information can be useful for coaching staff, to manage and to precisely plan the training process.
    Clinical Parameters Response to Low-Level Laser versus Monochromatic Near-Infrared Photo Energy in Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Neuropathy
    Background: Diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) is one of the most common microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes. Loss of sensation is thought to contribute to a lack of static and dynamic stability and increased risk of falling. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low-level laser (LLL) and monochromatic near-infrared photo energy (MIRE) on pain, cutaneous sensation, static stability, and index of lower limb blood flow in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods: Forty diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy were recruited for participation in this study. They were divided into two groups: The MIRE group, which contained 20 patients, and the LLL group, which contained 20 patients. All patients who participated in the study had been subjected to various physical assessment procedures, including pain, cutaneous sensation, Doppler flow meter, and static stability assessments. The baseline measurements were followed by treatment sessions that were conducted twice a week for six successive weeks. Results: The statistical analysis of the data revealed significant improvement of pain in both groups, with significant improvement in cutaneous sensation and static balance in the MIRE group compared to the LLL group; on the other hand, the results showed no significant differences in lower limb blood flow between the groups. Conclusion: LLL and MIRE can improve painful symptoms in patients with diabetic neuropathy. On the other hand, MIRE is also useful in improving cutaneous sensation and static stability in patients with diabetic neuropathy.
    Safety Study of Intravenously Administered Human Cord Blood Stem Cells in the Treatment of Symptoms Related to Chronic Inflammation
    Numerous investigations suggest that Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) in general represent a valuable tool for therapy of symptoms related to chronic inflammatory diseases. Blue Horizon Stem Cell Therapy Program is a leading provider of adult and children’s stem cell therapies. Uniquely we have safely and efficiently treated more than 600 patients with documenting each procedure. The purpose of our study is primarily to monitor the immune response in order to validate the safety of intravenous infusion of human umbilical cord blood derived MSCs (UC-MSCs), and secondly, to evaluate effects on biomarkers associated with chronic inflammation. Nine patients were treated for conditions associated with chronic inflammation and for the purpose of antiaging. They have been given one intravenous infusion of UCMSCs. Our study of blood test markers of 9 patients with chronic inflammation before and within three months after MSCs treatment demonstrates that there is no significant changes and MSCs treatment was safe for the patients. Analysis of different indicators of chronic inflammation and aging included in initial, 24-hours, two weeks and three months protocols showed that stem cell treatment was safe for the patients; there were no adverse reactions. Moreover data from follow up protocols demonstrates significant improvement in energy level, hair, nails growth and skin conditions. Intravenously administered UC-MSCs were safe and effective in the improvement of symptoms related to chronic inflammation. Further close monitoring and inclusion of more patients are necessary to fully characterize the advantages of UC-MSCs application in treatment of symptoms related to chronic inflammation.
    Polymeric Sustained Biodegradable Patch Formulation for Wound Healing
    It is the patient compliance and stability in combination with controlled drug delivery and biocompatibility that forms the core feature in present research and development of sustained biodegradable patch formulation intended for wound healing. The aim was to impart sustained degradation, sterile formulation, significant folding endurance, elasticity, biodegradability, bio-acceptability and strength. The optimized formulation comprised of polymers including Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, Ethylcellulose, and Gelatin, and Citric Acid PEG Citric acid (CPEGC) triblock dendrimers and active Curcumin. Polymeric mixture dissolved in geometric order in suitable medium through continuous stirring under ambient conditions. With continued stirring Curcumin was added with aid of DCM and Methanol in optimized ratio to get homogenous dispersion. The dispersion was sonicated with optimum frequency and for given time and later casted to form a patch form. All steps were carried out under strict aseptic conditions. The formulations obtained in the acceptable working range were decided based on thickness, uniformity of drug content, smooth texture and flexibility and brittleness. The patch kept on stability using butter paper in sterile pack displayed folding endurance in range of 20 to 23 times without any evidence of crack in an optimized formulation at room temperature (RT) (24 ± 2°C). The patch displayed acceptable parameters after stability study conducted in refrigerated conditions (8±0.2°C) and at RT (24 ± 2°C) up to 90 days. Further, no significant changes were observed in critical parameters such as elasticity, biodegradability, drug release and drug content during stability study conducted at RT 24±2°C for 45 and 90 days. The drug content was in range 95 to 102%, moisture content didn’t exceeded 19.2% and patch passed the content uniformity test. Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12h and matched the biodegradation rate as drug release with correlation factor R2>0.9. The biodegradable patch based formulation developed shows promising results in terms of stability and release profiles.
    Development and Evaluation of a Nutraceutical Herbal Summer Drink

    In the past few years, high consumption of soft drinks has attracted negative attention world-wide due to its possible adverse effects, leading the health conscious people to find alternative nutraceutical or herbal health drinks. In the present study, a nutraceutical soft drink was developed utilizing some easily available and well known traditional herbs having nutritional potential. The key ingredients were selected as bael, amla, lemon juice, ashwagandha and poppy seeds based on their household routine use in the summer with proven refreshing, cooling and energetic feeling since ages. After several trials made, the final composition of nutraceutical summer soft drink was selected as most suitable combination based on the taste, physicochemical, microbial and organoleptic point of view. The physicochemical analysis of the prepared drink found to contain optimum level of titratable acidity, total soluble solids and pH which were in accordance of the commercial recommendations. There were no bacterial colonies found in the product therefore found within limits. During the nine point’s hedonic scale sensory evaluation, the drink was strongly liked for colour, taste, flavour and texture. The formulation was found to contain flavonoids (80mg/100ml), phenolics (103mg/100ml), vitamin C (250mg/100ml) and has antioxidant potential (75.52%) apart from providing several other essential vitamins, minerals and healthy components. The developed nutraceutical drink provides an economical and feasible option for the consumers with very good taste combined with potential health benefits. The present drink is potentially capable to replace the synthetic soft drinks available in the market.

    Effect of Polymer Molecular Structures on Properties of Dental Cement Restoratives
    The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize the poly(alkenoic acid)s with different molecular structures, use these polymers to formulate a dental cement restorative, and study the effect of molecular structures on reaction kinetics, viscosity, and mechanical strengths of the formed polymers and cement restoratives. In this study, poly(alkenoic acid)s with different molecular structures were synthesized. The purified polymers were formulated with commercial Fuji II LC glass fillers to form the experimental cement restoratives. The reaction kinetics was studied via 1HNMR spectroscopy. The formed restoratives were evaluated using compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, flexural strength, hardness and wear-resistance tests. Specimens were conditioned in distilled water at 37oC for 24 h prior to testing. Fuji II LC restorative was used as control. The results show that the higher the arm number and initiator concentration, the faster the reaction was. It was also found that the higher the arm number and branching that the polymer had, the lower the viscosity of the polymer in water and the lower the mechanical strengths of the formed restorative. The experimental restoratives were 31-53% in compressive strength, 37- 55% in compressive modulus, 80-126% in diametral tensile strength, 76-94% in flexural strength, 4-21% in fracture toughness and 53-96% in hardness higher than Fuji II LC. For wear test, the experimental restoratives were only 5.4-13% of abrasive and 6.4-12% of attritional wear depths of Fuji II LC in each wear cycle. The aging study also showed that all the experimental restoratives increased their strength continuously during 30 days, unlike Fuji II LC. It is concluded that polymer molecular structures have significant and positive impact on mechanical properties of dental cement restoratives.
    Assessment of Influence of Short-Lasting Whole-Body Vibration on Joint Position Sense and Body Balance–A Randomised Masked Study
    Introduction: Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) uses high frequency mechanical stimuli generated by a vibration plate and transmitted through bone, muscle and connective tissues to the whole body. Research has shown that long-term vibration-plate training improves neuromuscular facilitation, especially in afferent neural pathways, responsible for the conduction of vibration and proprioceptive stimuli, muscle function, balance and proprioception. Some researchers suggest that the vibration stimulus briefly inhibits the conduction of afferent signals from proprioceptors and can interfere with the maintenance of body balance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a single set of exercises associated with whole-body vibration on the joint position sense and body balance. Material and methods: The study enrolled 55 people aged 19-24 years. These individuals were randomly divided into a test group (30 persons) and a control group (25 persons). Both groups performed the same set of exercises on a vibration plate. The following vibration parameters: frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 3mm, were used in the test group. The control group performed exercises on the vibration plate while it was off. All participants were instructed to perform six dynamic exercises lasting 30 seconds each with a 60-second period of rest between them. The exercises involved large muscle groups of the trunk, pelvis and lower limbs. Measurements were carried out before and immediately after exercise. Joint position sense (JPS) was measured in the knee joint for the starting position at 45° in an open kinematic chain. JPS error was measured using a digital inclinometer. Balance was assessed in a standing position with both feet on the ground with the eyes open and closed (each test lasting 30 sec). Balance was assessed using Matscan with FootMat 7.0 SAM software. The surface of the ellipse of confidence and front-back as well as right-left swing were measured to assess balance. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 10.0 PL software. Results: There were no significant differences between the groups, both before and after the exercise (p> 0.05). JPS did not change in both the test (10.7° vs. 8.4°) and control groups (9.0° vs. 8.4°). No significant differences were shown in any of the test parameters during balance tests with the eyes open or closed in both the test and control groups (p> 0.05). Conclusions: 1. Deterioration in proprioception or balance was not observed immediately after the vibration stimulus. This suggests that vibrationinduced blockage of proprioceptive stimuli conduction can have only a short-lasting effect that occurs only as long as a vibration stimulus is present. 2. Short-term use of vibration in treatment does not impair proprioception and seems to be safe for patients with proprioceptive impairment. 3. These results need to be supplemented with an assessment of proprioception during the application of vibration stimuli. Additionally, the impact of vibration parameters used in the exercises should be evaluated.
    Assessment of the Impact of Regular Pilates Exercises on Static Balance in Healthy Adult Women: Preliminary Report
    Background: Maintaining the correct body balance is essential in the prevention of falls in the elderly, which is especially important for women because of postmenopausal osteoporosis and the serious consequences of falls. One of the exercise methods which is very popular among adults, and which may affect body balance in the positive way is the Pilates method. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of regular Pilates exercises on the ability to maintain body balance in static conditions in adult healthy women. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 20 healthy women attending Pilates twice a week for at least 1 year. The control group consisted of 20 healthy women physically inactive. Women in the age range from 35 to 50 years old without pain in musculoskeletal system or other pain were only qualified to the groups. Body balance was assessed using MatScan VersaTek platform with Sway Analysis Module based on Matscan Clinical 6.7 software (Tekscan Inc., U.S.A). The balance was evaluated under the following conditions: standing on both feet with eyes open, standing on both feet with eyes closed, one-leg standing (separately on the right and left foot) with eyes open. Each test lasted 30 seconds. The following parameters were calculated: estimated size of the ellipse of 95% confidence, the distance covered by the Center of Gravity (COG), the size of the maximum shift in the sagittal and frontal planes and load distribution between the left and right foot, as well as between rear- and forefoot. Results: It was found that there is significant difference between the groups in favor of the study group in the size of the confidence ellipse and maximum shifts of COG in the sagittal plane during standing on both feet, both with the eyes open and closed (p
    Phage Capsid for Efficient Delivery of Cytotoxic Drugs
    Various nanomaterials can be used as a drug delivery vehicles in nanomedicine, called nanocarriers. They can either be organic or inorganic, synthetic or natural-based. Although synthetic nanocarriers are easier to produce, they can often be toxic for the organism and thus not suitable for use in treatment. From naturalbased nanocarriers, the most commonly used are protein cages or viral capsids. In this work, virus bacteriophage λ was used for delivery of different cytotoxic drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin and doxorubicin). Large quantities of phage λ were obtained from phage λ-producing strain of E. coli cultivated in medium with 0.2% maltose. After killing of E. coli with chloroform and its removal by centrifugation, the phage was concentrated by ultracentrifugation at 130 000×g and 4°C for 3 h. The encapsulation of the drugs was performed by infusion method and four different concentrations of the drugs were encapsulated (200; 100; 50; 25 μg·mL-1). Free drug molecules were removed by filtration. The encapsulation was verified using the absorbance for doxorubicin and atomic absorption spectrometry for platinum cytostatics. The amount of encapsulated drug linearly increased with the increasing concentration of applied drug with the determination coefficient R2=0.989 for doxorubicin; R2=0.967 for cisplatin; R2=0.989 for carboplatin and R2=0.996 for oxaliplatin. The overall encapsulation efficiency was calculated as 50% for doxorubicin; 8% for cisplatin; 6% for carboplatin and 10% for oxaliplatin.
    A Retrospective Drug Utilization Study of Antiplatelet Drugs in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease
    Objective: Acute coronary syndrome is a clinical condition encompassing ST segments elevation myocardial infraction, Non ST segment is elevation myocardial infraction and un stable angina is characterized by ruptured coronary plaque, stress and myocardial injury. Angina pectoris is a pressure like pain in the chest that is induced by exertion or stress and relived with in the minute after cessation of effort or using sublingual nitroglycerin. The present research was undertaken to study the drug utilization pattern of antiplatelet drugs for the ischemic heart disease in a tertiary care hospital. Method: The present study is retrospective drug utilization study and study period is 6months. The data is collected from the discharge case sheet of general medicine department from medical department Rajiv Gandhi institute of medical sciences, Kadapa. The tentative sample size fixed was 250 patients. Out of 250 cases 19 cases was excluded because of unrelated data. Results: A total of 250 prescriptions were collected for the study according to the inclusion criteria 233 prescriptions were diagnosed with ischemic heart disease 17 prescriptions were excluded due to unrelated information. out of 233 prescriptions 128 are male (54.9%) and 105 patients are were female (45%). According to the gender distribution, the prevalence of ischemic heart disease in males are 90 (70.31%) and females are 39 (37.1%). In the same way the prevalence of ischemic heart disease along with cerebrovascular disease in males are 39 (29.6%) and females are 66 (62.6%). Conclusion: We found that 94.8% of drug utilization of antiplatelet drugs was achieved in the Rajiv Gandhi institute of medical sciences, Kadapa from 2011-2012.