Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 10

Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering

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  • 10
    Prediction of MicroRNA-Target Gene by Machine Learning Algorithms in Lung Cancer Study
    MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA found in many different species. They play crucial roles in cancer such as biological processes of apoptosis and proliferation. The identification of microRNA-target genes can be an essential first step towards to reveal the role of microRNA in various cancer types. In this paper, we predict miRNA-target genes for lung cancer by integrating prediction scores from miRanda and PITA algorithms used as a feature vector of miRNA-target interaction. Then, machine-learning algorithms were implemented for making a final prediction. The approach developed in this study should be of value for future studies into understanding the role of miRNAs in molecular mechanisms enabling lung cancer formation.
    Polydopamine Nanoparticle as a Stable and Capacious Nano-Reservoir of Rifampicin

    Application of nanoscience in biomedical field has come across as a new era. This study involves the synthesis of nano drug carrier with antibiotic loading. Based on the founding that polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles could be formed via self-polymerization of dopamine at alkaline pH, one-step synthesis of rifampicin coupled polydopamine (PDA-R) nanoparticles was achieved by adding rifampicin into the dopamine solution. The successful yield of PDA nanoparticles with or without the presence of rifampicin during the polymerization process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Drug loading was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy and the loading efficiency of rifampicin was calculated to be 76%. Such highly capacious nano-reservoir was found very stable with little drug leakage at pH 3.

    HRV Analysis Based Arrhythmic Beat Detection Using kNN Classifier
    Health diseases have a vital significance affecting human being's life and life quality. Sudden death events can be prevented owing to early diagnosis and treatment methods. Electrical signals, taken from the human being's body using non-invasive methods and showing the heart activity is called Electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG signal is used for following daily activity of the heart by clinicians. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a physiological parameter giving the variation between the heart beats. ECG data taken from MITBIH Arrhythmia Database is used in the model employed in this study. The detection of arrhythmic heart beats is aimed utilizing the features extracted from the HRV time domain parameters. The developed model provides a satisfactory performance with ~89% accuracy, 91.7 % sensitivity and 85% specificity rates for the detection of arrhythmic beats.
    An Antibacterial Dental Restorative Containing 3,4-Dichlorocrotonolactone: Synthesis, Formulation and Evaluation

    The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize 5-acryloyloxy-3,4-dichlorocrotonolactone (a furanone derivative), use this derivative to modify a dental restorative, and study the effect of the derivative on the antibacterial activity and compressive strength of the formed restorative. In this study, a furanone derivative was synthesized, characterized, and used to formulate a dental restorative. Compressive strength (CS) and S. mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the formed restorative. The fabricated restorative specimens were photocured and conditioned in distilled water at 37oC for 24 h, followed by direct testing for CS or/and incubating with S. mutans for 48 h for antibacterial testing. The results show that the modified dental restorative showed a significant antibacterial activity without substantially decreasing the mechanical strengths. With addition of the antibacterial derivative up to 30%, the restorative kept its original CS nearly unchanged but showed a significant antibacterial activity with 68% reduction in the S. mutans viability. Furthermore, the antibacterial function of the modified restorative was not affected by human saliva. The aging study also indicates that the modified restorative may have a long-lasting antibacterial function. It is concluded that this experimental antibacterial restorative may potentially be developed into a clinically attractive dental filling restorative due to its high mechanical strength and antibacterial function.

    The Characteristics of Static Plantar Loading in the First-Division College Sprint Athletes
    Background: Plantar pressure measurement is an effective method for assessing plantar loading and can be applied to evaluating movement performance of the foot. The purpose of this study is to explore the sprint athletes’ plantar loading characteristics and pain profiles in static standing. Methods: Experiments were undertaken on 80 first-division college sprint athletes and 85 healthy non-sprinters. ‘JC Mat’, the optical plantar pressure measurement was applied to examining the differences between both groups in the arch index (AI), three regional and six distinct sub-regional plantar pressure distributions (PPD), and footprint characteristics. Pain assessment and self-reported health status in sprint athletes were examined for evaluating their common pain areas. Results: Findings from the control group, the males’ AI fell into the normal range. Yet, the females’ AI was classified as the high-arch type. AI values of the sprint group were found to be significantly lower than the control group. PPD were higher at the medial metatarsal bone of both feet and the lateral heel of the right foot in the sprint group, the males in particular, whereas lower at the medial and lateral longitudinal arches of both feet. Footprint characteristics tended to support the results of the AI and PPD, and this reflected the corresponding pressure profiles. For the sprint athletes, the lateral knee joint and biceps femoris were the most common musculoskeletal pains. Conclusions: The sprint athletes’ AI were generally classified as high arches, and that their PPD were categorized between the features of runners and high-arched runners. These findings also correspond to the profiles of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS)-related plantar pressure. The pain profiles appeared to correspond to the symptoms of high-arched runners and PFPS. The findings reflected upon the possible link between high arches and PFPS. The correlation between high-arched runners and PFPS development is worth further studies.
    The Appropriateness of Antibiotic Prescribing within Dundee Dental Hospital
    Background: The societal impact of antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern. The increase in incidence of resistant bacteria can ultimately be fatal. Objective: To analyse the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in Dundee Dental Hospital, ultimately improving the safety and quality of patient care. Methods: Two examiners independently crosschecked approximately fifty consecutive prescriptions, and corresponding patient case notes, for three data collection cycles between August 2014 – September 2015. The Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Program (SDCEP) Drug Prescribing for Dentistry guidelines was the standard utilised. The criteria: clinical justification, regime justification and review arrangements was measured, and compared to the standard. Results: Cycle one revealed 42% of antibiotic prescriptions were appropriate. Interventions included: multiple staff meetings, introduction of a checklist attached to the prescription pack, and production of patient leaflets explaining indications for antibiotics. Cycle two and three revealed 44%, and 30% compliance, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the audit have yet to meet target standards set out in prescribing guidelines. However, steps are being taken and change has occurred on a cultural level.
    CAGE Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Hazardous Drinking in an Acute Admissions Ward: Frequency of Application and Comparison with AUDIT-C Questionnaire
    The aim of this audit was to examine the efficiency of alcohol history documentation and screening for hazardous drinkers at the Medical Admission Unit (MAU) of Northern General Hospital (NGH), Sheffield, to identify any potential for enhancing clinical practice. Data were collected from medical clerking sheets, ICE system and directly from 82 patients by three junior medical doctors using both CAGE questionnaire and AUDIT-C tool for newly admitted patients to MAU in NGH, in the period between January and March 2015. Alcohol consumption was documented in around two-third of the patient sample and this was documented fairly accurately by health care professionals. Some used subjective words such as 'social drinking' in the alcohol units’ section of the history. CAGE questionnaire was applied to only four patients and none of the patients had documented advice, education or referral to an alcohol liaison team. AUDIT-C tool had identified 30.4%, while CAGE 10.9%, of patients admitted to the NGH MAU as hazardous drinkers. The amount of alcohol the patient consumes positively correlated with the score of AUDIT-C (Pearson correlation 0.83). Re-audit is planned to be carried out after integrating AUDIT-C tool as labels in the notes and presenting a brief teaching session to junior doctors. Alcohol misuse screening is not adequately undertaken and no appropriate action is being offered to hazardous drinkers. CAGE questionnaire is poorly applied to patients and when satisfactory and adequately used has low sensitivity to detect hazardous drinkers in comparison with AUDIT-C tool. Re-audit of alcohol screening practice after introducing AUDIT-C tool in clerking sheets (as labels) is required to compare the findings and conclude the audit cycle.
    Prone Positioning and Clinical Outcomes of Mechanically Ventilated Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by permeability pulmonary edema and refractory hypoxemia. Lung-protective ventilation is still the key of better outcome in ARDS. Prone position reduces the trans-pulmonary pressure gradient, recruiting collapsed regions of the lung without increasing airway pressure or hyperinflation. Prone ventilation showed improved oxygenation and improved outcomes in severe hypoxemic patients with ARDS. This study evaluates the effect of prone positioning on mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS. A quasi-experimental design was carried out at Critical Care Units, on 60 patients. Two tools were utilized to collect data; Socio demographic, medical and clinical outcomes data sheet. Results of the present study indicated that prone position improves oxygenation in patients with severe respiratory distress syndrome. The study recommended that use prone position in patients with severe ARDS, as early as possible and for long sessions. Also, replication of this study on larger probability sample at the different geographical location is highly recommended.

    Neurological Manifestations in Patients with HIV Infection in the Era of Combined Antiretroviral Therapy

    Neurological disorders are the most debilitating of manifestations seen in patients infected with HIV. The clinical profile of neurological manifestations in HIV patients has undergone a shift in recent years with opportunistic infections being controlled with combination anti-retroviral therapy and the advent of drugs which have higher central nervous system penetrability. The aim of this paper is to study the clinical, investigation profile and various neurological disorders in HIV patients on anti‐retroviral therapy. Fifty HIV patients with neurological manifestations were studied. A complete neurological examination including neurocognitive functioning using Montreal Cognitive Assessment and HIV Dementia scale were assessed. Apart from relevant investigations, CD4 count, cerebrovascular fluid analysis, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain were done whenever required. Neurocognitive disorders formed the largest group with 42% suffering from HIV associated Neurocognitive Disorders. Among them, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment was seen in 28%; mild neurocognitive disorder in 12%, and 2% had HIV‐associated dementia. Opportunistic infections of the nervous system accounted for 32%, with meningitis being the most common. Four patients had space occupying lesions of central nervous system; four tuberculomas, and one toxoplasmosis. With the advent of highly active retroviral therapy, HIV patients have longer life spans with suppression of viral load leading to decrease in opportunistic infections of the nervous system. Neurocognitive disorders are now the most common neurological dysfunction seen and thus neurocognitive assessment must be done in all patients with HIV.

    Oral Examination: An Important Adjunct to the Diagnosis of Dermatological Disorders

    The oral cavity can be the site for early manifestations of mucocutaneous disorders (MD) or the only site for occurrence of these disorders. It can also exhibit oral lesions with simultaneous associated skin lesions. The MD involving the oral mucosa commonly presents with signs such as ulcers, vesicles and bullae. The unique environment of the oral cavity may modify these signs of the disease, thereby making the clinical diagnosis an arduous task. In addition to the unique environment of oral cavity, the overlapping of the signs of various mucocutaneous disorders, also makes the clinical diagnosis more intricate. The aim of this review is to present the oral signs of dermatological disorders having common oral involvement and emphasize their   importance in   early detection of the systemic disorders. The aim is also to highlight the necessity of oral examination by a dermatologist while examining the skin lesions. Prior to the oral examination, it must be imperative for the dermatologists and the dental clinicians to have the knowledge of oral anatomy. It is also important to know the impact of various diseases on oral mucosa, and the characteristic features of various oral mucocutaneous lesions. An initial clinical oral examination is may help in the early diagnosis of the MD. Failure to identify the oral manifestations may reduce the likelihood of early treatment and lead to more serious problems. This paper reviews the oral manifestations of immune mediated dermatological disorders with common oral manifestations.