Project Selection by Using Fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS Technique
In this article, by using fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS
technique we propose a new method for project selection problem.
After reviewing four common methods of comparing alternatives
investment (net present value, rate of return, benefit cost analysis
and payback period) we use them as criteria in AHP tree. In this
methodology by utilizing improved Analytical Hierarchy Process
by Fuzzy set theory, first we try to calculate weight of each
criterion. Then by implementing TOPSIS algorithm, assessment of
projects has been done. Obtained results have been tested in a
Impact of ISO 9000 on Time-based Performance: An Event Study
ISO 9000 is the most popular and widely adopted meta-standard for quality and operational improvements. However, only limited empirical research has been conducted to examine the impact of ISO 9000 on operational performance based on objective and longitudinal data. To reveal any causal relationship between the adoption of ISO 9000 and operational performance, we examined the timing and magnitude of change in time-based performance as a result of ISO 9000 adoption. We analyzed the changes in operating cycle, inventory days, and account receivable days prior and after the implementation of ISO 9000 in 695 publicly listed manufacturing firms. We found that ISO 9000 certified firms shortened their operating cycle time by 5.28 days one year after the implementation of ISO 9000. In the long-run (3 years after certification), certified firms showed continuous improvement in time-based efficiency, and experienced a shorter operating cycle time of 11 days than that of non-certified firms. There was an average of 6.5% improvement in operating cycle time for ISO 9000 certified firms. Both inventory days and account receivable days showed similar significant improvements after the implementation of ISO 9000, too.
Analysis of Statistical Data on Social Resources Dimension of Occupational Status Attainment: A Rational Choice Approach
The aim of the present study is to analyze empirical
researches on the social resources dimension of occupational status
attainment process and relate them to the rational choice approach.
The analysis suggests that the existing data on the strength of ties
aspect of social resources is insufficient and does not allow any
implication concerning rational actor-s behavior. However, the results
concerning work relation aspect are more encouraging.
Chaos Theory and Application in Foreign Exchange Rates vs. IRR (Iranian Rial)
Daily production of information and importance of the sequence of produced data in forecasting future performance of market causes analysis of data behavior to become a problem of analyzing time series. But time series that are very complicated, usually are random and as a result their changes considered being unpredictable. While these series might be products of a deterministic dynamical and nonlinear process (chaotic) and as a result be predictable. Point of Chaotic theory view, complicated systems have only chaotically face and as a result they seem to be unregulated and random, but it is possible that they abide by a specified math formula. In this article, with regard to test of strange attractor and biggest Lyapunov exponent probability of chaos on several foreign exchange rates vs. IRR (Iranian Rial) has been investigated. Results show that data in this market have complex chaotic behavior with big degree of freedom.
Similar Cultural Factors Compensate for Communication Problems in Japan's Software Globalization Business
A research effort to find the reality of the business of Japan-s software globalization of enterprise-level business software systems has found that while the number of Japan-made enterpriselevel software systems is comparable with those of the other G7 countries, the business is limited to the East and Southeast Asian markets. This indicates that this business has a problem in the European and USA markets. Based on the knowledge that the research has established, the research concludes that the communication problems arise from the lack of individualists' communication styles and foreign language skills in Japan's software globalization is compensated by similarities in certain Japanese cultural factors and Japan's cultural power in the East and Southeast Asian markets and that this business does not have this compensation factor in the European and American markets due to dissimilarities and no cultural power.
Biometrics Authorize Me!
Can biometrics do what everyone is expecting it will?
And more importantly, should it be doing it? Biometrics is the
buzzword “on the mouth" of everyone, who are trying to use this
technology in a variety of applications. But all this “hype" about
biometrics can be dangerous without a careful evaluation of the real
needs of each application. In this paper I-ll try to focus on the
dangers of using the right technology at the right time in the wrong
Evaluation of Degree and the Effect of Order in the Family on Violence against Children A Survey among Guidance School Students in Gilanegharb City in Iran
A review of the literature found that Domestic
violence and child maltreatment co-occur in many families, the
purpose of this study attempts to emphasize the factors relating to
intra-family relationships (order point of view) on violence against
the children, For this purpose a survey technique on the sample size
amounted 200 students of governmental guidance schools of city of
Gilanegharb in country of Iran were considered. For measurement of
violence against the children (VAC) the CTS scaled has been used
.The results showed that children have experienced the violence more
than once during the last year. degree of order in family is high.
Explanation result indicated that the order variables in family
including collective thinking, empathy, communal co-circumstance
have significant effects on VAC.
Augmented Reality in Schools: Preliminary Evaluation Results from a Summer School
Formative usability evaluation aims at finding
usability problems during the development process. The earlier these
problems are identified, the less expensive to fix they are. This paper
presents some preliminary results from a formative usability testing
of the 1st prototype developed for the ARiSE (Augmented Reality in
School Environments) project.
An Organizational Strategic Analysis for Dynamics of Generating Firms- Alliance Networks
This paper proposes an analytical method for the
dynamics of generating firms- alliance networks along with business
phases. Dynamics in network developments have previously been
discussed in the research areas of organizational strategy rather than in
the areas of regional cluster, where the static properties of the
networks are often discussed. The analytical method introduces the
concept of business phases into innovation processes and uses
relationships called prior experiences; this idea was developed in
organizational strategy to investigate the state of networks from the
viewpoints of tradeoffs between link stabilization and node
exploration. This paper also discusses the results of the analytical
method using five cases of the network developments of firms. The
idea of Embeddedness helps interpret the backgrounds of the
analytical results. The analytical method is useful for policymakers of
regional clusters to establish concrete evaluation targets and a
viewpoint for comparisons of policy programs.
EU, US and Tax Incentives: An Application
The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the
controversial subject of tax incentives to promote regional
development. Although extensive research has been conducted, a
review of the literature gives an inconclusive answer to whether
economic incentives are effective. One reason is the fact that for
some researchers “effective" means the significant location of new
firms in targeted areas, while for others the creation of jobs
regardless if new firms are arriving in a significant fashion. We
present this dichotomy by analyzing a tax incentive program via both
alternatives: location and job creation. The contribution of the paper
is to inform policymakers about the potential opportunities and
pitfalls when designing incentive strategies. This is particularly
relevant, given that both the US and Europe have been promoting
incentives as a tool for regional economic development.
Toward Delegated Democracy: Vote by Yourself, or Trust Your Network
The recent development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) enables new ways of "democratic" decision-making such as a page-ranking system, which estimates the importance of a web page based on indirect trust on that page shared by diverse group of unorganized individuals. These kinds of "democracy" have not been acclaimed yet in the world of real politics. On the other hand, a large amount of data about personal relations including trust, norms of reciprocity, and networks of civic engagement has been accumulated in a computer-readable form by computer systems (e.g., social networking systems). We can use these relations as a new type of social capital to construct a new democratic decision-making system based on a delegation network. In this paper, we propose an effective decision-making support system, which is based on empowering someone's vote whom you trust. For this purpose, we propose two new techniques: the first is for estimating entire vote distribution from a small number of votes, and the second is for estimating active voter choice to promote voting using a delegation network. We show that these techniques could increase the voting ratio and credibility of the whole decision by agent-based simulations.
Manufacturers-Retailers: The New Actor in the U.S. Furniture Industry. Characteristics and Implications for the Chinese Industry
Since the 1990s the American furniture industry faces
a transition period. Manufacturers, one of its most important actors
made its entrance into the retail industry. This shift has had deep
consequences not only for the American furniture industry as a
whole, but also for other international furniture industries, especially
the Chinese. The present work aims to analyze this actor based on the
distinction provided by the Global Commodity Chain Theory. It
stresses its characteristics, structure, operational way and importance
for both the U.S. and the Chinese furniture industries.
Deployment of Service Quality Characteristics
This work discusses an innovative methodology for
deployment of service quality characteristics. Four groups of organizational features that may influence the quality of services are identified: human resource, technology, planning, and organizational
relationships. A House of Service Quality (HOSQ) matrix is built to
extract the desired improvement in the service quality characteristics
and to translate them into a hierarchy of important organizational
features. The Mean Square Error (MSE) criterion enables the
pinpointing of the few essential service quality characteristics to be
improved as well as selection of the vital organizational features. The
method was implemented in an engineering supply enterprise and
provides useful information on its vital service dimensions.
The Issues of Effectiveness of Advertisement Communication Process: A Case Study of Lithuania Consumers
The goal of this study was to disclose the core of the advertising research based on the psychological aspects by acquainting with the nature of advertising research and revealing the importance of psychological aspects of advertising during the advertising research. The growing interest in consumer response to advertisement served as an encouragement to make the analysis of psychological aspects of the advertising research, because the information obtained during the advertising research helps to answer the question how advertising really works. In the research analysis focuses on the nature of advertising research. The place of advertising research in advertisement planning process and the advertising research process are unfolded. Moreover, the importance of psychological aspects in the advertising research is being examined. The certain psychological aspects like the particularities of advertising communication process, psychological process that are active at advertising acceptance and awareness process as well as the advertising effects are analysed in more detail.
Learning Objects: A New Paradigm for ELearning Resource Development for Secondary Schools in Tanzania
The Information and Communication Technologies
(ICTs), and the Wide World Web (WWW) have fundamentally
altered the practice of teaching and learning world wide. Many
universities, organizations, colleges and schools are trying to apply
the benefits of the emerging ICT. In the early nineties the term
learning object was introduced into the instructional technology
vernacular; the idea being that educational resources could be broken
into modular components for later combination by instructors,
learners, and eventually computes into larger structures that would
support learning . However in many developing countries, the use
of ICT is still in its infancy stage and the concept of learning object
is quite new. This paper outlines the learning object design
considerations for developing countries depending on learning
European and International Bond Markets Integration
The concurrent era is characterised by strengthened interactions among financial markets and increased capital mobility globally. In this frames we examine the effects the international financial integration process has on the European bond markets. We perform a comparative study of the interactions of the European and international bond markets and exploit Cointegration analysis results on the elimination of stochastic trends and the decomposition of the underlying long run equilibria and short run causal relations. Our investigation provides evidence on the relation between the European integration process and that of globalisation, viewed through the bond markets- sector. Additionally the structural formulation applied, offers significant implications of the findings. All in all our analysis offers a number of answers on crucial queries towards the European bond markets integration process.
Describing Learning Features of Reusable Resources: A Proposal
One of the main advantages of the LO paradigm is to
allow the availability of good quality, shareable learning material
through the Web. The effectiveness of the retrieval process requires a
formal description of the resources (metadata) that closely fits the
user-s search criteria; in spite of the huge international efforts in this
field, educational metadata schemata often fail to fulfil this
requirement. This work aims to improve the situation, by the
definition of a metadata model capturing specific didactic features of
shareable learning resources. It classifies LOs into “teacher-oriented"
and “student-oriented" categories, in order to describe the role a LO
is to play when it is integrated into the educational process. This
article describes the model and a first experimental validation process
that has been carried out in a controlled environment.
Estimating Correlation Dimension on Japanese Candlestick, Application to FOREX Time Series
Recognizing behavioral patterns of financial markets
is essential for traders. Japanese candlestick chart is a common tool to
visualize and analyze such patterns in an economic time series. Since
the world was introduced to Japanese candlestick charting, traders
saw how combining this tool with intelligent technical approaches
creates a powerful formula for the savvy investors.
This paper propose a generalization to box counting method of
Grassberger-Procaccia, which is based on computing the correlation
dimension of Japanese candlesticks instead commonly used 'close'
points. The results of this method applied on several foreign
exchange rates vs. IRR (Iranian Rial). Satisfactorily show lower
chaotic dimension of Japanese candlesticks series than regular
Grassberger-Procaccia method applied merely on close points of
these same candles. This means there is some valuable information
The Perception of Customer Satisfaction in Textile Industry According to Genders in Turkey
The customer satisfaction for textile sector carries
great importance like the customer satisfaction for other sectors
carry. Especially, if it is considered that gaining new customers
create four times more costs than protecting existing customers from
leaving, it can be seen that the customer satisfaction plays a great
role for the firms. In this study the affecting independent variables of
customer satisfaction are chosen as brand image, perceived service
quality and perceived product quality. By these independent
variables, it is investigated that if any differences exist in perception
of customer satisfaction according to the Turkish textile consumers in
the view of gender. In data analysis of this research the SPSS
program is used.
Total Quality Management: The Socio- Demographic and Operational-Financial Determinants for Users- Perception of the Services Quality
The aim of this paper is to know the sociodemographic
and operational-financial determinants of the services
quality perceived by users of the national health services. Through
the use of an inquiry conducted by the Ministry of Health,
comprehending 16.936 interviews in 2006, we intend to find out if
there is any characteristic that determines the 2006 inquiry results.
With the revision of the literature we also want to know if the
operational-financial results have implications in hospitals users-
perception on the quality of the received services. In order to achieve
our main goals we will make use of the regression analysis to find out
the possible dimensions that determine those results.
Strategies for Developing e-LMS for Tanzania Secondary Schools
Tanzania secondary schools in rural areas are geographically and socially isolated, hence face a number of problems in getting learning materials resulting in poor performance in National examinations. E-learning as defined to be the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for supporting the educational processes has motivated Tanzania to apply ICT in its education system. There has been effort to improve secondary school education using ICT through several projects. ICT for e-learning to Tanzania rural secondary school is one of the research projects conceived by the University of Dar-es-Salaam through its College of Engineering and Technology. The main objective of the project is to develop a tool to enable ICT support rural secondary school. The project is comprehensive with a number of components, one being development of e-learning management system (e-LMS) for Tanzania secondary schools. This paper presents strategies of developing e-LMS. It shows the importance of integrating action research methodology with the modeling methods as presented by model driven architecture (MDA) and the usefulness of Unified Modeling Language (UML) on the issue of modeling. The benefit of MDA will go along with the development based on software development life cycle (SDLC) process, from analysis and requirement phase through design and implementation stages as employed by object oriented system analysis and design approach. The paper also explains the employment of open source code reuse from open source learning platforms for the context sensitive development of the e-LMS for Tanzania secondary schools.
Knowledge Impact on Measurement: A Conceptual Metric for Evaluating Performance Improvement (PI) at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR)
Research and development R&D work involves
enormous amount of work that has to do with data measurement and
collection. This process evolves as new information is fed, new
technologies are utilized, and eventually new knowledge is created
by the stakeholders i.e., researchers, clients, and end-users. When
new knowledge is created, procedures of R&D work should evolve
and produce better results within improved research skills and
improved methods of data measurements and collection. This
measurement improvement should then be benchmarked against a
metric that should be developed at the organization. In this paper, we
are suggesting a conceptual metric for R&D work performance
improvement (PI) at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research
(KISR). This PI is to be measured against a set of variables in the
suggested metric, which are more closely correlated to organizational
output, as opposed to organizational norms. The paper also mentions
and discusses knowledge creation and management as an addedvalue
to R&D work and measurement improvement. The research
methodology followed in this work is qualitative in nature, based on
a survey that was distributed to researchers and interviews held with
senior researchers at KISR. Research and analyses in this paper also
include looking at and analyzing KISR-s literature.
Social Interventation from Social Maternage to Peer Advocacy
The aim of this paper is to study in depth some
methodological aspects of social interventation, focusing on desirable
passage from social maternage method to peer advocacy method. For
this purpose, we intend analyze social and organizative components,
that affect operator-s professional action and that are part of his
psychological environment, besides the physical and social one. In
fact, operator-s interventation should not be limited to a pure supply
of techniques, nor to take shape as improvised action, but “full of
Ethics, Identity and Organizational Learning –Challenges for South African Managers
As a result of the ever-changing environment and the demands of rganisations- customers, it is important to recognise the importance of some important managerial challenges. It is the sincere belief that failure to meet these challenges, will ultimately contribute to inevitable problems for organisations. This recognition
requires from managers and by implication organisations to be engaged in ethical behaviour, identity awareness and learning organisational behaviour. All these aspects actually reflect on the
importance of intellectual capital as the competitive weapons for
organisations in the future.
Assesing Extension of Meeting System Performance in Information Technology in Defense and Aerospace Project
The Ministry of Defense (MoD) spends hundreds of
millions of dollars on software to support its infrastructure, operate
its weapons and provide command, control, communications,
computing, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR)
functions. These and other all new advanced systems have a common
critical component is information technology. Defense and
Aerospace environment is continuously striving to keep up with
increasingly sophisticated Information Technology (IT) in order to
remain effective in today-s dynamic and unpredictable threat
environment. This makes it one of the largest and fastest growing
expenses of Defense. Hundreds of millions of dollars spent a year on
IT projects. But, too many of those millions are wasted on costly
mistakes. Systems that do not work properly, new components that
are not compatible with old once, trendily new applications that do
not really satisfy defense needs or lost though poorly managed
This paper investigates and compiles the effective strategies that
aim to end exasperation with low returns and high cost of
Information Technology Acquisition for defense; it tries to show how
to maximize value while reducing time and expenditure.
Status and Requirements of Counter-Cyberterrorism
The number of intrusions and attacks against critical
infrastructures and other information networks is increasing rapidly.
While there is no identified evidence that terrorist organizations are
currently planning a coordinated attack against the vulnerabilities of
computer systems and network connected to critical infrastructure,
and origins of the indiscriminate cyber attacks that infect computers
on network remain largely unknown. The growing trend toward the
use of more automated and menacing attack tools has also
overwhelmed some of the current methodologies used for tracking
cyber attacks. There is an ample possibility that this kind of cyber
attacks can be transform to cyberterrorism caused by illegal purposes.
Cyberterrorism is a matter of vital importance to national welfare.
Therefore, each countries and organizations have to take a proper
measure to meet the situation and consider effective legislation about
Modelling Peer Group Dieting Behaviour
The aim of this paper is to understand how peers can
influence adolescent girls- dieting behaviour and their body image.
Departing from imitation and social learning theories, we study
whether adolescent girls tend to model their peer group dieting
behaviours, thus influencing their body image construction. Our
study was conducted through an enquiry applied to a cluster sample
of 466 adolescent high school girls in Lisbon city public schools. Our
main findings point to an association between girls- and peers-
dieting behaviours, thus reinforcing the modelling hypothesis.
A Multilevel Comparative Assessment Approach to International Services Trade Competitiveness: The Case of Romania and Bulgaria
International competitiveness receives much attention
nowadays, but up to now its assessment has been heavily based on
manufacturing industry statistics. This paper addresses the need for
competitiveness indicators that cover the service sector and sets out a
multilevel framework for measuring international services trade
competitiveness. The approach undertaken here aims at
comparatively examining the international competitiveness of the
EU-25 (the twenty-five European Union member states before the 1st
of January 2007), Romanian and Bulgarian services trade, as well as
the last two countries- structure of specialization on the EU-25
services market. The primary changes in the international
competitiveness of three major services sectors – transportation,
travel and other services - are analyzed. This research attempts to
determine the ability of the two recent European Union (EU) member
states to contend with the challenges that might arise from the hard
competition within the enlarged EU, in the field of services trade.
Determinants of R&D Outsourcing at Japanese Firms: Transaction Cost and Strategic Management Perspectives
This paper examines the factors, which determine
R&D outsourcing behaviour at Japanese firms, from the viewpoints of
transaction cost and strategic management, since the latter half of the
1990s. This study uses empirical analysis, which involves the
application of large-sample data. The principal findings of this paper
are listed below. Firms that belong to a wider corporate group are more
active in executing R&D outsourcing activities. Diversification
strategies such as the expansion of product and sales markets have a
positive effect on the R&D outsourcing behaviour of firms. Moreover,
while quantitative R&D resources have positive influences on R&D
outsourcing, qualitative indices have no effect. These facts suggest
that R&D outsourcing behaviour of Japanese firms are consistent with
the two perspectives of transaction cost and strategic management.
Specifically, a conventional corporate group network plays an
important role in R&D outsourcing behaviour. Firms that execute
R&D outsourcing leverage 'old' networks to construct 'new' networks
and use both networks properly.
Information and Communication Technologies in Collaboration Projects via the Internet
The aim of this study is to determine the basic information and communication technology (ICT) skills that may be needed by students studying in the 8th grade of the primary education in their cooperative project works implemented via the Internet. Within the scope of the study, the curriculum used for European Computer Driving License (ECDL) and the curriculum used in Turkey are also compared in terms of the ability to use ICT, which is aimed to be provided to the students. The research population of the study, during which the pre test – post test control group experimental model was used, consisted of 40 students from three different schools. In the first stage of the study, the skills that might be needed by students for their cooperative project works implemented via the Internet were determined through examination of the completed Comenious, e – twinning and WorldLinks projects. In the second stage of the study, the curriculums of the Turkish Ministry of National Education (MEB) and ECDL were evaluated by seven different teachers in line with these skills. Also in this study the ECDL and MEB curriculums were compared in terms of capability to provide the skills to implement cooperative projects via the Internet. In line with the findings of the study, the skills that might be needed by students to implement cooperative projects via the Internet were outlined, and existence of a significant difference was established in favor of the ECDL curriculum upon comparison of both curriculums in accordance with this outline (U = 50,500; p <0,05). The findings of the study also suggested that the students had considerable deficiencies in implementation of cooperative projects via the Internet without the ICT infrastructure.
Credit Spread Changes and Volatility Spillover Effects
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the
influence of a number of variables on the conditional mean and
conditional variance of credit spread changes. The empirical analysis
in this paper is conducted within the context of bivariate GARCH-in-
Mean models, using the so-called BEKK parameterization. We show
that credit spread changes are determined by interest-rate and equityreturn
variables, which is in line with theory as provided by the
structural models of default. We also identify the credit spread
change volatility as an important determinant of credit spread
changes, and provide evidence on the transmission of volatility
between the variables under study.
A Web Designer Agent, Based On Usage Mining Online Behavior of Visitors
Website plays a significant role in success of an e-business. It is the main start point of any organization and corporation for its customers, so it's important to customize and design it according to the visitors' preferences. Also, websites are a place to introduce services of an organization and highlight new service to the visitors and audiences. In this paper, we will use web usage mining techniques, as a new field of research in data mining and knowledge discovery, in an Iranian government website. Using the results, a framework for web content layour is proposed. An agent is designed to dynamically update and improve web links locations and layout. Then, we will explain how it is used to directly enable top managers of the organization to influence on the arrangement of web contents and also to enhance customization of web site navigation due to online users' behaviors.
Extensiveness and Effectiveness of Corporate Governance Regulations in South-Eastern Europe
The purpose of the article is to illustrate the main
characteristics of the corporate governance challenge facing the
countries of South-Eastern Europe (SEE) and to subsequently
determine and assess the extensiveness and effectiveness of corporate
governance regulations in these countries. Therefore, we start with an
overview on the subject of the key problems of corporate governance
in transition. We then address the issue of corporate governance
measurement for SEE countries. To this end, we include a review of
the methodological framework for determining both the
extensiveness and the effectiveness of corporate governance
legislation. We then focus on the actual analysis of the quality of
corporate governance codes, as well as of legal institutions
effectiveness and provide a measure of corporate governance in
Romania and other SEE emerging markets. The paper concludes by
emphasizing the corporate governance enforcement gap and by
identifying research issues that require further study.