The Roles of Community Based Telecenters in Bridging the Digital Divide in Rural Malaysia
Malaysia is aggressive in promoting the usage of ICT
to its mass population through the support by the government
policies and programs targeting the general population. However,
with the uneven distribution of the basic telecommunication
infrastructure between the urban and rural area, cost for being
“interconnected" that is considered high among the poorer rural
population and the lack of local contents that suit the rural population
needs or lifestyles, it is still a challenge for Malaysia to achieve its
Vision 2020 Agenda moving the nation towards an information
society by the year 2020. Among the existing programs that have
been carried out by the government to encourage the usage of ICT by
the rural population is “Kedaikom", a community telecenter with the
general aim is to engage the community to get exposed and to use the
ICT, encouraging the diffusion of the ICT technology to the rural
population. The research investigated by using a questionnaire
survey of how Kedaikom, as a community telecenter could play a
role in encouraging the rural or underserved community to use the
ICT. The result from the survey has proven that the community
telecenter could bridge the digital divide between the underserved
rural population and the well-accessed urban population in Malaysia.
More of the rural population, especially from the younger generation
and those with higher educational background are using the
community telecenter to be connected to the ICT.
Productivity and Performance of Barangays: The Case of the Heritage City of Vigan, Philippines
This study assessed the productivity and performance of the barangays in the Heritage City of Vigan in terms of the barangays- resource requirements, management of resources, produced goods and services, and outcomes of service delivery. The descriptive research design was used in the study employing the input-process-output-outcomes model. Findings of this study showed that the barangays were strong in terms of resource requirements which enabled them to produce goods and services. The barangays were also strong in terms of management of resources in development planning. They also showed great potential along fiscal administration, and had a moderately high capability in organization and management. However, the barangays appeared to be most wanting in the area of barangay legislation, but they were strong in community mobilization and they had strong linkages with POs, NGOs and educational institutions. In the delivery of social services, the barangays favored the maintenance of day care centers. However, the barangays seem to be weak in the delivery of economic services. They fared well along providing protective services such as in establishing a Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council and organizing a group of Barangay Tanod. In terms of environmental services, the barangays performed garbage collection and disposal; however, garbage still found their way in the streets in some barangays. The services delivered had effected an improved status of the barangays. However, the barangays are still facing some problems.
A Study of Gaps in CBMIR Using Different Methods and Prospective
In recent years, rapid advances in software and hardware in the field of information technology along with a digital imaging revolution in the medical domain facilitate the generation and storage of large collections of images by hospitals and clinics. To search these large image collections effectively and efficiently poses significant technical challenges, and it raises the necessity of constructing intelligent retrieval systems. Content-based Image Retrieval (CBIR) consists of retrieving the most visually similar images to a given query image from a database of images. Medical CBIR (content-based image retrieval) applications pose unique challenges but at the same time offer many new opportunities. On one hand, while one can easily understand news or sports videos, a medical image is often completely incomprehensible to untrained eyes.
Positive Analysis on Vulnerability, Information Security Incidents, and the Countermeasures of Japanese Internet Service Providers
This paper includes a positive analysis to quantitatively grasp the relationship among vulnerability, information security incidents, and the countermeasures by using data based on a 2007 questionnaire survey for Japanese ISPs (Internet Service Providers). To grasp the relationships, logistic regression analysis is used. The results clarify that there are relationships between information security incidents and the countermeasures. Concretely, there is a positive relationship between information security incidents and the number of information security systems introduced as well as a negative relationship between information security incidents and information security education. It is also pointed out that (especially, local) ISPs do not execute efficient information security countermeasures/ investment concerned with systems, and it is suggested that they should positively execute information security education. In addition, to further heighten the information security level of Japanese telecommunication infrastructure, the necessity and importance of the government to implement policy to support the countermeasures of ISPs is insisted.
Creation of Economic and Social Value by Social Entrepreneurship for Sustainable Development
The ever growing sentiment of environmentalism across the globe has made many people think on the green lines. But most of such ideas halt short of implementation because of the short term economic viability issues with the concept of going green. In this paper we have tried to amalgamate the green concept with social entrepreneurship for solving a variety of issues faced by the society today. In addition the paper also tries to ensure that the short term economic viability does not act as a deterrent. The paper comes up three sustainable models of social entrepreneurship which tackle a wide assortment of issues such as nutrition problem, land problems, pollution problems and employment problems. The models described fall under the following heads: - Spirulina cultivation: The model addresses nutrition, land and employment issues. It deals with cultivation of a blue green alga called Spirulina which can be used as a very nutritious food. Also, the implementation of this model would bring forth employment to the poor people of the area. - Biocomposites: The model comes up with various avenues in which biocomposites can be used in an economically sustainable manner. This model deals with the environmental concerns and addresses the depletion of natural resources. - Packaging material from empty fruit bunches (EFB) of oil palm: This one deals with air and land pollution. It is intended to be a substitute for packaging materials made from Styrofoam and plastics which are non-biodegradable. It takes care of the biodegradability and land pollution issues. It also reduces air pollution as the empty fruit bunches are not incinerated. All the three models are sustainable and do not deplete the natural resources any further. This paper explains each of the models in detail and deals with the operational/manufacturing procedures and cost analysis while also throwing light on the benefits derived and sustainability aspects.
Exploring Self-Directed Learning Among Children
Self-directed learning (SDL) was developed initially
for adult learning. Guglielmino constructed a scale to measure SDL.
Recent researchers have applied this concept to children. Although
there are sufficient theoretical evidences to present the possibility of
applying this concept to children, empirical evidences were not
provided. This study aimed to examine the quality of SDL and
construct a scale to measure SDL among young children. A modified
scale of Guglielmino-s scale was constructed and piloted with 183
subjects of age 9. Findings suggest that the qualities of SDL in young
ages are apparently congruent with that of adults.
Individual Learning and Collaborative Knowledge Building with Shared Digital Artifacts
The development of Internet technology in recent years has led to a more active role of users in creating Web content. This has significant effects both on individual learning and collaborative knowledge building. This paper will present an integrative framework model to describe and explain learning and knowledge building with shared digital artifacts on the basis of Luhmann-s systems theory and Piaget-s model of equilibration. In this model, knowledge progress is based on cognitive conflicts resulting from incongruities between an individual-s prior knowledge and the information which is contained in a digital artifact. Empirical support for the model will be provided by 1) applying it descriptively to texts from Wikipedia, 2) examining knowledge-building processes using a social network analysis, and 3) presenting a survey of a series of experimental laboratory studies.
Emission Constrained Economic Dispatch for Hydrothermal Coordination
This paper presents an efficient emission constrained
economic dispatch algorithm that deals with nonlinear cost function
and constraints. It is then incorporated into the dynamic
programming based hydrothermal coordination program. The
program has been tested on a practical utility system having 32
thermal and 12 hydro generating units. Test results show that a slight
increase in production cost causes a substantial reduction in
Stock Price Forecast by Using Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System
In this research, the researchers have managed to
design a model to investigate the current trend of stock price of the
"IRAN KHODRO corporation" at Tehran Stock Exchange by
utilizing an Adaptive Neuro - Fuzzy Inference system. For the Longterm
Period, a Neuro-Fuzzy with two Triangular membership
functions and four independent Variables including trade volume,
Dividend Per Share (DPS), Price to Earning Ratio (P/E), and also
closing Price and Stock Price fluctuation as an dependent variable are
selected as an optimal model. For the short-term Period, a neureo –
fuzzy model with two triangular membership functions for the first
quarter of a year, two trapezoidal membership functions for the
Second quarter of a year, two Gaussian combination membership
functions for the third quarter of a year and two trapezoidal
membership functions for the fourth quarter of a year were selected
as an optimal model for the stock price forecasting. In addition, three
independent variables including trade volume, price to earning ratio,
closing Stock Price and a dependent variable of stock price
fluctuation were selected as an optimal model. The findings of the
research demonstrate that the trend of stock price could be forecasted
with the lower level of error.
The Effects of Media Campaigns on Different Cultures
The paper examines the Most public relations spots
and advertisements dealing with drugs. For this reason, public service
advertisements show Americans in activities with drugs and alcohol.
The way that the advertisements are produced, viewers from the
Middle East say these ads are not for them. They recognize the ads as
strictly for Americans trying to overcome their problems with drugs
and alcohol. Also, this paper explores the development of the
advertisements which are ineffective in other cultures like the Islamic
because the limited scope of the message does not have a major
effect on the Islamic beliefs and practices.
A Qualitative Evaluation of an Instrument for Measuring the Influence of Factors Affecting Use of Business-to-Employee (B2E) Portals
B2E portals represent a new class of web-based
information technologies which many organisations are introducing
in recent years to stay in touch with their distributed workforces and
enable them to perform value added activities for organisations.
However, actual usage of these emerging systems (measured using
suitable instruments) has not been reported in the contemporary
scholarly literature. We argue that many of the instruments to
measure usage of various types of IT-enabled information systems
are not directly applicable for B2E portals because they were
developed for the context of traditional mainframe and PC-based
information systems. It is therefore important to develop a new
instrument for web-based portal technologies aimed at employees. In
this article, we report on the development and initial qualitative
evaluation of an instrument that seeks to operationaise a set of
independent factors affecting the usage of portals by employees. The
proposed instrument is useful to IT/e-commerce researchers and
practitioners alike as it enhances their confidence in predicting
employee usage of portals in organisations.
Forecasting the Istanbul Stock Exchange National 100 Index Using an Artificial Neural Network
Many studies have shown that Artificial Neural
Networks (ANN) have been widely used for forecasting financial
markets, because of many financial and economic variables are nonlinear,
and an ANN can model flexible linear or non-linear
relationship among variables.
The purpose of the study was to employ an ANN models to
predict the direction of the Istanbul Stock Exchange National 100
Indices (ISE National-100).
As a result of this study, the model forecast the direction of the
ISE National-100 to an accuracy of 74, 51%.
On the Quality of Internet Users- Behavioral Patterns in Using Different Sites and Its Impact on Taboos of Marriage: A Survey among Undergraduate Students in Mashhad City in Iran
Regarding the multi-media property of internet and the facilities that can be provided for the users, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the users- behavioral patterns and the impact of internet on taboos of marriage. For this purpose a survey technique on the sample size amounted 403 students of governmental guidance schools of city of Mashhad in country of Iran were considered. The results showed, the process of using various internet environments depends on the degree of the users- familiarity with these sites. In order to clarify the effects of the Internet on the taboos of marriage, the non – internet parameters also considered to be controlled. The ttest held among the internet users and non-users, indicated that internet users possess lower taboos of marriage. Extraction of the effects of internet via considering the effects of non-internet parameters, indicate that addiction to the internet, creating a cordial atmosphere, emotional communication, and message attractive factors have significant effects on the family's traditional values.
Environmental Responsibility and Firm Performance: Evidence from Nigeria
The objective of this paper is to establish a possible relationship between sustainable business practice and firm performance. Using a field survey methodology, a sample of sixty manufacturing companies in Nigeria was studied. The firms were categorised into two groups, environmentally 'responsible' and 'irresponsible' firms. An investigation was undertaken into the possible relationship between firm performance and three selected indicators of sustainable business practice: employee health and safety (EHS), waste management (WM), and community development (CD), common within the 30 'responsible' firms. Findings from empirical results reveal that the sustainable practices of the 'responsible' firms are significantly related with firm performance. In addition, sustainable practices are inversely related with fines and penalties. The paper concludes that, within the Nigerian setting at least, sustainability affects corporate performance and sustainability may be a possible tool for corporate conflict resolution as evidenced in the reduction of fines, penalties and compensations. The paper therefore recommends research into the relationship between sustainability and conflict management.
A Data Mining Model for Detecting Financial and Operational Risk Indicators of SMEs
In this paper, a data mining model to SMEs for detecting financial and operational risk indicators by data mining is presenting. The identification of the risk factors by clarifying the relationship between the variables defines the discovery of knowledge from the financial and operational variables. Automatic and estimation oriented information discovery process coincides the definition of data mining. During the formation of model; an easy to understand, easy to interpret and easy to apply utilitarian model that is far from the requirement of theoretical background is targeted by the discovery of the implicit relationships between the data and the identification of effect level of every factor. In addition, this paper is based on a project which was funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK).
Understanding E-Learning Satisfaction in the Context of University Teachers
The present study was designed to test the influence
of confirmed expectations, perceived usefulness and perceived
competence on e-learning satisfaction among university teachers. A
questionnaire was completed by 125 university teachers from 12
different universities in Norway. We found that 51% of the variance
in university teachers- satisfaction with e-learning could be explained
by the three proposed antecedents. Perceived usefulness seems to be
the most important predictor of teachers- satisfaction with e-learning.
Satisfying and Frustrating Aspects of ICT Teaching: A Comparison Based On Self-Efficacy
The purpose of this study was to determine the most satisfying and frustrating aspects of ICT (Information and Communications Technologies) teaching in Turkish schools. Another aim was to compare these aspects based-on ICT teachers- selfefficacy. Participants were 119 ICT teachers from different geographical areas of Turkey. Participants were asked to list salient satisfying and frustrating aspects of ICT teaching, and to fill out the Self-Efficacy Scale for ICT Teachers. Results showed that the high self-efficacy teachers listed more positive and negative aspects of ICT teaching then did the low self-efficacy teachers. The satisfying aspects of ICT teaching were the dynamic nature of ICT subject, higher student interest, having opportunity to help other subject teachers, and lecturing in well-equipped labs, whereas the most frequently cited frustrating aspects of ICT teaching were ICT-related extra works of schools and colleagues, shortages of hardware and technical problems, indifferent students, insufficient teaching time, and the status of ICT subject in school curriculum. This information could be useful in redesigning ICT teachers- roles and responsibilities as well as job environment in schools.
Network Based Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems in IP-Level Security Protocols
IPsec has now become a standard information security
technology throughout the Internet society. It provides a well-defined
architecture that takes into account confidentiality, authentication,
integrity, secure key exchange and protection mechanism against
replay attack also. For the connectionless security services on packet
basis, IETF IPsec Working Group has standardized two extension
headers (AH&ESP), key exchange and authentication protocols. It is
also working on lightweight key exchange protocol and MIB's for
security management. IPsec technology has been implemented on
various platforms in IPv4 and IPv6, gradually replacing old
application-specific security mechanisms. IPv4 and IPv6 are not
directly compatible, so programs and systems designed to one
standard can not communicate with those designed to the other. We
propose the design and implementation of controlled Internet security
system, which is IPsec-based Internet information security system in
IPv4/IPv6 network and also we show the data of performance
measurement. With the features like improved scalability and
routing, security, ease-of-configuration, and higher performance of
IPv6, the controlled Internet security system provides consistent
security policy and integrated security management on IPsec-based
Internet security system.
News Media in Arab Societies
The paper examines the theories of media, dominant
effects and critical and cultural theories that are used to examine
media and society issues, and then apply the theories to explore the
current situation of news media in Arab societies. The research is
meant to explore the nature of media in the Arab world and the way
that modern technologies have changed the nature of the Arab public
sphere. It considers the role of an open press in promoting a more
democratic society, while recognizing the unique qualities of an Arab
Use of Persuasive Technology to Change End-Users- IT Security Aware Behaviour: A Pilot Study
Persuasive technology has been applied in marketing,
health, environmental conservation, safety and other domains and is
found to be quite effective in changing people-s attitude and
behaviours. This research extends the application domains of
persuasive technology to information security awareness and uses a
theory-driven approach to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based
program developed based on the principles of persuasive technology
to improve the information security awareness of end users. The
findings confirm the existence of a very strong effect of the webbased
program in raising users- attitude towards information security
aware behavior. This finding is useful to the IT researchers and
practitioners in developing appropriate and effective education
strategies for improving the information security attitudes for endusers.
The Effects of Work Values, Work-Value Congruence and Work Centrality on Organizational Citizenship Behavior
The aim of this study is to test the “work values"
inventory developed by Tevruz and Turgut and to utilize the concept
in a model, which aims to create a greater understanding of the work
experience. In the study multiple effects of work values, work-value
congruence and work centrality on organizational citizenship
behavior are examined. In this respect, it is hypothesized that work
values and work-value congruence predict organizational citizenship
behavior through work centrality. Work-goal congruence test, Tevruz
and Turgut-s work values inventory are administered along with
Kanungo-s work centrality and Podsakoff et al.-s  organizational
citizenship behavior test to employees working in Turkish SME-s.
The study validated that Tevruz and Turgut-s work values inventory
and the work-value congruence test were reliable and could be used
for future research. The study revealed the mediating role of work
centrality only for the relationship of work values and the
responsibility dimension of citizenship behavior. Most important, this
study brought in an important concept, work-value congruence,
which enables a better understanding of work values and their
relation to various attitudinal variables.
Effectiveness of Cellular Phone with Active RFID Tag for Evacuation - The Case of Evacuation from the Underground Shopping Mall of Tenjin
The underground shopping mall has the constructional
problem of the fire evacuation. Also, the people sometimes lose their
direction and information of current time in the mall. If the
emergencies such as terrorist explosions or gas explosions are
happened, they have to go out soon. Under such circumstances, inside
of the mall has high risk for life. In this research, the authors propose a
way that he/she can go out from the underground shopping mall
quickly. If the narrow exits are discovered by using active RFID
(Radio Frequency Identification) tags and using cellular phones, they
can evacuate as soon as possible. To verify this hypothesis, the authors
design the model and carry out the agent-based simulation. They treat,
as a case study, the Tenjin mall in Fukuoka Prefecture in Japan. The
result of the simulation is that the case of the pedestrian with using
active RFID tags and cellular phones reduced the amount of time to
spend on the evacuation. Even if the diffusion of RFID tags and
cellular phones was not perfect, they could show the effectiveness of
reducing the time of evacuation.