Lean Changeability – Evaluation and Design of Lean and Transformable Factories
In today-s turbulent environment, companies are faced with two principal challenges. On the one hand, it is necessary to produce ever more cost-effectively to remain competitive. On the other hand, factories need to be transformable in order to manage unpredictable changes in the corporate environment. To deal with these different challenges, companies use the philosophy of lean production in the first case, in the second case the philosophy of transformability. To a certain extent these two approaches follow different directions. This can cause conflicts when designing factories. Therefore, the Institute of Production Systems and Logistics (IFA) of the Leibniz University of Hanover has developed a procedure to allow companies to evaluate and design their factories with respect to the requirements of both philosophies.
Supply Chain Management: After Business Process Re-Engineering
This paper is prepared to provide a review of how an automotive manufacturer, ISUZU HICOM Malaysia Co. Ltd. sustained the supply chain management after business process reengineering in 2007. One of the authors is currently undergoing industrial attachment and has spent almost 6 months researching in the production and operation management system of the company. This study was carried out as part of the tasks in the attachment program. The result shows that delivery lateness and outsourcing are the main barriers that affected productivity. From the gap analysis, the authors found that new business process operation had improved suppliers delivery performance.
A Comparison Study of Inspector's Performance between Regular and Complex Tasks
This research was to study a comparison of inspector-s performance between regular and complex visual inspection task. Visual task was simulated on DVD read control circuit. Inspection task was performed by using computer. Subjects were 10 undergraduate randomly selected and test for 20/20. Then, subjects were divided into two groups, five for regular inspection (control group) and five for complex inspection (treatment group) tasks. Result was showed that performance on regular and complex inspectors was significantly difference at the level of 0.05. Inspector performance on regular inspection was showed high percentage on defects detected by using equal time to complex inspection. This would be indicated that inspector performance was affected by visual inspection task.
Sustainable Construction in Malaysia – Developers- Awareness
The creation of a sustainable future depends on the knowledge and involvement of the people, as well as an understanding of the consequences of individual actions. Construction industry has long been associated with the detrimental effects to our mother earth. In Malaysia, the government, professional bodies and private companies are beginning to take heed in the necessity to reduce this environmental problem without restraining the need for development. This paper focuses on the actions undertaken by the Malaysian government, non-government organizations and construction players in promoting sustainability in construction. To ensure that those concerted efforts are not only skin deep in its impact, a survey was conducted to investigate the awareness of the developers regarding this issue and whether those developers has absorb the concept of sustainable construction in their current practices. The survey revealed that although the developers are aware of the rising issues on sustainability, little efforts are generated from them in implementing it. More effort is necessary to boost this application and further stimulate actions and strategies towards a sustainable built environment.
Technology Adoption among Small and Medium Enterprises (SME's): A Research Agenda
This paper presents the research agenda that has been proposed to develop an integrated model to explain technology adoption of SMEs in Malaysia. SMEs form over 90% of all business entities in Malaysia and they have been contributing to the development of the nation. Technology adoption has been a thorn issue among SMEs as they require big outlay which might not be available to the SMEs. Although resource has been an issue among SMEs they cannot lie low and ignore the technological advancements that are taking place at a rapid pace. With that in mind this paper proposes a model to explain the technology adoption issue among SMEs.
An Empirical Quest for Linkages between HPWS and Employee Behaviors – a Perspective from the Non Managerial Employees in Japanese Organizations
High Performance Work Systems (HPWS) generally give rise to positive impacts on employees by increasing their commitments in workplaces. While some argued this actually have considerable negative impacts on employees with increasing possibilities of imposing strains caused by stress and intensity of such work places. Do stressful workplaces hamper employee commitment? The author has tried to find the answer by exploring linkages between HPWS practices and its impact on employees in Japanese organizations. How negative outcomes like job intensity and workplaces and job stressors can influence different forms of employees- commitments which can be a hindrance to their performance. Design: A close ended questionnaire survey was conducted amongst 16 large, medium and small sized Japanese companies from diverse industries around Chiba, Saitama, and Ibaraki Prefectures and in Tokyo from the month of October 2008 to February 2009. Questionnaires were aimed to the non managerial employees- perceptions of HPWS practices, their behavior, working life experiences in their work places. A total of 227 samples are used for analysis in the study. Methods: Correlations, MANCOVA, SEM Path analysis using AMOS software are used for data analysis in this study. Findings: Average non-managerial perception of HPWS adoption is significantly but negatively correlated to both work place Stressors and Continuous commitment, but positively correlated to job Intensity, Affective, Occupational and Normative commitments in different workplaces at Japan. The path analysis by SEM shows significant indirect relationship between Stressors and employee Affective organizational commitment and Normative organizational commitments. Intensity also has a significant indirect effect on Occupational commitments. HPWS has an additive effect on all the outcomes variables. Limitations: The sample size in this study cannot be a representative to the entire population of non-managerial employees in Japan. There were no respondents from automobile, pharmaceuticals, finance industries. The duration of the survey coincided in a period when Japan as most of the other countries is under going recession. Biases could not be ruled out completely. We must take cautions in interpreting the results of studies as they cannot be generalized. And the path analysis cannot provide the complete causality of the inter linkages between the variables used in the study. Originality: There have been limited studies on linkages in HPWS adoptions and their impacts on employees- behaviors and commitments in Japanese workplaces. This study may provide some ingredients for further research in the fields of HRM policies and practices and their linkages on different forms of employees- commitments.
A Digital Media e-Learning Training Strategy for Healthcare Employees: Cost effective Distance Learning by Collaborative offline / online Engagement and Assessment
Within the healthcare system, training and continued professional development although essential, can be effected by cost and logistical restraints due to the nature of healthcare provision e.g employee shift patterns, access to expertise, cost factors in releasing staff to attend training etc. The use of multimedia technology for the development of e-learning applications is also a major cost consideration for healthcare management staff, and this type of media whether optical or on line requires careful planning in order to remain inclusive of all staff with potentially varied access to multimedia computing. This paper discusses a project in which the use of DVD authoring technology has been successfully implemented to meet the needs of distance learning and user considerations, and is based on film production techniques and reduced product turnaround deadlines.
Challenges Facing Housing Developers to Deliver Zero Carbon Homes in England
Housebuilders in England have been the target of numerous government policies in recent years promoting increased productivity and affordability. As a result, the housebuilding industry is currently faced with objectives to improve the affordability and sustainability of new homes whilst also increasing production rates to 240,000 per year by 2016.Yet amidst a faltering economic climate, the UK Government is forging ahead with the 'Code for Sustainable Homes', which includes stringent sustainable standards for all new homes and sets ambitious targets for the housebuilding industry, the culmination of which is the production of zero carbon homes by 2016.Great uncertainty exists amongst housebuilders as to the costs, benefits and risks of building zero carbon homes. This paper examines the key barriers to zero carbon homes from housebuilders- perspective. A comprehensive opinion on the challenges to deliver zero carbon homes is gathered through a questionnaire survey issued to the major housing developers in England. The study found that a number of cultural, legislative, and financial barriers stand in the way of the widespread construction of zero carbon homes. The study concludes with several recommendations to both the Government and the housebuilding industry to address the barriers that hinder a successful delivery of zero carbon homes in England.
Acceptance of Mobile Learning: a Respecification and Validation of Information System Success
With the proliferation of mobile computing technology, mobile learning (m-learning) will play a vital role in the rapidly growing electronic learning market. However, the acceptance of m-learning by individuals is critical to the successful implementation of m-learning systems. Thus, there is a need to research the factors that affect users- intention to use m-learning. Based on an updated information system (IS) success model, data collected from 350 respondents in Taiwan were tested against the research model using the structural equation modeling approach. The data collected by questionnaire were analyzed to check the validity of constructs. Then hypotheses describing the relationships between the identified constructs and users- satisfaction were formulated and tested.
Knowledge Acquisition, Absorptive Capacity, and Innovation Capability: An Empirical Study of Taiwan's Knowledge-Intensive Industries
This study investigates the roles of knowledge
acquisition, absorptive capacity, and innovation capability in finance
and manufacturing industries. With 362 valid questionnaires from
manufactures and financial industries in Taiwan, we examine the
relationships between absorptive capacity, knowledge acquisition and
innovation capability using a structural equation model. The results
indicate that absorptive capacity is the mediator between knowledge
acquisition and innovation capability, and that knowledge acquisition
has a positive effect on absorptive capacity.
A Decision Support System for Predicting Hospitalization of Hemodialysis Patients
Hemodialysis patients might suffer from unhealthy
care behaviors or long-term dialysis treatments. Ultimately they need
to be hospitalized. If the hospitalization rate of a hemodialysis center
is high, its quality of service would be low. Therefore, how to decrease
hospitalization rate is a crucial problem for health care. In this study
we combined temporal abstraction with data mining techniques for
analyzing the dialysis patients' biochemical data to develop a decision
support system. The mined temporal patterns are helpful for clinicians
to predict hospitalization of hemodialysis patients and to suggest them
some treatments immediately to avoid hospitalization.
Towards External Varieties to Internal Varieties − Modular Perspective
Product customization is an essential requirement for
manufacturing firms to achieve higher customers- satisfaction and
fulfill business target. In order to achieve these objectives, firms need
to handle both external varieties such as customer preference,
government regulations, cultural considerations etc and internal
varieties such as functional requirements of product, production
efficiency, quality etc. Both of the varieties need to be accumulated
and integrated together for the purpose of producing customized
product. These varieties are presented and discussed in this paper
along with the perspectives of modular product design and
development process. Other development strategies such as
modularity, component commonality, product family design and
product platform are presented with a view to achieve product variety
quickly and economically. A case example both for the concept of
modular design and platform based product development process is
also presented with the help of design structure matrix (DSM) tool.
This paper is concluded with several managerial implications and
future research direction.
Organisational Learning as Perceived and Expected by Management and Non Management Staff
The study applied a combination of organisational learning models (Senge, 1994: Pedler, Burgoyne and Boydell, 1991) and later adopted fifteen organisational learning principles with one of the biggest energy providers in South East Asia. The purposes of the current study were to: a) investigate the company-s practices on fifteen organisational learning principles; b) explore the perceptions and expectations of its employees in relations to the principles; and c) compare the perceptions and expectations between management and non-management staff toward the fifteen factors. One hundred and ten employees responded on a designed questionnaire and the results indicated that the company was practicing activities that associated with organisational learning principles. Also, according to the T-test results, significant differences between management and non-management respondents were found. Research implications are also provided.
A Study of Feedback Strategy to Improve Inspector Performance by Using Computer Based Training
The purpose of this research was to study the inspector performance by using computer based training (CBT). Visual inspection task was printed circuit board (PCB) simulated on several types of defects. Subjects were 16 undergraduate randomly selected from King Mongkut-s University of Technology Thonburi and test for 20/20. Then, they were equally divided on performance into two groups (control and treatment groups) and were provided information before running the experiment. Only treatment group was provided feedback information after first experiment. Results revealed that treatment group was showed significantly difference at the level of 0.01. The treatment group showed high percentage on defects detected. Moreover, the attitude of inspectors on using the CBT to inspection was showed on good. These results have been showed that CBT could be used for training to improve inspector performance.
eLearning Tools Evaluation based on Quality Concept Distance Computing. A Case Study
Despite the extensive use of eLearning systems, there
is no consensus on a standard framework for evaluating this kind of
quality system. Hence, there is only a minimum set of tools that can
supervise this judgment and gives information about the course
content value. This paper presents two kinds of quality set evaluation
indicators for eLearning courses based on the computational process
of three known metrics, the Euclidian, Hamming and Levenshtein
distances. The “distance" calculus is applied to standard evaluation
templates (i.e. the European Commission Programme procedures vs.
the AFNOR Z 76-001 Standard), determining a reference point in the
evaluation of the e-learning course quality vs. the optimal concept(s).
The case study, based on the results of project(s) developed in the
framework of the European Programme “Leonardo da Vinci", with
Romanian contractors, try to put into evidence the benefits of such a
Preparation of Tender for Building Conservation Work: Current Practices in Malaysia
Building conservation work generally involves complex and non-standard work different from new building construction processes. In preparing tenders for building conservation projects, therefore, the quantity surveyor must carefully consider the specificity of non-standard items and demarcate the scope of unique conservation work. While the quantity surveyor must appreciate the full range of works to prepare a good tender document, he typically manages many unfamiliar elements, including practical construction methods, restoration techniques and work sequences. Only by fulfilling the demanding requirements of building conservation work can the quantity surveyor enhance his professionalism an area of growing cultural value and economic importance. By discussing several issues crucial to tender preparations for building conservation projects in Malaysia, this paper seeks a deeper understanding of how quantity surveying can better standardize tender preparation work and more successfully manage building conservation processes.
A Study on the Leadership Behavior, Safety Culture, and Safety Performance of the Healthcare Industry
Object: Review recent publications of patient safety
culture to investigate the relationship between leadership behavior,
safety culture, and safety performance in the healthcare industry.
Method: This study is a cross-sectional study, 350 questionnaires were
mailed to hospital workers with 195 valid responses obtained, and a
55.7% valid response rate. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was
carried out to test the factor structure and determine if the composite
reliability was significant with a factor loading of >0.5, resulting in an
acceptable model fit. Results: Through the analysis of One-way
ANOVA, the results showed that physicians significantly have more
negative patient safety culture perceptions and safety performance
perceptions than non- physicians. Conclusions: The path analysis
results show that leadership behavior affects safety culture and safety
performance in the health care industry. Safety performance was
affected and improved with contingency leadership and a positive
patient safety organization culture. The study suggests improving
safety performance by providing a well-managed system that
includes: consideration of leadership, hospital worker training
courses, and a solid safety reporting system.
Knowledge Sharing Behavior in E-Communities: from the Perspective of Transaction Cost Theory
This study aims to examine the factors affecting
knowledge sharing behavior in knowledge-based electronic communities (e-communities) because quantity and quality of
knowledge shared among the members play a critical role in the community-s sustainability. Past research has suggested three
perspectives that may affect the quantity and quality of knowledge
shared: economics, social psychology, and social ecology. In this
study, we strongly believe that an economic perspective may be suitable to validate factors influencing newly registered members-
knowledge contribution at the beginning of relationship development.
Accordingly, this study proposes a model to validate the factors influencing members- knowledge sharing based on Transaction Cost
Theory. By doing so, we may empirically test our hypotheses in various types of e-communities to determine the generalizability of our research models.
Commercializing Technology Solutions- Moving from Products to Solutions
The paper outlines the drivers behind the movement
from products to solutions in the Hi-Tech Business-to-Business
markets. The paper lists out the challenges in enabling the
transformation from products to solutions and also attempts to explore
strategic and operational recommendations based on the authors-
factual experiences with Japanese Hi-tech manufacturing
organizations. Organizations in the Hi-Tech Business-to-Business
markets are increasingly being compelled to move to a solutions model
from the conventional products model. Despite the added complexity
of solutions, successful technology commercialization can be achieved
by making prudent choices in defining a relevant solutions model, by
backing the solution model through appropriate organizational design,
and by overhauling the new product development process and
Expression of Security Policy in Medical Systems for Electronic Healthcare Records
This paper introduces a tool that is being developed for the expression of information security policy controls that govern electronic healthcare records. By reference to published findings, the paper introduces the theory behind the use of knowledge management for automatic and consistent security policy assertion using the formalism called the Secutype; the development of the tool and functionality is discussed; some examples of Secutypes generated by the tool are provided; proposed integration with existing medical record systems is described. The paper is concluded with a section on further work and critique of the work achieved to date.
E-Government in Transition Economies
This paper deals with e-government issues at several
levels. Initially we look at the concept of e-government itself in order
to give it a sound framework. Than we look at the e-government
issues at three levels, first we analyse it at the global level, second we
analyse it at the level of transition economies, and finally we take a
closer look on developments in Croatia. The analysis includes actual
progress being made in selected transition economies given the Euro
area averages, along with e-government potential in future
Corporate Culture and Innovation: Implications for Reward Systems
Continuous innovation is becoming a necessity if
firms want to stay competitive. Different factors influence the rate of
innovation in a firm, among which corporate culture has often been
recognized among the most important factors. In this paper we argue
that the development of corporate culture that will support and foster
innovation must be accompanied with an appropriate reward system.
A research conducted among Croatian firms showed that a
statistically significant relationship exists among corporate culture
that supports innovations and reward system features.
Collaborative Web-Based E-learning Environment for Information Security Curriculum
In recent years, the development of e-learning is very
rapid. E-learning is an attractive and efficient way for computer
education. Student interaction and collaboration also plays an
important role in e-learning. In this paper, a collaborative web-based
e-learning environment is presented. A wide range of interactive and
collaborative methods are integrated into a web-based environment.
This e-learning environment is designed for information security
Simulation of Ethical Behavior in Urban Transportation
For controlling urban transportations, traffic lights
show similar behavior for different kinds of vehicles at intersections.
Emergency vehicles need special behavior at intersections, so traffic
lights should behave in different manner when emergency vehicles
approach them. At the present time, intelligent traffic lights control
urban transportations intelligently. In this paper the ethical aspect of
this topic is considered. A model is proposed for adding special
component to emergency vehicles and traffic lights for controlling
traffic in ethical manner. The proposed model is simulated by JADE.
Corporate Social Responsibility and Values in Innovation Management
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) viewpoint have challenged the traditional perception to understand corporations position. Production- and managerial-centred views are expanding towards reference group-centred policies. Consequently, the significance of new kind of knowledge has emerged. In addition to management of the organisation, the idea of CSR emphasises the importance to recognise the value-expectations of operational environment. It is know that management is often well-aware of corporate social responsibilities, but it is less clear how well these high level goals are understood in practical product design and development work. In this study, the apprehension above proved to be real to some degree. While management was very aware of CSR it was less familiar to designers. The outcome shows that it is essential to raise ethical values and issues higher in corporate communication, if it is wished that they materialize also in products.
Humor Roles of Females in a Product Color Matrix
Healthcare providers sometimes use the power of
humor as a treatment and therapy for buffering mental health or easing
mental disorders because humor can provide relief from distress and
conflict. Humor is also very suitable for advertising because of similar
benefits. This study carefully examines humor's widespread use in
advertising and identifies relationships among humor mechanisms,
female depictions, and product types. The purpose is to conceptualize
how humor theories can be used not only to successfully define a
product as fitting within one of four color categories of the product
color matrix, but also to identify compelling contemporary female
depictions through humor in ads. The results can offer an idealization
for marketing managers and consumers to help them understand how
female role depictions can be effectively used with humor in ads. The
four propositions developed herein are derived from related literature,
through the identification of marketing strategy formulations that
achieve product memory enhancement by adopting humor
mechanisms properly matched with female role depictions.
Cultivating Focal Firm-s Supply Chain Process Integration Capabilities: The Investigation of Critical Determinants and Consequences
In today-s competitive global business environment,
the concept of supply chain management (SCM) continues to become
increasingly market-oriented, shifting the primary driver of the value
chain from supply to demand. Recent recommendations encourage
researchers to focus investigations on the supply chain process
integration (SCPI) capabilities that integrate a focal firm with its
network of suppliers and business customers to create value for it.
However, theoretical and empirical researches pertaining to the
antecedents and consequences of a focal firm-s SCPI capabilities have
been limited and piecemeal. The purpose of this study is to investigate
the critical determinants and consequences of a focal firm-s SCPI
capabilities. We test our proposed research framework using a sample
of 139 sales managers of manufacturing industries in Taiwan, our
research findings show that (1) both perceived business customer-s
power and focal firm-s market-oriented culture positively influences a
focal firm-s SCPI capabilities, and (2) SCPI capabilities positively
influence a focal firm-s SCM performance, both operational and
strategic benefits. Implications for practitioners and researchers and
suggestions for future research are also addressed in this study.
Promoting Collaborative Learning in Software Engineering by Adapting the PBL Strategy
Software engineering education not only embraces
technical skills of software development but also necessitates
communication and interaction among learners. In this paper, it is
proposed to adapt the PBL methodology that is especially designed to
be integrated into software engineering classroom in order to promote
collaborative learning environment. This approach helps students
better understand the significance of social aspects and provides a
systematic framework to enhance teamwork skills. The adaptation of
PBL facilitates the transition to an innovative software development
environment where cooperative learning can be actualized.
Overcoming Barriers to Open Innovation at Apple, Nintendo and Nokia
This is a conceptual paper on the application of open
innovation in three case examples of Apple, Nintendo, and Nokia.
Utilizing key concepts from research into managerial and
organizational cognition, we describe how each company overcame
barriers to utilizing open innovation strategy in R&D and
commercialization projects. We identify three levels of barriers:
cognitive, behavioral, and institutional, and describe the companies
balanced between internal and external resources to launch products
that were instrumental in companies reinventing themselves in
Enhanced Economic Evaluation – Approach for a Holistic Evaluation of Factory Planning Variants
The building of a factory can be a strategic investment
owing to its long service life. An evaluation that only focuses, for
example, on payments for the building, the technical equipment of
the factory, and the personnel for the enterprise is – considering the
complexity of the system factory – not sufficient for this long-term
view. The success of an investment is secured, among other things,
by the attainment of nonmonetary goals, too, like transformability.
Such aspects are not considered in traditional investment calculations
like the net present value method. This paper closes this gap with the
enhanced economic evaluation (EWR) for factory planning. The
procedure and the first results of an application in a project are
The Design of the HL7 RIM-based Sharing Components for Clinical Information Systems
The American Health Level Seven (HL7) Reference Information Model (RIM) consists of six back-bone classes that have different specialized attributes. Furthermore, for the purpose of enforcing the semantic expression, there are some specific mandatory vocabulary domains have been defined for representing the content values of some attributes. In the light of the fact that it is a duplicated effort on spending a lot of time and human cost to develop and modify Clinical Information Systems (CIS) for most hospitals due to the variety of workflows. This study attempts to design and develop sharing RIM-based components of the CIS for the different business processes. Therefore, the CIS contains data of a consistent format and type. The programmers can do transactions with the RIM-based clinical repository by the sharing RIM-based components. And when developing functions of the CIS, the sharing components also can be adopted in the system. These components not only satisfy physicians- needs in using a CIS but also reduce the time of developing new components of a system. All in all, this study provides a new viewpoint that integrating the data and functions with the business processes, it is an easy and flexible approach to build a new CIS.
Application of Company Financial Crisis Early Warning Model- Use of “Financial Reference Database“
In July 1, 2007, Taiwan Stock Exchange (TWSE) on
market observation post system (MOPS) adds a new "Financial
reference database" for investors to do investment reference. This
database as a warning to public offering companies listed on the
public financial information and it original within eight targets. In
this paper, this database provided by the indicators for the application
of company financial crisis early warning model verify that the
database provided by the indicator forecast for the financial crisis,
whether or not companies have a high accuracy rate as opposed to
domestic and foreign scholars have positive results. There is use of
Logistic Regression Model application of the financial early warning
model, in which no joined back-conditions is the first model, joined it
in is the second model, has been taken occurred in the financial crisis
of companies to research samples and then business took place
before the financial crisis point with T-1 and T-2 sample data to do
positive analysis. The results show that this database provided the
debt ratio and net per share for the best forecast variables.
Evaluating Customer Satisfaction as an Aspect of Quality Management
A major goal of any enterprise is to create a ratings
system of customer satisfaction, goods and services. It is obvious that
the company cannot change what is not measured. In order to get a
clearer picture of the preferences of the major consumer groups, this
stage should be based on extensive research, including a variety of
interviews and surveys. It is necessary to know the key benefits,
which determine customer satisfaction in the market segment, of the
properties of certain goods and services. It is important to estimate
the terms of these preferences from the viewpoint of the client. This
article discusses the importance of customer satisfaction, and ways of
Brand Personality and Mobile Marketing: An Empirical Investigation
This research assesses the value of the brand personality and its influence on consumer-s decision making, through relational variables, after receiving a text message ad. An empirical study, in which 380 participants have received an SMS ad, confirms that brand personality does actually influence the brand trust as well as the attachment and commitment. The levels of sensitivity and involvement have an impact on the brand personality and the related variables to it.
Exploring the Professional Competency Contents for International Marketer in Taiwan
The main purpose of this study was to establish Professional Competency Contents for International Marketer in Taiwan. To establish these contents a set of interviews with international marketing managers and three rounds of Delphi Technique surveys were employed. Five international marketing managers were interviewed for discussions on definitions, framework, and items of international marketing competency. A questionnaire for the " Delphi Technique Survey " was developed based on the results acquired from the interviews. The resulting questionnaire was distributed to another group of 30 international marketer of trading companies in Taiwan. After three rounds of Delphi Technique Survey with these participants, the "Contents of Professional Competency for International Marketer " was established. Five dimensions and thirty indicators were identified. It is hoped that the proposed contents could be served as a self-evaluation tool for international marketer as well as the basis for staffing and training programs for international marketer in Taiwan.
The Internationalization of R&D and its Offshoring Process
Transnational corporations (TNCs) are playing a major role in global R&D, not only through activities in their home countries but also increasingly abroad. However, the process of R&D offshoring is not yet discussed thoroughly. Based on in-depth case study on Agilent China Communications Operation, this paper presents a stage model for theorizing the R&D offshoring process. This stage model outlines 5 maturity levels of organization and the offshoring process: Subsidiary team, Mirror team, Independent team, Mirror sector and the Independent sector (from software engineering point of view, it is similar to the local team's capability level of maturity model). Moreover, the paper gives a detailed discussion on the relevant characteristics, as well as the ability/responsibility of transfer, priorities and the corresponding organization structure. It also gives the characteristics and key points of different level-s R&D offshoring implementation using actual team practice.
Operational Risks for Highway Projects in Malaysia
The Malaysia Highway Authority (MHA) was
established by the Government in 1980 for the purpose of designing,
constructing and maintaining toll highways in Malaysia that include
the North-South Expressway and the Penang Bridge, which were
procured using the publicly-funded traditional procurement. However
following a recession in the mid 80-s, the operations of these tolledhighways
had been privatized to ensure that their operational services
continue through private financing as a result of long-term
concession agreement concurred between the Malaysian Government
and private operators. The change in the contract strategy for
highway projects in Malaysia would have a great tendency to dictate
a significant risk exposure towards the key parties involved,
particularly the Malaysian Government as project principal, unless
operational risks are clearly identified and managed via appropriate
mitigation measures prior to a contract signing.
This research identifies potential operational risks that have a
possibility to occur in highway projects in Malaysia from the
perspective of public sector clients. Since this research focuses on the
operational risks for highway projects in Malaysia, the initial results
acquired from literature review on the operational risks of highway
projects in some Asian countries are then justified by a number of
key individuals from the MHA through interviews. As a result,
among key operational risks that have possibility to occur in the
highway projects in Malaysia include initial toll-tariff decided by the
Government, traffic congestion, change of road network and overloaded
freight transportation, which could cause damage to the road
surface and hence affecting the operation of a particular highway.
An Innovation Capability Maturity Model – Development and Initial Application
The seemingly ambiguous title of this paper – use of the terms maturity and innovation in concord – signifies the imperative of every organisation within the competitive domain. Where organisational maturity and innovativeness were traditionally considered antonymous, the assimilation of these two seemingly contradictory notions is fundamental to the assurance of long-term organisational prosperity. Organisations are required, now more than ever, to grow and mature their innovation capability – rending consistent innovative outputs. This paper describes research conducted to consolidate the principles of innovation and identify the fundamental components that constitute organisational innovation capability. The process of developing an Innovation Capability Maturity Model is presented. A brief description is provided of the basic components of the model, followed by a description of the case studies that were conducted to evaluate the model. The paper concludes with a summary of the findings and potential future research.
Ambient Intelligence in the Production and Retail Sector: Emerging Opportunities and Potential Pitfalls
This paper provides an introduction into the
evolution of information and communication technology and illustrates its usage in the work domain. The paper is sub-divided into two parts. The first part gives an overview over the different
phases of information processing in the work domain. It starts by
charting the past and present usage of computers in work
environments and shows current technological trends, which are likely to influence future business applications. The second part
starts by briefly describing, how the usage of computers changed business processes in the past, and presents first Ambient
Intelligence applications based on identification and localization
information, which are already used in the production and retail sector. Based on current systems and prototype applications, the
paper gives an outlook of how Ambient Intelligence technologies could change business processes in the future.
Simultaneous Term Structure Estimation of Hazard and Loss Given Default with a Statistical Model using Credit Rating and Financial Information
The objective of this study is to propose a statistical
modeling method which enables simultaneous term structure
estimation of the risk-free interest rate, hazard and loss given default,
incorporating the characteristics of the bond issuing company such as
credit rating and financial information. A reduced form model is used
for this purpose. Statistical techniques such as spline estimation and
Bayesian information criterion are employed for parameter estimation
and model selection. An empirical analysis is conducted using the
information on the Japanese bond market data. Results of the
empirical analysis confirm the usefulness of the proposed method.
The Entrepreneur's General Personality Traits and Technological Developments
Technological newness and innovativeness are
important aspects of small firm development, growth and wealth
creation. The contribution of the study to entrepreneurship
personality research and to technology-related research in
entrepreneurship is that the model of the general personality driven
technological development was developed and empirically tested.
Hypotheses relating the big five personality factors (OCEAN:
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and
neuroticism) and technological developments were tested by using
multiple regression analysis on survey data from a sample of 160
entrepreneurs from Slovenia. The model reveals two personality
factors, which are predictive of technological developments:
openness (positive impact) and neuroticism (negative impact). In
addition, a positive impact of firm age on technological
developments was found. Other personality factors
(conscientiousness, extraversion and agreeableness) of entrepreneurs
may not be considered important for their firm technological
Influence of Service and Product Quality towards Customer Satisfaction: A Case Study at the Staff Cafeteria in the Hotel Industry
The main objectives of this study were to identify
attributes that influence customer satisfaction and determine their
relationships with customer satisfaction. The variables included in
this research are place/ambience, food quality and service quality as
independent variables and customer satisfaction as the dependent
variable. A survey questionnaire which consisted of three parts to
measure demographic factors, independent variables, and dependent
variables was constructed based on items determined by past
research. 149 respondents from one of the well known hotel in Kuala
Lumpur, MALAYSIA were selected as a sample. Psychometric
testing was conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the
questionnaire. From the findings, there were positive significant
relationship between place/ambience (r=0.563**, p=0.000) and
service quality (r=0.544**, p=0.000) with customer satisfaction.
However, although relationship between food quality and customer
satisfaction was significant, it was in the negative direction (r=-
0.268**, p=0.001). New findings were discovered after conducting
this research and previous research findings were strengthened by the
results of this research. Future researchers could concentrate on
determining attributes that influence customer satisfaction when
cost/price is not a factor and reasons for place/ambience is currently
becoming the leading factor in determining customer satisfaction.
Influence on Willingness of Virtual Community's Knowledge Sharing: Based on Social Capital Theory and Habitual Domain
Despite the fact that Knowledge Sharing (KS) is very important, we found only little discussion about the reasons why people have the willingness to share knowledge at such platform even though there is no immediate benefit to the persons who contribute knowledge in it. The aim of this study is to develop an integrative understanding of the factors that support or inhibit individuals- knowledge sharing intentions in virtual communities and to find whether habit would generate people-s willingness to be involved. We apply Social Capital Theory (SCT), and we also add two dimensions for discussion: member incentive and habitual domain (HD). This research assembles the questionnaire from individuals who have experienced knowledge sharing in virtual communities, and applies survey and Structural Equation Model (SEM) to analyze the results from the questionnaires. Finally, results confirm that individuals are willing to share knowledge in virtual communities: (1) if they consider reciprocity, centrality, and have longer tenure in their field, and enjoy helping. (2) if they have the habit of sharing knowledge. This study is useful for the developers of virtual communities to insight into knowledge sharing in cyberspace.
A Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Trained Inspectors in Different Workloads between Feed Forward and Feedback Training
Objective of this study was to study and compare the effectiveness of inspectors who had different workloads for feed forward and feedback training. The visual search task was simulated to search for specified alphabets called defects. These defects were included of four alphabets in Thai and English such as s ภ, ถ, X, and V with different background. These defects were combined in the specified alphabets and were given the different three backgrounds i.e., Thai, English, and mixed English and Thai alphabets. Sixty students were chosen as a sample in this study and test for final selection subject. Finally, five subjects were taken into testing process. They were asked to search for defects after they were provided basic information. Experiment design was used factorial design and subjects were trained for feed forward and the feedback training. The results show that both trainings were affected on mean search time. It was also found that the feedback training can increase the effectiveness of visual inspectors rather than the feed forward training significantly different at the level of .05
Applying Theory of Perceived Risk and Technology Acceptance Model in the Online Shopping Channel
As the advancement of technology, online shopping channel develops rapidly in recent years. According to the report of Taiwan Network Information Center, there are almost eighty percents of internet population shopping in online channel. Synthesizing insights from the previous research, this study develops the conceptual model to integrate Theory of Perceived Risk (TPR) and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to apply in online shopping. Using data collected from 637 respondents from online survey website, we use structural equation modeling to test measurement and structural models. The results suggest the need for consideration of perceived risk as an antecedent in the Technology Acceptance Model. The limitations and implications are discussed.
The Problems of Legal Regulation of Intellectual Property Rights in Innovation Activities in Russia (Institutional Approach)
Part IV of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation dedicated to legal regulation of Intellectual property rights came into force in 2008. It is a first attempt of codification in Intellectual property sphere in Russia. That is why a lot of new norms appeared. The main problem of the Russian Civil Code (part IV) is that many rules (norms of Law) contradict the norms of International Intellectual property Law (i.e. protection of inventions, creations, ideas, know-how, trade secrets, innovations). Intellectual property rights protect innovations and creations and reward innovative and creative activity. Intellectual property rights are international in character and in that respect they fit in rather well with the economic reality of the global economy. Inventors prefer not to take out a patent for inventions because it is a very difficult procedure, it takes a lot of time and is very expensive. That-s why they try to protect their inventions as ideas, know-how, confidential information. An idea is the main element of any object of Intellectual property (creation, invention, innovation, know-how, etc.). But ideas are not protected by Civil Code of Russian Federation. The aim of the paper is to reveal the main problems of legal regulation of Intellectual property in Russia and to suggest possible solutions. The authors of this paper have raised these essential issues through different activities. Through the panel survey, questionnaires which were spread among the participants of intellectual activities the main problems of implementation of innovations, protecting of the ideas and know-how were identified. The implementation of research results will help to solve economic and legal problems of innovations, transfer of innovations and intellectual property.1