Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 143

Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering

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  • 143
    364
    Tax Incentives in Western Balkan Countries
    Abstract:
    This paper provides an analysis of corporate income tax (CIT) incentives in the Western Balkan countries: Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia and Albania. Western Balkan countries, as other transition and developing countries, use large number of the corporate income tax incentives (CIT) to attract foreign investments and to stimulate economic activity. The main goal of this paper is to investigate how often these countries use CIT incentives and provide review of existing tax incentives in Western Balkan countries. Paper will focus on reduced CIT rates, tax holidays, and other investment incentives which imply incentives like accelerated depreciation, tax allowances and tax credits.
    142
    754
    Evaluation of the Burden of Taxation Received by Households in Lithuania
    Abstract:
    Many foreign and Lithuanian scientists, analyzing the evaluation of the tax system in respect of the burden of taxation, agree that the latter, in principle, depends on how many individuals and what units of the residents constitute a household. Therefore, the aim of scientific research is to substantiate or to deny the significance of a household, but not a resident, as a statistical unit, during the evaluation of tax system, to be precise, determination of the value of the burden of taxation. A performed scientific research revealed that evaluation of the tax system in respect of a household, but not a resident, as a statistical unit, allows not only to evaluate the efficiency of the tax system more objectively, but also to forecast practicably existing poverty line, burden of taxation, and to capacitate the initiation of efficient decisions in social and tax fields creating the environment of existence.
    141
    918
    An Integrated Model of Urban Conservation and Revitalization from the Point of Immigration and Its Effects on Reyhan Urban Site in Turkey as a Case Study
    Abstract:
    This paper presents the effects of migration at the urban sites with an integrated model under the sustainable local development policies for the conservation and revitalization of the site areas as a case at Reyhan heritage site in Bursa. It is known as the “City of immigrants" because of its richness of cultural plurality. The city has always regarded the dynamic impact of immigration as a positive contribution. As a result of this situation, the city created the earliest urbanization practices: being the first capital city of the Ottoman Empire. Bursa created the first modern movement practices and set the first Organized Industrial Zone. The most important aim of the study is to be offer a model for the similar areas with the context of conservation and revitalization of the historical areas, subjected to the local integrated sustainable development policies of local goverments.
    140
    982
    Role of Credit on Production Efficiency of Farming Sector in Pakistan(A Data Envelopment Analysis)
    Abstract:
    The study identified the sources of production inefficiency of the farming sector in district Faisalabad in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique was utilized at farm level survey data of 300 farmers for the year 2009. The overall mean efficiency score was 0.78 indicating 22 percent inefficiency of the sample farmers. Computed efficiency scores were then regressed on farm specific variables using Tobit regression analysis. Farming experience, education, access to farming credit, herd size and number of cultivation practices showed constructive and significant effect on the farmer-s technical efficiency.
    139
    995
    On the Need to have an Additional Methodology for the Psychological Product Measurement and Evaluation
    Abstract:
    Cognitive Science appeared about 40 years ago, subsequent to the challenge of the Artificial Intelligence, as common territory for several scientific disciplines such as: IT, mathematics, psychology, neurology, philosophy, sociology, and linguistics. The new born science was justified by the complexity of the problems related to the human knowledge on one hand, and on the other by the fact that none of the above mentioned sciences could explain alone the mental phenomena. Based on the data supplied by the experimental sciences such as psychology or neurology, models of the human mind operation are built in the cognition science. These models are implemented in computer programs and/or electronic circuits (specific to the artificial intelligence) – cognitive systems – whose competences and performances are compared to the human ones, leading to the psychology and neurology data reinterpretation, respectively to the construction of new models. During these processes if psychology provides the experimental basis, philosophy and mathematics provides the abstraction level utterly necessary for the intermission of the mentioned sciences. The ongoing general problematic of the cognitive approach provides two important types of approach: the computational one, starting from the idea that the mental phenomenon can be reduced to 1 and 0 type calculus operations, and the connection one that considers the thinking products as being a result of the interaction between all the composing (included) systems. In the field of psychology measurements in the computational register use classical inquiries and psychometrical tests, generally based on calculus methods. Deeming things from both sides that are representing the cognitive science, we can notice a gap in psychological product measurement possibilities, regarded from the connectionist perspective, that requires the unitary understanding of the quality – quantity whole. In such approach measurement by calculus proves to be inefficient. Our researches, deployed for longer than 20 years, lead to the conclusion that measuring by forms properly fits to the connectionism laws and principles.
    138
    1170
    Exploring the Customer Experiences in Bosphorus Zoo
    Abstract:
    The main purpose of this study is to explore current and possible customer experiences in Bosphorus Zoo. Since there is no previous research conducted on Turkish zoos- customer experiences, we conduct an exploratory research taking the form of depth interviews. Then, we group the experiences according to strategic experiential modules (sense, feel, think, act and relate).
    137
    1171
    Effects of the Stock Market Dynamic Linkages on the Central and Eastern European Capital Markets
    Abstract:
    The interdependences among stock market indices were studied for a long while by academics in the entire world. The current financial crisis opened the door to a wide range of opinions concerning the understanding and measurement of the connections considered to provide the controversial phenomenon of market integration. Using data on the log-returns of 17 stock market indices that include most of the CEE markets, from 2005 until 2009, our paper studies the problem of these dependences using a new methodological tool that takes into account both the volatility clustering effect and the stochastic properties of these linkages through a Dynamic Conditional System of Simultaneous Equations. We find that the crisis is well captured by our model as it provides evidence for the high volatility – high dependence effect.
    136
    1282
    Toward Full Public E-Service Environment in Developing Countries
    Abstract:
    Changing technology and increased constituent demand for government services derive the need for governmental responsiveness. The government organisations in the developing countries will be under increased pressure to change their bureaucratic systems to be able to respond rapidly to changing and increasing requirements and rapid technology advancements. This paper aims to present a conceptual framework for explaining the main barriers and drivers of public e-service development. Therefore, the framework provides a basic context within which the process and practice of E-Service can be implemented successfully in the public sector organisations. The framework is flexible enough to be adopted by governments at different levels; national or local by developing countries around the world.
    135
    1322
    Exploring the Importance of Knowledge Management for CRM Success
    Abstract:
    After reporting a literature review on Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and knowledge management, some important issued arise, in particular related to the lack of success of CRM strategies implementation. The paper contributes to this proposing an integrated model of CRM success taking into account complementary factors such as organizational factors, technology, knowledge management and customer orientation.
    134
    1452
    A Study of the Role of Perceived Risk and User Characteristics in Internet Purchase Intention
    Abstract:
    This study aims at investigating the empirical relationships between risk preference, internet preference, and internet knowledge which are known as user characteristics, in addition to perceived risk of the customers on the internet purchase intention. In order to test the relationships between the variables of model 174, a questionnaire was collected from the students with previous online experience. For the purpose of data analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation model (SEM) was used. Test results show that the perceived risk affects the internet purchase intention, and increase or decrease of perceived risk influences the purchase intention when the customer does the internet shopping. Other factors such as internet preference, knowledge of the internet, and risk preference affect the internet purchase intention.
    133
    1512
    Choice of Exchange Rate Regimes: Case of Ex-Yugoslavia Countries
    Abstract:
    There are little subjects in macroeconomics that are so widely discussed, but at the same time controversial and without a clear solution such as the choice of exchange rate regime. National authorities need to take into consideration numerous fundamentals, trying to fulfil goals of economic growth, low and stable inflation and international stability. This paper focuses on the countries of ex- Yugoslavia and their exchange rate history as independent states. We follow the development of the regimes in 6 countries during the transition through the financial crisis of the second part of the 2000s to the prospects of their final goal: full membership in the European Union. Main question is to what extent has the exchange regime contributed to their economic success, considering other objective factors.
    132
    1607
    Knowledge and Attitude among Women and Men in Decision Making on Pap Smear Screening in Kelantan, Malaysia
    Abstract:
    This paper explores the knowledge and attitude of women and men in decision making on pap smear screening. This qualitative study recruited 52 respondents with 44 women and 8 men, using the purposive sampling with snowballing technique through indepth interviews. This study demonstrates several key findings: Female respondents have better knowledge compared to male. Most of the women perceived that pap smear screening is beneficial and important, but to proceed with the test is still doubtful. Male respondents were supportive in terms of sending their spouses to the health facilities or give more freedom to their wives to choose and making decision on their own health due to prominent reason that women know best on their own health. It is expected that the results from this study will provide useful guideline for healthcare providers to prepare any action/intervention to provide an extensive education to improve people-s knowledge and attitude towards pap smear.
    131
    1650
    A Review of Survey Methodology Employedin IT Outsourcing
    Abstract:

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on methodological aspects of the information technology outsourcing (ITO) surveys, in an attempt to improve the data quality and reporting in survey research. It is based on a review of thirty articles on ITO surveys and focuses on two commonly explored dimensions of ITO, namely what are outsourced and why should there be ITO. This study highlights weaknesses in ITO surveys including lack of a clear definition of population, lack of information regarding the sampling method used, not citing the response rate, no information pertaining to pilot testing of survey instrument and absence of information on internal validity in the use or reporting of surveys. This study represents an attempt with a limited scope to point to shortfalls in the use survey methodology in ITO, and thus raise awareness among researchers in enhancing the reliability of survey findings.

    130
    1657
    Islam and Fertility Regulations
    Abstract:
    Islam has a general principle of increase in population. But the Muslims are equally obliged to take care of health, education and the provisions etc. for their offspring and wives in the best possible way. The Muslims would have to regulate and manage the number of children, if any situation affects their duties regarding their wives or children. Islam accomplishes permissibility of temporary blockade in human fertility if someone faces any problem regarding health of mother or children. During the life of the Holy Prophet (SAW), Azl (coitus interruptus) was the only way for temporary spacing between the children. In technologically developed environment, the same can be resort through some advanced methodology or instrument of temporary blockade. Solid grounds are available in Islam that the fertility rate should be managed if any of the aspect of human quality is being affected.
    129
    1924
    The Effects of Misspecification of Stochastic Processes on Investment Appraisal
    Abstract:

    For decades financial economists have been attempted to determine the optimal investment policy by recognizing the option value embedded in irreversible investment whose project value evolves as a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). This paper aims to examine the effects of the optimal investment trigger and of the misspecification of stochastic processes on investment in real options applications. Specifically, the former explores the consequence of adopting optimal investment rules on the distributions of corporate value under the correct assumption of stochastic process while the latter analyzes the influence on the distributions of corporate value as a result of the misspecification of stochastic processes, i.e., mistaking an alternative process as a GBM. It is found that adopting the correct optimal investment policy may increase corporate value by shifting the value distribution rightward, and the misspecification effect may decrease corporate value by shifting the value distribution leftward. The adoption of the optimal investment trigger has a major impact on investment to such an extent that the downside risk of investment is truncated at the project value of zero, thereby moving the value distributions rightward. The analytical framework is also extended to situations where collection lags are in place, and the result indicates that collection lags reduce the effects of investment trigger and misspecification on investment in an opposite way.

    128
    1929
    An Introduction to Methods and Technologies Applied for Reduction of Energy Consumption in Transportation Sector and Air Pollution in Iran
    Abstract:

    In Iran, due to abundance of energy resources, energy consumption is extraordinarily higher than international standards and transportation sector is considered to be one of the major consumers of energy. Moreover, air pollution in urban areas as a result of high dependence on private vehicle and lower standards of vehicles, high subsidies spent on fuel and time waste due to traffic congestion in urban areas all have led to speculations on new strategies and policies in order to control energy consumption in transportation sector. These strategies and policies will be introduced in this paper and their consequences will be analyzed with consideration to socio-economic factors affecting the urban society of Iran. Besides, the intention is to suggest and analyze new approaches such as broader application of public transportation system, demand management in transport sector, replacement of deteriorated vehicles, quality improvement in car manufacture and introduction of substitute fuels.

    127
    1949
    Corporate Fraud: An Analysis of Malaysian Securities Commission Enforcement Releases
    Abstract:
    Economic crime (i.e. corporate fraud) has a significant impact on business. This study analyzes the fraud cases reported by the Malaysian Securities Commission. Frauds involving market manipulation and/or illegal share trading are the most common types of fraud reported over the 6 years analyzed. The highest number of frauds reported involved investment and fund holding companies. Alarmingly the results indicate quite a high number of frauds cases are committed by management. The higher number of Chinese perpetrators may be due to fact that they are the dominant group in Malaysian business. The result also shows that more than half of companies involved with fraud are privately held companies in the investment/fund/finance sector. The results of this study highlight general characteristic of perpetrators (person and company) that commit fraud which could help the regulators in their monitoring and enforcement activities. To investors, this would help in analyzing their business investment or portfolio risk.
    126
    2137
    The Hybrid Socio-Technical Approach as a Strategic Program for Social Development in Geo-disaster Prone Area in Indonesia
    Abstract:

    This paper highlights the importance of integrating social and technical approach (which is so called a “hybrid socio-technical approach") as one innovative and strategic program to support the social development in geodisaster prone area in Indonesia. Such program mainly based on public education and community participation as a partnership program by the University, local government and may also with the private company and/ or local NGO. The indigenous, simple and low cost technology has also been introduced and developed as a part of the hybrid sociotechnical system, in order to ensure the life and environmental protection, with respect to the sustainable human and social development.

    125
    2149
    Interstate Comparison of Environmental Performance using Stochastic Frontier Analysis: The United States Case Study
    Abstract:

    Environmental performance of the U.S. States is investigated for the period of 1990 – 2007 using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). The SFA accounts for both efficiency measure and stochastic noise affecting a frontier. The frontier is formed using indicators of GDP, energy consumption, population, and CO2 emissions. For comparability, all indicators are expressed as ratios to total. Statistical information of the Energy Information Agency of the United States is used. Obtained results reveal the bell - shaped dynamics of environmental efficiency scores. The average efficiency scores rise from 97.6% in 1990 to 99.6% in 1999, and then fall to 98.4% in 2007. The main factor is insufficient decrease in the rate of growth of CO2 emissions with regards to the growth of GDP, population and energy consumption. Data for 2008 following the research period allow for an assumption that the environmental performance of the U.S. States has improved in the last years.

    124
    2472
    The Impact of Recommendation Sources on Online Purchase Intentions: The Moderating Effects of Gender and Perceived Risk
    Abstract:
    This study examines the issue of recommendation sources from the perspectives of gender and consumers- perceived risk, and validates a model for the antecedents of consumer online purchases. The method of obtaining quantitative data was that of the instrument of a survey questionnaire. Data were collected via questionnaires from 396 undergraduate students aged 18-24, and a multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify causal relationships. Empirical findings established the link between recommendation sources (word-of-mouth, advertising, and recommendation systems) and the likelihood of making online purchases and demonstrated the role of gender and perceived risk as moderators in this context. The results showed that the effects of word-of-mouth on online purchase intentions were stronger than those of advertising and recommendation systems. In addition, female consumers have less experience with online purchases, so they may be more likely than males to refer to recommendations during the decision-making process. The findings of the study will help marketers to address the recommendation factor which influences consumers- intention to purchase and to improve firm performances to meet consumer needs.
    123
    2673
    Exit Strategies from The Global Crisis
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    While the form of crises may change, their essence remains the same (such as a cycle of abundant liquidity, rapid credit growth, and a low-inflation environment followed by an asset-price bubble). The current market turbulence began in mid-2000s when the US economy shifted to imbalanced both internal and external macroeconomic positions. We see two key causes of these problems – loose US monetary policy in early 2000s and US government guarantees issued on the securities by government-sponsored enterprises what was further fueled by financial innovations such as structured credit products. We have discovered both negative and positive lessons deriving from this crisis and divided the negative lessons into three groups: financial products and valuation, processes and business models, and strategic issues. Moreover, we address key risk management lessons and exit strategies derived from the current crisis and recommend policies that should help diminish the negative impact of future potential crises.
    122
    2827
    Exploring Life Meaningfulness and Its Psychosocial Correlates among Recovering Substance Users – An Indian Perspective
    Abstract:

    The present study was done primarily to address two major research gaps: firstly, development of an empirical measure of life meaningfulness for substance users and secondly, to determine the psychosocial determinants of life meaningfulness among the substance users. The study is classified into two phases: the first phase which dealt with development of Life Meaningfulness Scale and the second phase which examined the relationship between life meaningfulness and social support, abstinence self efficacy and depression. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used for framing items. A Principal Component Analysis yielded three components: Overall Goal Directedness, Striving for healthy lifestyle and Concern for loved ones which collectively accounted for 42.06% of the total variance. The scale and its subscales were also found to be highly reliable. Multiple regression analyses in the second phase of the study revealed that social support and abstinence self efficacy significantly predicted life meaningfulness among 48 recovering inmates of a de-addiction center while level of depression failed to predict life meaningfulness.

    121
    2916
    Urban Environment Quality Improvement Planning Case Study: Moft Abad Neighborhood, Tehran, Iran
    Abstract:
    Rapid enlargement and physical development of cities have facilitated the emergence of a number of city life crises and decrease of environment quality. Subsequently, the need for noticing the concept of quality and its improvement in urban environments, besides quantitative issues, is obviously recognized. In the domain of urban ideas the importance of taking these issues into consideration is obvious not only in accordance to sustainable development concepts and improvement of public environment quality, but also in the enhancement of social and behavioral models. The major concern of present article is to study the nature of urban environment quality in urban development plans, which is important not only in the concept and the aim of projects but also in their execution procedure. As a result, this paper is going to utilize planning capacities caused by environmental virtues in the planning procedure of Moft Abad neighborhood. Thus, at the first step, applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), it has assessed quantitative environmental issues. The present conditions of Moft Abad state that “the neighborhood is generally suffering from the lack of qualitative parameters, and the previously formed planning procedures could not take the sustainable and developmental paths which are aimed at environment quality virtues." The diminution of economical and environmental virtues has resulted in the diminution of residential and social virtues. Therefore, in order to enhance the environment quality in Moft Abad, the present paper has tried to supply the subject plans in order to make a safe, healthy, and lively neighborhood.
    120
    2932
    Taking People, Process and Partnership on Board for Participatory Decision Making
    Abstract:
    Public administration institutions in cooperation with politicians are not the sole policy decision makers in full meaning any longer. Meanwhile, a special role, namely steering the decision making process, could be delegated to them. Despite the wide scientific discussion on different aspects what has direct impact on policy creation, there is a lack of holistic practical managerial advice, which could integrate infrastructure of policy decision making with intellectual capital and with interconnection of partnership. The proposed harmonized decision making model of process, people and partnership entitled by acronym HM-3P is analyzed as a framework for implementation of public administration steering role seeking the coherent social involvement in policy decision making.
    119
    3150
    A New Measurable Definition of Knowledge in New Growth Theory
    Abstract:
    New Growth Theory helps us make sense of the ongoing shift from a resource-based economy to a knowledge-based economy. It underscores the point that the economic processes which create and diffuse new knowledge are critical to shaping the growth of nations, communities and individual firms. In all too many contributions to New (Endogenous) Growth Theory – though not in all – central reference is made to 'a stock of knowledge', a 'stock of ideas', etc., this variable featuring centre-stage in the analysis. Yet it is immediately apparent that this is far from being a crystal clear concept. The difficulty and uncertainty of being able to capture the value associated with knowledge is a real problem. The intent of this paper is introducing new thinking and theorizing about the knowledge and its measurability in new growth theory. Moreover the study aims to synthesize various strain of the literature with a practical bearing on knowledge concept. By contribution of institution framework which is found within NGT, we can indirectly measure the knowledge concept. Institutions matter because they shape the environment for production and employment of new knowledge
    118
    3252
    The Application of Real Options to Capital Budgeting
    Abstract:

    Real options theory suggests that managerial flexibility embedded within irreversible investments can account for a significant value in project valuation. Although the argument has become the dominant focus of capital investment theory over decades, yet recent survey literature in capital budgeting indicates that corporate practitioners still do not explicitly apply real options in investment decisions. In this paper, we explore how real options decision criteria can be transformed into equivalent capital budgeting criteria under the consideration of uncertainty, assuming that underlying stochastic process follows a geometric Brownian motion (GBM), a mixed diffusion-jump (MX), or a mean-reverting process (MR). These equivalent valuation techniques can be readily decomposed into conventional investment rules and “option impacts", the latter of which describe the impacts on optimal investment rules with the option value considered. Based on numerical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, three major findings are derived. First, it is shown that real options could be successfully integrated into the mindset of conventional capital budgeting. Second, the inclusion of option impacts tends to delay investment. It is indicated that the delay effect is the most significant under a GBM process and the least significant under a MR process. Third, it is optimal to adopt the new capital budgeting criteria in investment decision-making and adopting a suboptimal investment rule without considering real options could lead to a substantial loss in value.

    117
    3259
    Role of Investment in the Course of Economic Growth in Pakistan
    Abstract:
    The present research was focused to investigate the role of investment in the course of economic growth with reference to Pakistan. The study analyzed the role of the public and private investment and impact of the political and macroeconomic uncertainty on economic growth of Pakistan by using the vector autoregressive approach (VAR). In long-run both public and private investment showed a positive impact on economic growth but the growth was largely driven by private investment as compared to public investment. Government consumption expenditure, economic uncertainty and political instability hampered the economic growth of Pakistan. In short-run the private investment positively influences the growth but there was negative and insignificant effect of the public investment and government consumption expenditure on the growth. There was a positive relationship found between economic uncertainty (proxy for inflation) and GDP in short run.
    116
    3272
    The Effect of Organizational Communications System on Interpersonal Conflict in Physical Education Offices of Isfahan Province, IRAN
    Abstract:
    The purpose of this study was to survey the effect of organizational communication system on the conflict in physical education offices of Isfahan province. The research methodology of this research was a descriptive study. All employees working in physical education offices of Isfahan province were included in the sample for this study (N= 236). Researcher made questionnaire and demographic questionnaire were used as investigation instruments. Based on the result of chi square test, there is significant difference between organizational communication system and interpersonal conflict. The most of participants evaluate communication in an informal way and pointed out that the communication channels were not open. Based on the result of binomial test, interpersonal conflict exists in physical education offices of Isfahan.
    115
    3450
    The Path to Web Intelligence Maturity
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    Web intelligence, if made personal, can fuel the process of building communications around the interests and preferences of each individual customer or prospect, by providing specific behavioral insights about each individual. To become fully efficient, Web intelligence must reach a stage of a high-level maturity, passing throughout a process that involves five steps: (1) Web site analysis; (2) Web site and advertising optimization; (3) Segment targeting; (4) Interactive marketing (online only); and (5) Interactive marketing (online and offline). Discussing these steps in detail, the paper uncovers the real gold mine that is personal-level Web intelligence.

    114
    3927
    A Type of Urban Genesis in Romanian Outer-Carpathian Area: the Genoan Cities
    Abstract:
    The Mongol expansion in the West and the political and commercial interests arising from antagonisms between the Golden Horde and the Persian Ilkhanate determined the transformation of the Black Sea into an international trade turntable beginning with the last third of the XIIIth century. As the Volga Khanate attracted the maritime power of Genoa in the transcontinental project of deviating the Silk Road to its own benefit, the latter took full advantage of the new historical conjuncture, to the detriment of its rival, Venice. As a consequence, Genoa settled important urban centers on the Pontic shores, having mainly a commercial role. In the Romanian outer-Carpathian area, Vicina, Cetatea Albâ, and Chilia are notable, representing distinct, important types of cities within the broader context of the Romanian medieval urban genesis typology.
    113
    3982
    Between Policy Options and Technology Applications: Measuring the Sustainable Impacts on Distance Learning
    Abstract:
    This paper examines the interplay of policy options and cost-effective technology in providing sustainable distance education. A case study has been conducted among the learners and teachers. The emergence of learning technologies through CD, internet, and mobile is increasingly adopted by distance institutes for quick delivery and cost-effective factors. Their sustainability is conditioned by the structure of learners and well as the teaching community. The structure of learners in terms of rural and urban background revealed similarity in adoption and utilization of mobile learning. In other words, the technology transcended the rural-urban dichotomy. The teaching community was divided into two groups on policy issues. This study revealed both cost-effective as well as sustainability impacts on different learners groups divided by rural and urban location.
    112
    4058
    Towards Better Understanding of the Concept of Tacit Knowledge – A Cognitive Approach
    Abstract:
    Tacit knowledge has been one of the most discussed and contradictory concepts in the field of knowledge management since the mid 1990s. The concept is used relatively vaguely to refer to any type of information that is difficult to articulate, which has led to discussions about the original meaning of the concept (adopted from Polanyi-s philosophy) and the nature of tacit knowing. It is proposed that the subject should be approached from the perspective of cognitive science in order to connect tacit knowledge to empirically studied cognitive phenomena. Some of the most important examples of tacit knowing presented by Polanyi are analyzed in order to trace the cognitive mechanisms of tacit knowing and to promote better understanding of the nature of tacit knowledge. The cognitive approach to Polanyi-s theory reveals that the tacit/explicit typology of knowledge often presented in the knowledge management literature is not only artificial but totally opposite approach compared to Polanyi-s thinking.
    111
    4167
    The Impact of Website Personality on Consumers' Initial Trust towards Online Retailing Websites
    Abstract:

    E-tailing websites are often perceived to be static, impersonal and distant. However, with the movement of the World Wide Web to Web 2.0 in recent years, these online websites have been found to display personalities akin to 'humanistic' qualities and project impressions much like its retailing counterpart i.e. salespeople. This paper examines the personality of e-tailing websites and their impact on consumers- initial trust towards the sites. A total of 239 Internet users participated in this field experiment study which utilized 6 online book retailers- websites that the participants had not previously visited before. Analysis revealed that out of four website personalities (sincerity, competence, excitement and sophistication) only sincerity and competence are able to exert an influence in building consumers- trust upon their first visit to the website. The implications of the findings are further elaborated in this paper.

    110
    4274
    Duration Analysis of New Firms in the Banking Industry
    Abstract:

    This paper studies the duration or survival time of commercial banks active in the Moscovian three month Rouble deposits market, during the 1994-1997 period. The privatization process of the Russian commercial banking industry, after the 1988 banking reform, caused a massive entry of new banks followed by a period of high rates of exit. As a consequence, many firms went bankrupt without refunding their deposits. Therefore, both for the banks and for the banks- depositors, it is of interest to analyze which are the significant characteristics that motivate the exit or the closing of the bank. We propose a different methodology based on penalized weighted least squares which represents a very general, flexible and innovative approach for this type of analysis. The more relevant results are that smaller banks exit sooner, banks that enter the market in the last part of the study have shorter durations. As expected, the more experienced banks have a longer duration in the market. In addition, the mean survival time is lower for banks which offer extreme interest rates.

    109
    4358
    The Predictability and Abstractness of Language: A Study in Understanding and Usage of the English Language through Probabilistic Modeling and Frequency
    Abstract:

    Accounts of language acquisition differ significantly in their treatment of the role of prediction in language learning. In particular, nativist accounts posit that probabilistic learning about words and word sequences has little to do with how children come to use language. The accuracy of this claim was examined by testing whether distributional probabilities and frequency contributed to how well 3-4 year olds repeat simple word chunks. Corresponding chunks were the same length, expressed similar content, and were all grammatically acceptable, yet the results of the study showed marked differences in performance when overall distributional frequency varied. It was found that a distributional model of language predicted the empirical findings better than a number of other models, replicating earlier findings and showing that children attend to distributional probabilities in an adult corpus. This suggested that language is more prediction-and-error based, rather than on abstract rules which nativist camps suggest.

    108
    4414
    Authoritarian Parenting Received from Mothers Reveals Individual Differences in Preschooler's False-belief, but not in Advanced Theory of Mind
    Abstract:

    Remarkable changes, like the progress in the ability to understand others' minds, can be identified in several socio-cognitive dimensions between age four and seven. Recently, the parenting attitudes have been considerate as one of the potential extrinsic modifiers of these important developmental aspects. The aim of present study is to explore the relationship among authoritarian parenting attitudes and individual differences in Theory of Mind performance. The study included ninety-two Costarrican preschoolers. Six False-belief tasks, an Advanced Theory of Mind test and the Parenting Attitudes Inventory were used. The results demonstrate that participants with high and low Authoritarian Parenting Received differ in their performance on First and Second Order False-belief tasks, but not in Advanced Theory of Mind tasks. Theoretical considerations about possible explanations regarding these results are discussed and methodological limitations are considered to shed light over future directions.

    107
    4470
    Depression and Its Effects on a Cognitive Performance Test
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    In this study, participants with adjustment disorder with depressed mood (aged 18-54 years) with mild depression (N=18), severe depression (N=12) were compared with healthy controls (N=20) on the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB) a cognitive performance test. Using One Way Analysis of Variance and Matched Sample t-test. The results of the analysis shows that severely depressed participants performed poorly on the cognitive performance test relative to controls, however there were no significant differences on the cognitive performance test scores between the severely depressed and the mildly depressed. In addition, performance on the non-verbal performance subtest was poorer than that of the verbal subtest, suggesting that depression affects the executive functions of the person.

    106
    4781
    Classroom Teacher Candidates' Definitions and Beliefs about Technology Integration
    Abstract:

    The purpose of this paper is to present teacher candidates- beliefs about technology integration in their field of study, which is classroom teaching in this case. The study was conducted among the first year students in college of education in Turkey. This study is based on both quantitative and qualitative data. For the quantitative data- Likert scale was used and for the qualitative data pattern matching was employed. The primary findings showed that students defined educational technology as technologies that improve learning with their visual, easily accessible, and productive features. They also believe these technologies could affect their future students- learning positively.

    105
    4852
    The Management in Large Emergency Situations – A Best Practise Case Study based on GIS for Management of Evacuation
    Abstract:
    In most of the cases, natural disasters lead to the necessity of evacuating people. The quality of evacuation management is dramatically improved by the use of information provided by decision support systems, which become indispensable in case of large scale evacuation operations. This paper presents a best practice case study. In November 2007, officers from the Emergency Situations Inspectorate “Crisana" of Bihor County from Romania participated to a cross-border evacuation exercise, when 700 people have been evacuated from Netherlands to Belgium. One of the main objectives of the exercise was the test of four different decision support systems. Afterwards, based on that experience, software system called TEVAC (Trans Border Evacuation) has been developed “in house" by the experts of this institution. This original software system was successfully tested in September 2008, during the deployment of the international exercise EU-HUROMEX 2008, the scenario involving real evacuation of 200 persons from Hungary to Romania. Based on the lessons learned and results, starting from April 2009, the TEVAC software is used by all Emergency Situations Inspectorates all over Romania.
    104
    4880
    Social and Economic Effects of Mining Industry Restructuring in Romania -Case Studies
    Abstract:
    As in other countries from Central and Eastern Europe, the economic restructuring occurred in the last decade of the twentieth century affected the mining industry in Romania, an oversize and heavily subsidized sector before 1989. After more than a decade since the beginning of mining restructuring, an evaluation of current social implications of the process it is required, together with an efficiency analysis of the adaptation mechanisms developed at governmental level. This article aims to provide an insight into these issues through case studies conducted in the most important coal basin of Romania, Petroşani Depression.
    103
    4992
    Evaluating Complexity – Ethical Challenges in Computational Design Processes
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    Complexity, as a theoretical background has made it easier to understand and explain the features and dynamic behavior of various complex systems. As the common theoretical background has confirmed, borrowing the terminology for design from the natural sciences has helped to control and understand urban complexity. Phenomena like self-organization, evolution and adaptation are appropriate to describe the formerly inaccessible characteristics of the complex environment in unpredictable bottomup systems. Increased computing capacity has been a key element in capturing the chaotic nature of these systems. A paradigm shift in urban planning and architectural design has forced us to give up the illusion of total control in urban environment, and consequently to seek for novel methods for steering the development. New methods using dynamic modeling have offered a real option for more thorough understanding of complexity and urban processes. At best new approaches may renew the design processes so that we get a better grip on the complex world via more flexible processes, support urban environmental diversity and respond to our needs beyond basic welfare by liberating ourselves from the standardized minimalism. A complex system and its features are as such beyond human ethics. Self-organization or evolution is either good or bad. Their mechanisms are by nature devoid of reason. They are common in urban dynamics in both natural processes and gas. They are features of a complex system, and they cannot be prevented. Yet their dynamics can be studied and supported. The paradigm of complexity and new design approaches has been criticized for a lack of humanity and morality, but the ethical implications of scientific or computational design processes have not been much discussed. It is important to distinguish the (unexciting) ethics of the theory and tools from the ethics of computer aided processes based on ethical decisions. Urban planning and architecture cannot be based on the survival of the fittest; however, the natural dynamics of the system cannot be impeded on grounds of being “non-human". In this paper the ethical challenges of using the dynamic models are contemplated in light of a few examples of new architecture and dynamic urban models and literature. It is suggested that ethical challenges in computational design processes could be reframed under the concepts of responsibility and transparency.
    102
    5138
    Students' Perceptions of the Value of the Elements of an Online Learning Environment: An Investigation of Discipline Differences
    Abstract:

    This paper presents a large scale, quantitative investigation of the impact of discipline differences on the student experience of using an online learning environment (OLE). Based on a representative sample of 2526 respondents, a number of significant differences in the mean rating by broad discipline area of the importance of, and satisfaction with, a range of elements of an OLE were found. Broadly speaking, the Arts and Science and Technology discipline areas reported the lowest importance and satisfaction ratings for the OLE, while the Health and Behavioural Sciences area was the most satisfied with the OLE. A number of specific, systematic discipline differences are reported and discussed. Compared to the observed significant differences in mean importance ratings, there were fewer significant differences in mean satisfaction ratings, and those that were observed were less systematic than for importance ratings.

    101
    5184
    Aspects Regarding the Genesis of the City of Suceava, a Medieval Capital of Moldavia
    Abstract:
    The city of Suceava, one of the most important medieval capital of Moldova, owes its urban genesis to the power center established in its territory at the turn of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Freed from the effective control exercised by the Emir Nogai through Alanians, the local center of power evolved as the main representative of the interests of indigenous people in relation to the Hungarian Angevin dinasty and to their representatives from Maramures. From this perspective, the political and military role of the settlement of Suceava was archeologically proved by the discovery of extensive fortifications, unrivaled in the first half of the XIVth century-s Moldavia. At the end of that century, voivod Peter I decides to move the capital of the state from Siret to Suceava. That option stimulated the development of the settlement on specific urban coordinates.
    100
    5518
    Evaluation Pattern of Cognitive Processes in Language in Written Comprehension
    Abstract:
    Our research aims at helping the tutor on line to evaluate the student-s cognitive processes. The student is a learner in French as a Second Language who studies an on-line socio-cognitive scenario in written communication. In our method, these cognitive processes are defined. For that, the language abilities and learning tasks are associated to cognitive operation. Moreover, the found cognitive processes are named with specific terms. The result was to create an instrumental pattern to question the learner about the cognitive processes used to build an item of written comprehension. Our research follows the principles of the third historical generation of studies on the cognitive activity of the text comprehension. The strength of our instrumental pattern stands in the precision and the logical articulation of the questions to the learner. However, the learner-s answers can still be subjective but the precision of the instrument restricts it.
    99
    5602
    Analyzing and Comparing the Architectural Specifications and the Urban Role of Scientific– Technological Parks in Iran and the World
    Abstract:
    The issue of scientific – technological parks has been proposed in several countries of the world especially in western countries since a few decades ago and its efficiency is under examination. In our county Iran, some scientific – technological parks have been established or are being established. This design would evaluate the urban role and method of architecture of these parks in order to criticize its efficiency and offer some suggestions, as much as possible to improve its building methods in Iran. The main problem of this design is that how much these parks in Iran do meet the international measurements. So for this reason, one scientific park in Iran and one from western countries would be studied and compared with each other.
    98
    5629
    Challenges of e-Government Services Adoption in Saudi Arabia from an e-Ready Citizen Perspective
    Abstract:
    More and more governments around the world are introducing e-government as a means of reducing costs, improving services, saving time and increasing effectiveness and efficiency in the public sector Therefore e-government has been identified as one of the top priorities for Saudi government and all its agencies. However, the adoption of e-government is facing many challenges and barriers such as technological, cultural, organizational, and social issues which must be considered and treated carefully by any government contemplating its adoption. This paper reports on a pilot study amongst online (e-ready) citizens to identify the challenges and barriers that affect the adoption of e-government services especially from their perspective in Saudi society. Based on the analysis of data collected from an online survey the researcher was able to identify some of the important barriers and challenges from the e-ready citizen perspective. As a result, this study has generated a list of possible strategies to move towards successful adoption of egovernment services in Saudi Arabia.
    97
    5879
    Continual Improvement with Integrated Management System
    Abstract:
    Management Systems are powerful tools for businesses to manage quality , environmental and occupational health and safety requirements . where once these systems were considered as stand alone control mechanisms , industry is now opting to increase the efficiency of these documented systems through a more integrated approach . System integration offers a significant step forward, where there are similarities between system components , reducing duplication and adminstration costs and increasing efficiency . At first , this paper reviews integrated management system structure and its benefits. The second part of this paper focuses on the one example implementation of such a system at Imam Khomeini Hospital and in final part of the paper will be discuss outcomes of that proccess .
    96
    6293
    A Framework of Monte Carlo Simulation for Examining the Uncertainty-Investment Relationship
    Abstract:
    This paper argues that increased uncertainty, in certain situations, may actually encourage investment. Since earlier studies mostly base their arguments on the assumption of geometric Brownian motion, the study extends the assumption to alternative stochastic processes, such as mixed diffusion-jump, mean-reverting process, and jump amplitude process. A general approach of Monte Carlo simulation is developed to derive optimal investment trigger for the situation that the closed-form solution could not be readily obtained under the assumption of alternative process. The main finding is that the overall effect of uncertainty on investment is interpreted by the probability of investing, and the relationship appears to be an invested U-shaped curve between uncertainty and investment. The implication is that uncertainty does not always discourage investment even under several sources of uncertainty. Furthermore, high-risk projects are not always dominated by low-risk projects because the high-risk projects may have a positive realization effect on encouraging investment.
    95
    6368
    Stock Market Integration Measurement: Investigation of Malaysia and Singapore Stock Markets
    Abstract:

    This paper tests the level of market integration between Malaysia and Singapore stock markets with the world market. Kalman Filter (KF) methodology is used on the International Capital Asset Pricing Model (ICAPM) and the pricing errors estimated within the framework of ICAPM are used as a measure of market integration or segmentation. The advantage of the KF technique is that it allows for time-varying coefficients in estimating ICAPM and hence able to capture the varying degree of market integration. Empirical results show clear evidence of varying degree of market integration for both case of Malaysia and Singapore. Furthermore, the results show that the changes in the level of market integration are found to coincide with certain economic events that have taken placed. The findings certainly provide evidence on the practicability of the KF technique to estimate stock markets integration. In the comparison between Malaysia and Singapore stock market, the result shows that the trends of the market integration indices for Malaysia and Singapore look similar through time but the magnitude is notably different with the Malaysia stock market showing greater degree of market integration. Finally, significant evidence of varying degree of market integration shows the inappropriate use of OLS in estimating the level of market integration.

    94
    6427
    The Weight of Corporate Social Responsibility Indicators in Measurement Procedure
    Abstract:

    The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) performance has garnered significant interest during the last two decades as numerous methodologies are proposed by Social Responsible Investment (SRI) indexes. The weight of each indicator is a crucial component of the CSR measurement procedures. Based on a previous study, the appropriate weight of each proposed indicator for the Greek telecommunication sector is specified using the rank reciprocal weighting. The Kendall-s Coefficient of Concordance and Spearman Correlation Coefficient non-parametric tests are adopted to determine the level of consensus among the experts concerning the importance rank of indicators. The results show that there is no consensus regarding the rank of indicators in most of stakeholders- domains. The equal weight for all indicators could be proposed as a solution for the lack of consensus among the experts. The study recommends three different equations concerning the adopted weight approach.

    93
    6433
    Multivariate School Travel Demand Regression Based on Trip Attraction
    Abstract:
    Since primary school trips usually start from home, attention by many scholars have been focused on the home end for data gathering. Thereafter category analysis has often been relied upon when predicting school travel demands. In this paper, school end was relied on for data gathering and multivariate regression for future travel demand prediction. 9859 pupils were surveyed by way of questionnaires at 21 primary schools. The town was divided into 5 zones. The study was carried out in Skudai Town, Malaysia. Based on the hypothesis that the number of primary school trip ends are expected to be the same because school trips are fixed, the choice of trip end would have inconsequential effect on the outcome. The study compared empirical data for home and school trip end productions and attractions. Variance from both data results was insignificant, although some claims from home based family survey were found to be grossly exaggerated. Data from the school trip ends was relied on for travel demand prediction because of its completeness. Accessibility, trip attraction and trip production were then related to school trip rates under daylight and dry weather conditions. The paper concluded that, accessibility is an important parameter when predicting demand for future school trip rates.
    92
    6455
    IFRS for SMEs: Challenge for Emerging Countries? Case of Czech Republic and Ukraine
    Abstract:
    Increase in globalization of capital markets brings the higher requirements on financial information provided for investors who look for a highly comparable information. Paper deals with the advantages and limitations of applying International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in the Czech Republic and Ukraine. As a greatest limit for full adoption of IFRS shall be acknowledged the strong connection of continental accounting to tax system and enormous high administrative burden for IFRS appliers.
    91
    6485
    Photogrammetry and GIS Integration for Archaeological Documentation of Ahl-Alkahf, Jordan
    Abstract:

    Protection and proper management of archaeological heritage are an essential process of studying and interpreting the generations present and future. Protecting the archaeological heritage is based upon multidiscipline professional collaboration. This study aims to gather data by different sources (Photogrammetry and Geographic Information System (GIS)) integrated for the purpose of documenting one the of significant archeological sites (Ahl-Alkahf, Jordan). 3D modeling deals with the actual image of the features, shapes and texture to represent reality as realistically as possible by using texture. The 3D coordinates that result of the photogrammetric adjustment procedures are used to create 3D-models of the study area. Adding Textures to the 3D-models surfaces gives a 'real world' appearance to the displayed models. GIS system combined all data, including boundary maps, indicating the location of archeological sites, transportation layer, digital elevation model and orthoimages. For realistic representation of the study area, 3D - GIS model prepared, where efficient generation, management and visualization of such special data can be achieved.

    90
    6557
    Wangle the Organizational Internal and External Knowledge – A New Horizon for Sustaining the Business Stability
    Abstract:
    Knowledge is renowned as a significant component for sustaining competitive advantage and gives leading edge in business. This study emphasizes towards proper and effectuate utilization of internal and external (both either explicit or tacit) knowledge comes from stakeholders, highly supportive to combat with the challenges and enhance organizational productivity. Furthermore, it proposed a model under context of IRSA framework which facilitates the organization including flow of knowledge and experience sharing among employees. In discussion section an innovative model which indulges all functionality as mentioned in analysis section.
    89
    6597
    Sustainability Strategy and Firm Performance in Residential Trade and Industry: A Conceptual Analysis
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    The request for a sustainable development challenges both managers and consumers to rethink habitual practices and activities. While consumers are challenged to develop sustainable consumption patterns, companies are asked to establish managerial systems and structures considering economical, ecological, and social issues. As this is in particular true for housing associations, this paper aims first, at providing an understanding of sustainability strategy in residential trade and industry (RTI) by identifying relevant facets of this construct and second, at conceptually analyzing the impact of sustainability strategy in RTI on operational efficiency and performance of municipal housing companies. The author develops a model of sustainability strategy in RTI and its effects and further, sheds light in priorities for future research.
    88
    6607
    The Role of Driving Experience in Hazard Perception and Categorization: A Traffic-Scene Paradigm
    Abstract:

    This study examined the role of driving experience in hazard perception and categorization using traffic scene pictures. Specifically, young-inexperienced, moderately experienced and very experienced (taxi) drivers observed traffic scene pictures while connected to an eye tracking system and were asked to rate the level of hazardousness of each picture and to mention the three most prominent hazards in it. Target pictures included nine, nearly identical, pairs of pictures where one picture in each pair included an actual hazard as an additional element. Altogether, 22 areas of interest (AOIs) were predefined and included 13 potential hazards and 9 actual hazards. Data analysis included both verbal reports and eye scanning patterns of these AOIs. Generally, both experienced and taxi drivers noted a relatively larger number of potential hazards than young inexperienced drivers Thus, by relating to less salient potential hazards, experienced drivers have demonstrated a better situation model of the traffic environment.

    87
    6820
    Factors Paving the Way towards Islamic Banking in Pakistan
    Abstract:
    Islamic banking is one the most blossoming doctrine in economic system of the world. The Fast growing awareness about Islamic financial system has brought strong feeling to Muslims to confront the western interest-based economic cycle. The Islamic economic system is emerging as a reliable alternative to the interest based system. This study is proposed to ascertain the motivational factors encouraging people to go for Islamic banking in Pakistan. These pulsing factors are determined by generation of hypothesis that there are certain factors which are urging people to opt Islamic banking system and to see the differences in their ranking by applying Friedman test. These factors include: Economically derived factors such as stability of Islamic banks in crisis, profit and loss sharing doctrine and equity sharing etc. This study also highlights the religiously derived factors such as interest free banking, Shariah tenets and supervisory of Islamic Shariah board and sociopsychological factors.
    86
    6998
    The Framework of Termination Mechanism in Modern Emergency Management
    Abstract:
    Termination Mechanism is an indispensible part of the emergency management mechanism. Despite of its importance in both theory and practice, it is almost a brand new field for researching. The concept of termination mechanism is proposed firstly in this paper, and the design and implementation which are helpful to guarantee the effect and integrity of emergency management are discussed secondly. Starting with introduction of the problems caused by absent termination and incorrect termination, the essence of termination mechanism is analyzed, a model based on Optimal Stopping Theory is constructed and the termination index is given. The model could be applied to find the best termination time point.. Termination decision should not only be concerned in termination stage, but also in the whole emergency management process, which makes it a dynamic decision making process. Besides, the main subjects and the procedure of termination are illustrated after the termination time point is given. Some future works are discussed lastly.
    85
    7093
    Inter-Organizational Knowledge Transfer Through Malaysia E-government IT Outsourcing: A Theoretical Review
    Abstract:
    The main objective of this paper is to contribute the existing knowledge transfer and IT Outsourcing literature specifically in the context of Malaysia by reviewing the current practices of e-government IT outsourcing in Malaysia including the issues and challenges faced by the public agencies in transferring the knowledge during the engagement. This paper discusses various factors and different theoretical model of knowledge transfer starting from the traditional model to the recent model suggested by the scholars. The present paper attempts to align organizational knowledge from the knowledge-based view (KBV) and organizational learning (OL) lens. This review could help shape the direction of both future theoretical and empirical studies on inter-firm knowledge transfer specifically on how KBV and OL perspectives could play significant role in explaining the complex relationships between the client and vendor in inter-firm knowledge transfer and the role of organizational management information system and Transactive Memory System (TMS) to facilitate the organizational knowledge transferring process. Conclusion is drawn and further research is suggested.
    84
    7094
    Automatically-generated Concept Maps as a Learning Tool
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    Concept maps can be generated manually or automatically. It is important to recognize differences of the two types of concept maps. The automatically generated concept maps are dynamic, interactive, and full of associations between the terms on the maps and the underlying documents. Through a specific concept mapping system, Visual Concept Explorer (VCE), this paper discusses how automatically generated concept maps are different from manually generated concept maps and how different applications and learning opportunities might be created with the automatically generated concept maps. The paper presents several examples of learning strategies that take advantages of the automatically generated concept maps for concept learning and exploration.
    83
    7097
    Introducing the Main Factors of Accidents on the Roads of Iran and Studying its Causes and Strategies Applied to Decrease it
    Abstract:
    Road transportation system is the most important method of transporting the goods. Considering the most suitable geographical situation of Iran to transport the goods between Europe and Asia and placement of this country in direction of international corridors (east- west) , (north-south) and Asian land transport to infrastructure development “A.L.T.I.D" and Transport corridor Europe - Caucasus - Asia “T.R.A.C.E.C.A", noticing the security of road transportation system in this country is so important. In this paper the main factors of accidents on the roads of Iran are categorized regarding the rate of accidents occurred. Then apart from studying the main reasons of accidents of every category, the main factors of these events are studied and its strategies in Iran are introduced.
    82
    7122
    Diasporic Discourse and Body Codes:Transnational Identities in Three Representative Chinese-French Artists
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    This paper focuses upon three such painters working in France from this time and their representations both of their host country in which they found themselves displaced, and of their homeland which they represent through refracted memories from their new perspective in Europe. What is their representation of France and China´╝ÅTaiwan? Is it Otherness or an origin? This paper also attempts to explore the three artists- diasporic lives and to redefine their transnational identities. Hou Chin-lang, the significance of his multiple-split images serve to highlight the intricate relationships between his work and the surrounding family, and to reveal his identity of his Taiwan “homeland". Yin Xin takes paintings from the Western canon and subjects them to a process of transformation through Chinese imagery. In the same period, Lin Li-ling, transforms the transnational spirit of Yin Xin to symbolic codes with neutered female bodies and tatoos, thus creates images that challenge the boundaries of both gender and nationality.
    81
    7153
    Industrial Development, Environment And Occupational Problems: The Case Of Iran
    Abstract:
    There are three distinct stages in the evolution of economic thought, namely: 1. in the first stage, the major concern was to accelerate economic growth with increased availability of material goods, especially in developing economies with very low living standards, because poverty eradication meant faster economic growth. 2. in the second stage, economists made distinction between growth and development. Development was seen as going beyond economic growth, and bringing certain changes in the structure of the economy with more equitable distribution of the benefits of growth, with the growth coming automatic and sustained. 3. the third stage is now reached. Our concern is now with “sustainable development", that is, development not only for the present but also of the future. Thus the focus changed from “sustained growth" to “sustained development". Sustained development brings to the fore the long term relationship between the ecology and economic development. Since the creation of UNEP in 1972 it has worked for development without destruction for environmentally sound and sustained development. It was realised that the environment cannot be viewed in a vaccum, it is not separate from development, nor is it competing. It suggested for the integration of the environment with development whereby ecological factors enter development planning, socio-economic policies, cost-benefit analysis, trade, technology transfer, waste management, educational and other specific areas. Industrialisation has contributed to the growth of economy of several countries. It has improved the standards of living of its people and provided benefits to the society. It has also created in the process great environmental problems like climate change, forest destruction and denudation, soil erosion and desertification etc. On the other hand, industry has provided jobs and improved the prospects of wealth for the industrialists. The working class communities had to simply put up with the high levels of pollution in order to keep up their jobs and also to save their income. There are many roots of the environmental problem. They may be political, economic, cultural and technological conditions of the modern society. The experts concede that industrial growth lies somewhere close to the heart of the matter. Therefore, the objective of this paper is not to document all roots of an environmental crisis but rather to discuss the effects of industrial growth and development. We have come to the conclusion that although public intervention is often unnecessary to ensure that perfectly competitive markets will function in society-s best interests, such intervention is necessary when firms or consumers pollute.
    80
    7165
    Exploring the Application of Knowledge Management Factors in Esfahan University's Medical College
    Abstract:

    In this competitive age, one of the key tools of most successful organizations is knowledge management. Today some organizations measure their current knowledge and use it as an indicator for rating the organization on their reports. Noting that the universities and colleges of medical science have a great role in public health of societies, their access to newest scientific research and the establishment of organizational knowledge management systems is very important. In order to explore the Application of Knowledge Management Factors, a national study was undertaken. The main purpose of this study was to find the rate of the application of knowledge management factors and some ways to establish more application of knowledge management system in Esfahan University-s Medical College (EUMC). Esfahan is the second largest city after Tehran, the capital city of Iran, and the EUMC is the biggest medical college in Esfahan. To rate the application of knowledge management, this study uses a quantitative research methodology based on Probst, Raub and Romhardt model of knowledge management. A group of 267 faculty members and staff of the EUMC were asked via questionnaire. Finding showed that the rate of the application of knowledge management factors in EUMC have been lower than average. As a result, an interview with ten faculty members conducted to find the guidelines to establish more applications of knowledge management system in EUMC.

    79
    7223
    A Critical Approach to Modern Conception in the Context of Objectivity and Quantitative Method
    Abstract:
    The struggle between modern and postmodern understanding is also displayed in terms of the superiorities of quantitative and qualitative methods to each other which are evaluated within the scope of these understandings. By way of assuming that the quantitative researches (modern) are able to account for structure while the qualitative researches (postmodern) explain the process, these methods are turned into a means for worldviews specific to a period. In fact, process is not a functioning independent of structure. In addition to this issue, the ability of quantitative methods to provide scientific knowledge is also controversial so long as they exclude the dialectical method. For this reason, the critiques charged against modernism in terms of quantitative methods are, in a sense, legitimate. Nevertheless, the main issue is in which parameters postmodernist critique tries to legitimize its critiques and whether these parameters represent a point of view enabling democratic solutions. In this respect, the scientific knowledge covered in Turkish media as a means through which ordinary people have access to scientific knowledge will be evaluated by means of content analysis within a new objectivity conception.
    78
    7237
    Dynamic Capitalization and Visualization Strategy in Collaborative Knowledge Management System for EI Process
    Abstract:
    Knowledge is attributed to human whose problemsolving behavior is subjective and complex. In today-s knowledge economy, the need to manage knowledge produced by a community of actors cannot be overemphasized. This is due to the fact that actors possess some level of tacit knowledge which is generally difficult to articulate. Problem-solving requires searching and sharing of knowledge among a group of actors in a particular context. Knowledge expressed within the context of a problem resolution must be capitalized for future reuse. In this paper, an approach that permits dynamic capitalization of relevant and reliable actors- knowledge in solving decision problem following Economic Intelligence process is proposed. Knowledge annotation method and temporal attributes are used for handling the complexity in the communication among actors and in contextualizing expressed knowledge. A prototype is built to demonstrate the functionalities of a collaborative Knowledge Management system based on this approach. It is tested with sample cases and the result showed that dynamic capitalization leads to knowledge validation hence increasing reliability of captured knowledge for reuse. The system can be adapted to various domains.
    77
    7355
    Entrepreneur Features as a Competence in the Design of the European Higher Education Area Degrees
    Abstract:
    This paper aims to explain the project carried out at the University of Cordoba, specifically at the High Polytechnic School in collaboration with two other organizations belonging to the Andalusian Ministry of Innovation, Science and Business: Andalusian Innovation and Development Agency (IDEA agency) [1] and the Territorial Net of Entrepreneurship Support (in Spanish Red Territorial de Apoyo al Emprendedor) [11]. The project is being developed in several stages of which only the first one has already been completed. However, several important preliminary results derive from it, based mainly in the description of the nature of entrepreneurship in the field of university education and its impact on student-s competency as recommended by the European Higher Education Area. Some problems holding back the correct future development will also be shown as derived from the specific context of application of the project.
    76
    7525
    The e-DELPHI Method to Test the Importance Competence and Skills: Case of the Lifelong Learning Spanish Trainers
    Abstract:
    The lifelong learning is a crucial element in the modernization of European education and training systems. The most important actors in the development process of the lifelong learning are the trainers, whose professional characteristics need new competences and skills in the current labour market. The main objective of this paper is to establish an importance ranking of the new competences, capabilities and skills that the lifelong learning Spanish trainers must possess nowadays. A wide study of secondary sources has allowed the design of a questionnaire that organizes the trainer-s skills and competences. The e-Delphi method is used for realizing a creative, individual and anonymous evaluation by experts on the importance ranking that presents the criteria, sub-criteria and indicators of the e-Delphi questionnaire. Twenty Spanish experts in the lifelong learning have participated in two rounds of the e- DELPHI method. In the first round, the analysis of the experts- evaluation has allowed to establish the ranking of the most importance criteria, sub-criteria and indicators and to eliminate the least valued. The minimum level necessary to reach the consensus among experts has been achieved in the second round.
    75
    7654
    Entrepreneurial Promotion among Farmers: the Early Impacts
    Abstract:
    The development of entrepreneurial competences of farmers has been pointed out as a necessary condition for the modernization of land in facing the phenomenon of globalization. However, the educational processes involved in such a development have been studied little, especially in emerging economies. This research aims to enlighten some of the critical issues behind the early stages of the transformation of farmers into entrepreneurs, through in depth interviews with farmers, entrepreneurial promoters and public officials participating in a public pilot project in Mexico. Although major impacts were expected only in the long run, important positive changes in the mind set of farmers and other participants were found in early stages of the intervention. Apparently, the farmers started a process of becoming more conscious about the importance of preserving the aquiferous resources, as well as more market and entrepreneurial oriented.
    74
    7821
    Hotel Guest's Liability for Non-Payment of Hotel Services in Comparative Law
    Abstract:

    The subject of the paper is comparative analysis of the hotel guest-s contractual liability for breaching the obligation for non-payment of hotel services in the hotel-keeper-s contract. The paper is methodologically conceived of six chapters (1. introduction, 2. comparative law sources of the hotel-keeper-s contract, 3. the guest-s obligation for payment of hotel services, 4. hotel guest's liability for non-payment, 5. the hotel-keeper-s rights due to nonpayment and 6. conclusion), which analyzes the guest-s liability for non-payment of hotel services through the international law, European law, euro-continental national laws (France, Germany, Italy, Croatia) and Anglo-American national laws (UK, USA). The paper-s results are the synthesis of answers to the set hypothesis and comparative review of hotel guest-s contractual liability for nonpayment of hotel services provided. In conclusion, it is necessary to adopt an international convention on the hotel-keeper-s contract, which would unify the institute of the hotel guest-s contractual liability for non-payment of hotel services at the international level.

    73
    7916
    The Exclusion of Consumer Rights in e-Auctions – Is an e-Auction Really an Auction at all?
    Abstract:

    This paper considers the exclusion of consumer rights by the New Zealand Consumer Guarantees Act 1993 in eauctions. The paper asserts that the absence of an individual auctioneer conducting each e-auction means that e-auctions may not be auctions at all. The paper also questions the justification for excluding consumer rights in e-auctions because the rationale for excluding consumer rights in traditional auctions does not fit with e-auctions due to the significant differences in the sale processes. The paper recommends reform by way of statutory amendment.

    72
    7976
    Prioritizing Service Quality Dimensions: A Neural Network Approach
    Abstract:
    One of the determinants of a firm-s prosperity is the customers- perceived service quality and satisfaction. While service quality is wide in scope, and consists of various dimensions, there may be differences in the relative importance of these dimensions in affecting customers- overall satisfaction of service quality. Identifying the relative rank of different dimensions of service quality is very important in that it can help managers to find out which service dimensions have a greater effect on customers- overall satisfaction. Such an insight will consequently lead to more effective resource allocation which will finally end in higher levels of customer satisfaction. This issue – despite its criticality- has not received enough attention so far. Therefore, using a sample of 240 bank customers in Iran, an artificial neural network is developed to address this gap in the literature. As customers- evaluation of service quality is a subjective process, artificial neural networks –as a brain metaphor- may appear to have a potentiality to model such a complicated process. Proposing a neural network which is able to predict the customers- overall satisfaction of service quality with a promising level of accuracy is the first contribution of this study. In addition, prioritizing the service quality dimensions in affecting customers- overall satisfaction –by using sensitivity analysis of neural network- is the second important finding of this paper.
    71
    8035
    Evaluating Telepresence Experience and Game Players' Intention to Purchase Product Advertised in Advergame
    Abstract:

    In line with changes of consumers modern lifestyle has call for the advertising strategy to change. This research is to find out how game with telepresence and product experience embedded in the computer game to affect users- intention to purchase. Game content developers are urging to consider of placing product message as part of game design strategy that can influence the game player-s intention to purchase. Experiment was carried out on two hundred and fifty undergraduate students who volunteered to participate in the Internet game playing activities. A factor analysis and correlation analysis was performed on items designed to measure telepresence, attitudes toward telepresence, and game player intention to purchase the product advertise in the game that respondents experienced. The results indicated that telepresence consist of interactive experience and product experience. The study also found that product experience is positively related to the game players- intention to purchase. The significance of product experience implies the usefulness of an interactive advertising in the game playing to attract players- intention to purchase the advertised product placed in the creative game design.

    70
    8042
    Quantification of Technology Innovation Usinga Risk-Based Framework
    Abstract:
    There is significant interest in achieving technology innovation through new product development activities. It is recognized, however, that traditional project management practices focused only on performance, cost, and schedule attributes, can often lead to risk mitigation strategies that limit new technology innovation. In this paper, a new approach is proposed for formally managing and quantifying technology innovation. This approach uses a risk-based framework that simultaneously optimizes innovation attributes along with traditional project management and system engineering attributes. To demonstrate the efficacy of the new riskbased approach, a comprehensive product development experiment was conducted. This experiment simultaneously managed the innovation risks and the product delivery risks through the proposed risk-based framework. Quantitative metrics for technology innovation were tracked and the experimental results indicate that the risk-based approach can simultaneously achieve both project deliverable and innovation objectives.
    69
    8077
    Social and Spatial Aspects of Housing Development Affecting Urban Quality of Life -the Case of Famagusta
    Abstract:
    Today due to rising levels of housing- necessities, several problems have been raised regarding to urban quality of life. The aim of the research is to study social and spatial aspects of housing environment and to find out their interaction with the urban quality of life. As a case of study two pilot areas of Famagusta city in North Cyprus, were selected: Baykal, considered as an established urban district and Tuzla, a newly developed peri-urban district. In order to determine urban quality of life in planning and developing of housing areas, social and spatial aspects of selected areas have been examined, differences between them according to the planning policy have been pointed out, advantages and disadvantages of housing planning have been found. As a practical implementation of the research a number of households in each selected area have been interviewed in order to draw a conclusion.
    68
    8176
    Dignity and Suffering: Reading of Human Rights in Untouchable by Anand
    Abstract:
    Cultural stories are political. They register cultural phenomena and their relations with the world and society in term of their existence, function, characteristics by using different context. This paper will provide a new way of rethinking which will help us to rethink the relationship between fiction and politics. It discusses the theme of human rights and it shows the relevance between art and politics by studying the civil society through a literary framework. Reasons to establish a relationship between fiction and politics are the relevant themes and universal issues among the two disciplines. Both disciplines are sets of views and ideas formulated by the human mind to explain political or cultural phenomenon. Other reasons are the complexity and depth of the author-s vision, and the need to explain the violations of human rights in a more active structure which can relate to emotional and social existence.
    67
    8292
    Exploring the Narrative Communication: Representing Visual Information from Digital Travel Stories
    Abstract:

    We present the results of a case study aiming to assess the reflection of the tourism community in the Web and its usability to propose new ways to communicate visually. The wealth of information contained in the Web and the clear facilities to communicate personals points of view makes of the social web a new space of exploration. In this way, social web allow the sharing of information between communities with similar interests. However, the tourism community remains unexplored as is the case of the information covered in travel stories. Along the Web, we find multiples sites allowing the users to communicate their experiences and personal points of view of a particular place of the world. This cultural heritage is found in multiple documents, usually very little supplemented with photos, so they are difficult to explore due to the lack of visual information. This paper explores the possibility of analyzing travel stories to display them visually on maps and generate new knowledge such as patterns of travel routes. This way, travel narratives published in electronic formats can be very important especially to the tourism community because of the great amount of knowledge that can be extracted. Our approach is based on the use of a Geoparsing Web Service to extract geographic coordinates from travel narratives in order to draw the geo-positions and link the documents into a map image.

    66
    8372
    Decision Support Framework in Managerial Learning Environment for Organization
    Abstract:
    In the open space of decision support system the mental impression of a manager-s decision has been the subject of large importance than the ordinary famous one, when helped by decision support system. Much of this study is an attempt to realize the relation of decision support system usage and decision outcomes that governs the system. For example, several researchers have proposed so many different models to analyze the linkage between decision support system processes and results of decision making. This study draws the important relation of manager-s mental approach with the use of decision support system. The findings of this paper are theoretical attempts to provide Decision Support System (DSS) in a way to exhibit and promote the learning in semi structured area. The proposed model shows the points of one-s learning improvements and maintains a theoretical approach in order to explore the DSS contribution in enhancing the decision forming and governing the system.
    65
    8382
    The Effect of Cooperation Teaching Method on Learning of Students in Primary Schools
    Abstract:
    The effect of teaching method on learning assistance Dunn Review .The study, to compare the effects of collaboration on teaching mathematics learning courses, including writing, science, experimental girl students by other methods of teaching basic first paid and the amount of learning students methods have been trained to cooperate with other students with other traditional methods have been trained to compare. The survey on 100 students in Tehran that using random sampling ¬ cluster of girl students between the first primary selections was performed. Considering the topic of semi-experimental research methods used to practice the necessary information by questionnaire, examination questions by the researcher, in collaboration with teachers and view authority in this field and related courses that teach these must have been collected. Research samples to test and control groups were divided. Experimental group and control group collaboration using traditional methods of mathematics courses, including writing and experimental sciences were trained. Research results using statistical methods T is obtained in two independent groups show that, through training assistance will lead to positive results and student learning in comparison with traditional methods, will increase also led to collaboration methods increase skills to solve math lesson practice, better understanding and increased skill level of students in practical lessons such as science and has been writing.
    64
    8479
    Impact of Government Spending on Private Consumption and on the Economy: Case of Thailand
    Abstract:
    The recent global financial problem urges government to play role in stimulating the economy due to the fact that private sector has little ability to purchase during the recession. A concerned question is whether the increased government spending crowds out private consumption and whether it helps stimulate the economy. If the government spending policy is effective; the private consumption is expected to increase and can compensate the recent extra government expense. In this study, the government spending is categorized into government consumption spending and government capital spending. The study firstly examines consumer consumption along the line with the demand function in microeconomic theory. Three categories of private consumption are used in the study. Those are food consumption, non food consumption, and services consumption. The dynamic Almost Ideal Demand System of the three categories of the private consumption is estimated using the Vector Error Correction Mechanism model. The estimated model indicates the substituting effects (negative impacts) of the government consumption spending on budget shares of private non food consumption and of the government capital spending on budget share of private food consumption, respectively. Nevertheless the result does not necessarily indicate whether the negative effects of changes in the budget shares of the non food and the food consumption means fallen total private consumption. Microeconomic consumer demand analysis clearly indicates changes in component structure of aggregate expenditure in the economy as a result of the government spending policy. The macroeconomic concept of aggregate demand comprising consumption, investment, government spending (the government consumption spending and the government capital spending), export, and import are used to estimate for their relationship using the Vector Error Correction Mechanism model. The macroeconomic study found no effect of the government capital spending on either the private consumption or the growth of GDP while the government consumption spending has negative effect on the growth of GDP. Therefore no crowding out effect of the government spending is found on the private consumption but it is ineffective and even inefficient expenditure as found reducing growth of the GDP in the context of Thailand.
    63
    8533
    Multipurpose Cadastre, Essential for Urban Development Plans in Iran
    Abstract:
    Majority of researches conducted on Iranian urban development plans indicate that they have been almost unsuccessful in terms of draft, execution and goal achievement. Lack or shortage of essential statistics and information can be listed as an important reason of the failure of these plans. Lack of figures and information has turned into an obvious part of the country-s statistics officials. This problem has made urban planner themselves to embark on physical surveys including real estate and land pricing, population and economic census of the city. Apart from the problems facing urban developers, the possibility of errors is high in such surveys. In the present article, applying the interview technique, it has been mentioned that utilizing multipurpose cadastre system as a land information system is essential for urban development plans in Iran. It can minimize or even remove the failures facing urban development plans.
    62
    8572
    The Use of ICT and e-Learning in Higher Education in Japan
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    Japan is known to be a technological powerhouse, being noted for its automobiles, consumer electronics, laptop computers, portable gaming devices, and more recently healing animal robots. Japan is also noted for its popular culture; manga, anime, novels, films, character goods, game programs, cosplay cafes, karaoke and so on. It may be natural for people outside Japan to assume that e-learning in Japan must be well advanced and innovative. In reality, the application of technologies in education in Japan is far behind of other developed countries. Especially in higher education, apathy of students towards their study prevails and teachers continue ignoring such student attitudes. E-learning, which is supposed to revolutionalize the way people learn as it has potentials to enable more student-centered learning, has not been realized in Japan and mostly used to perpetuate the teachercentered teaching in a different format.

    61
    8618
    Management of Multimedia Contents for Distributed e-Learning System
    Abstract:
    We have developed a distributed asynchronous Web based training system. In order to improve the scalability and robustness of this system, all contents and functions are realized on mobile agents. These agents are distributed to computers, and they can use a Peer to Peer network that modified Content-Addressable Network. In the proposed system, only text data can be included in a exercise. To make our proposed system more useful, the mechanism that it not only adapts to multimedia data but also it doesn-t influence the user-s learning even if the size of exercise becomes large is necessary.
    60
    8732
    The Investigation of 5th Grade Turkish Students- Comprehension Scores According to Different Variables
    Abstract:
    The aim of this study is to examine the reading comprehension scores of Turkish 5th grade students according to the variables given in the student questionnaire. In this descriptive survey study research participated 279 5th grade students, who studied at 10 different primary schools in four provinces of Ankara in 2008-2009 academic year. Two different data collection tools were made use of in the study: “Reading Comprehension Test" and “Student Information Questionnaire". Independent sample t-test, oneway Anova and two-way Anova tests were used in the analyses of the gathered data. The results of the study indicate that the reading comprehension scores of the students differ significantly according to sex of the students, the number of books in their houses, the frequency of summarizing activities on the reading text of free and the frequency reading hours provided by their teachers; but, differ not significantly according to educational level of their mothers and fathers.
    59
    8974
    ERP Implementation Success in Iran: Examining the Role of System Environment Factors
    Abstract:

    The aim of this paper is to examine factors related to system environment (namely, system quality and vendor support) that influences ERP implementation success in Iranian companies. Implementation success is identified using user satisfaction and organizational impact perspective. The study adopts the survey questionnaire approach to collect empirical data. The questionnaire was distributed to ERP users and a total of 384 responses were used for analysis. The results illustrated that both system quality and vendor support have significant effect on ERP implementation success. This implies that companies must ensure they source for the best available system and a vendor that is dependable, reliable and trustworthy.

    58
    9148
    Developing and Implementing Successful Key Performance Indicators
    Abstract:
    Measurement and the following evaluation of performance represent important part of management. The paper focuses on indicators as the basic elements of performance measurement system. It emphasizes a necessity of searching requirements for quality indicators so that they can become part of the useful system. It introduces standpoints for a systematic dividing of indicators so that they have as high as possible informative value of background sources for searching, analysis, designing and using of indicators. It draws attention to requirements for indicators' quality and at the same it deals with some dangers decreasing indicator's informative value. It submits a draft of questions that should be answered at the construction of indicator. It is obvious that particular indicators need to be defined exactly to stimulate the desired behavior in order to attain expected results. In the enclosure a concrete example of the defined indicator in the concrete conditions of a small firm is given. The authors of the paper pay attention to the fact that a quality indicator makes it possible to get to the basic causes of the problem and include the established facts into the company information system. At the same time they emphasize that developing of a quality indicator is a prerequisite for the utilization of the system of measurement in management.
    57
    9445
    EFL Learners- Perceptions of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) to Facilitate Communication in a Foreign Language
    Abstract:
    This study explores perceptions of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners on using computer mediated communication technology in their learner of English. The data consists of observations of both synchronous and asynchronous communication participants engaged in for over a period of 4 months, which included online, and offline communication protocols, open-ended interviews and reflection papers composed by participants. Content analysis of interview data and the written documents listed above, as well as, member check and triangulation techniques are the major data analysis strategies. The findings suggest that participants generally do not benefit from computer-mediated communication in terms of its effect in learning a foreign language. Participants regarded the nature of CMC as artificial, or pseudo communication that did not aid their authentic communicational skills in English. The results of this study sheds lights on insufficient and inconclusive findings, which most quantitative CMC studies previously generated.
    56
    9535
    Enhancing Customer Loyalty towards Corporate Social Responsibility of Thai Mobile Service Providers
    Abstract:
    The aim of this research is to develop the understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) from consumers- perspective toward Thai mobile service providers. Based on the survey from 400 mobile customers, the result shows that four dimensions of CSR of Thai mobile service providers consist of economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibility. These four CSR factors have positive impacts on enhancing customer satisfaction except one item of economic responsibility - profitability to shareholders. Ethical dimension has the strongest impact on customer satisfaction. Economic, legal, ethical, philanthropic responsibility and customer satisfaction have major impact on loyalty, whilst philanthropic component mostly affects loyalty.
    55
    9657
    Street Network in Bandung City, Indonesia: Comparison between City Center and New Commercial Area
    Abstract:

    Bandung city center can be deemed as economic, social and cultural center. However the city center suffers from deterioration. The retail activities tend to shift outward the city center. Numerous idyllic residences changed into business premises in two villages situated in the north part of the city during 1990s, especially after a new highway and flyover opened. According to space syntax theory, the pattern of spatial integration in the urban grid is a prime determinant of movement patterns in the system. The syntactic analysis results show the flyover has insignificant influence on street network in the city center. However the flyover has been generating a major difference in the new commercial area since it has become relatively as strategic as the city center. Besides street network, local government policy, rapid private motorization and particular condition of each site also played important roles in encouraging the current commercial areas to flourish.

    54
    9725
    Barriers and Opportunities for the Adoption of e-Governance Services
    Abstract:
    In this article a bibliography research takes place to track down and introduce the barriers and opportunities for the adoption of e-Governance services mainly from the side of citizen, that is to say, the demand side. Although governments invest continuously in producing of e-Governance services, citizens face difficulties to adopt these services. Barriers derive and prevent them from using e-Governance services. Barrier is anything preventing citizens from the adoption of e-Governance services. Barriers impede or do not allow the adoption of e-Governance services by the citizens. If the barriers are pinpointed, it will be possible to take them into consideration while designing e-Governance services which the citizens are likely to use, if the obstacles are raised. The barriers will thus be converted in opportunities that will facilitate the adoption.
    53
    9834
    Ribeirinhos: A Sustainability Assessment of Housing Typologies in the Amazon Region
    Abstract:

    The 20th century has brought much development to the practice of Architecture worldwide, and technology has bridged inhabitation limits in many regions of the world with high levels of comfort and conveniences, most times at high costs to the environment. Throughout the globe, the tropical countries are being urbanized at an unprecedented rate and housing has become a major issue worldwide, in light of increased demand and lack of appropriate infra-structure and planning. Buildings and urban spaces designed in tropical cities have mainly adopted external concepts that in most cases do not fit the needs of the inhabitants living in such harsh climatic environment, and when they do, do so at high financial, environmental and cultural costs. Traditional architectural practices can provide valuable understanding on how self-reliance and autonomy of construction can be reinforced in rural-urban tropical environments. From traditional housing knowledge, it is possible to derive lessons for the development of new construction materials that are affordable, environmentally friendly, culturally acceptable and accesible to all.Specifically to the urban context, such solutions are of outmost importance, given the needs to a more democratic society, where access to housing is considered high in the agenda for development. Traditional or rural constructions are also ongoing through extensive changes eventhough they have mostly adopted climate-responsive building practices relying on local resources (with minimum embodied energy) and energy (for comfort and quality of life). It is important to note that many of these buildings can actually be called zero-energy, and hold potential answers to enable transition from high energy, high cost, low comfort urban habitations to zero/low energy habitations with high quality urban livelihood. Increasing access to modern urban lifestyels have also an effect on the aspirations from people in terms of performance, comfort and convenience in terms of their housing and the way it is produced and used. These aspirations are resulting in transitions from localresource dependent habitations- to non-local resource based highenergy urban style habitations. And such transitions are resulting in the habitations becoming increasingly unsuited to the local climatic conditions with increasing discomfort, ill-health, and increased CO2 emissions and local environmental disruption. This research studies one specific transition group in the context of 'water communities' in tropical-equatorial regions: Ribeirinhos housing typology (Amazonas, Brazil). The paper presents the results of a qualitative sustainability assessment of the housing typologies under transition, found at the Ribeirinhos communities.

    52
    9839
    The Sustainable Value Model: Comparative Analysis Romania and EU
    Abstract:
    For Romania, the fulfilment of the obligations undertaken as a member state of the European Union in accordance with the Treaty of Accession requires the effective implementation of sustainable development principles and practices, this being the only reasonable development option, which adequately draws in on the economic, social and environment resources. Achieving this objective is based on a profound analysis of the realities in the Romanian economy, which will reflect the existent situation and the action directions for the future. The paper presents an analysis of the Romanian economic performances compared to the EU economy, based on the sustainable value (SV) model. The analysis highlighted the considerable gap between Romania and the EU regarding the sustainable capitalization of resources, the provided information being useful to justify strategic development decisions at a micro and macro levels.
    51
    9993
    Temporary Housing Respond to Disasters in Developing Countries- Case Study: Iran-Ardabil and Lorestan Province Earthquakes
    Abstract:

    Natural Disasters have always occurred through earth life. As human life developed on earth, he faced with different disasters. Since disasters would destroy his living areas and ruin his life, he learned how to respond and overcome to these matters. Nowadays, in the era of industrialized world and informatics, the man kind seeks for stages and classification of pre and post disaster process in order to identify a framework in these circumstances. Because too many parameters complicate these frameworks and proceedings, it seems that this goal has not been properly established yet and the only resource is guidelines of UNDRO (1982) [1]. This paper will discuss about temporary housing as one of an approved stage in disaster management field and investigate the affects of disapproval or dismissal of this at two earthquakes which took place in Iran.

    50
    10195
    Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Usage and Financial Performance of Branches in Jordanian Banking Industry
    Abstract:
    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the body of knowledge in the area of management accounting, particularly performance measurement systems within the BSC framework, by investigating empirically the extent of multiple performance measures usage and their effects on the financial performance of Jordanian banks in the branches level. Nevertheless, the result of this study shows that the non-financial measures usages, particularly, customer oriented indicators and product/ service oriented indicators, appears to be important as it enhances firm performance. Remarkably, the findings reveal that there is positive relationship between the usages of multiple performance measures via overall BSC measures and financial performance in the branches level.
    49
    10250
    Different Multimedia Presentation Types and Students' Interpretation Achievement
    Abstract:

    The main purpose of the study was to determine whether students- interpretation achievement differed with the use of various multimedia presentation types. Four groups of students, text only (T), audio only (A), text and audio (TA), text and image (TI), were arranged and they were presented the same story via different types of multimedia presentations. Inference achievement was measured by a critical thinking inference test. Higher mean scores for the TA group compared to the other three groups were found. Also when compared pairwise, interpretation achievement of the TA group differed significantly from scores of the T and TI groups. These differences were interpreted with the increased cognitive load. Increased cognitive load for the TA group may have invited students to put more effort into comprehending the text, thus resulting in better test scores. Findings of the study can be seen as a sign of the importance of learning situations and learning outcomes in multimedia-supported learning environments and may have practical benefits for instructional designers.

    48
    10436
    Evaluation Techniques of Photography in Visual Communications in Iran
    Abstract:
    Although a picture can be automatically a graphic work, but especially in the field of graphics and images based on the idea of advertising and graphic design will be prepared and photographers to realize the design using his own knowledge and skills to help does. It is evident that knowledge of photography, photographer and designer of the facilities, fields of reaching a higher level of quality offers. At the same time do not have a graphic designer is also skilled photographer, but can execute your idea may delegate to an expert photographer. Using technology and methods in all fields of photography, graphic art may be applicable. But most of its application in Iran, in works such as packaging, posters, Bill Board, advertising, brochures and catalogs are. In this study, we review how the images and techniques in the chart should be used in Iranian graphic photo what impact has left. Using photography techniques and procedures can be designed and helped advance the goals graphic. Technique could not determine the idea. But what is important to think about design and photography and his creativity can flourish as a tool to be effective graphic designer in mind. Computer software to help it's very promotes creativity techniques shall graphic designer but also it is as a tool. Using images in various fields, especially graphic arts and only because it is not being documented, but applications are beautiful. As to his photographic style from today is graphics. Graphic works try to affect impacts on their audience. Hence the photo as an important factor is attention. The other hand saw the man with the extent of forgiving and understanding people's image, instead of using the word to your files, allows large messages and concepts should be sent in the shortest time. Posters, advertisements, brochures, catalog and packaging products very diverse agricultural, industrial and food could not be self-image. Today, the use of graphic images for a big score and the photos to richen the role graphic design plays a major.
    47
    10532
    Fuzzy Group Decision Making for the Assessment of Health-Care Waste Disposal Alternatives in Istanbul
    Abstract:
    Disposal of health-care waste (HCW) is considered as an important environmental problem especially in large cities. Multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques are apt to deal with quantitative and qualitative considerations of the health-care waste management (HCWM) problems. This research proposes a fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making approach with a multilevel hierarchical structure including qualitative as well as quantitative performance attributes for evaluating HCW disposal alternatives for Istanbul. Using the entropy weighting method, objective weights as well as subjective weights are taken into account to determine the importance weighting of quantitative performance attributes. The results obtained using the proposed methodology are thoroughly analyzed.
    46
    10542
    E-Procurement, the Golden Key to Optimizing the Supply Chains System
    Abstract:
    Procurement is an important component in the field of operating resource management and e-procurement is the golden key to optimizing the supply chains system. Global firms are optimistic on the level of savings that can be achieved through full implementation of e-procurement strategies. E-procurement is an Internet-based business process for obtaining materials and services and managing their inflow into the organization. In this paper, the subjects of supply chains and e-procurement and its benefits to organizations have been studied. Also, e-procurement in construction and its drivers and barriers have been discussed and a framework of supplier selection in an e-procurement environment has been demonstrated. This paper also has addressed critical success factors in adopting e-procurement in supply chains.
    45
    10638
    Urban Reforms of Tanzimat: Early Urbanization and Transportation Practices in The Formation Process of Turkish Reconstruction System(1839-1908) in Bursa The First Capital City of Ottoman Empire
    Abstract:
    Bursa, since the establishment of the Ottoman Empire, being on the important trade roads and having a capital accumulation as a result of silk production, was one of the first cities of modernization activities applied. Bursa maintained its importance even during the Republican Period and became one of the most important cities of the country and today is the fourth biggest and the industrialized city in Turkey. Social, political, economical and cultural changes occured with the reforms starting with the 1839 Edict of Tanzimat that aimed at modernizing the society and the government and centralizing the political power began in the Ottoman Empire. After the Tanzimat Reforms transformation of the city changed and planning processes began in Bursa according to the vision of Governors. The theresholds of the city are very important data for a sustainable planning for the city planners. Main aim of this study is to investigate the changes and transformations of the city according to the changes in the socio-economical and cultural properties for the city planners.
    44
    10646
    M-Learning Curriculum Design for Secondary School: A Needs Analysis
    Abstract:

    The learning society has currently transformed from 'wired society' to become 'mobile society' which is facilitated by wireless network. To suit to this new paradigm, m-learning was given birth and rapidly building its prospect to be included in the future curriculum. Research and studies on m-learning spruced up in numerous aspects but there is still scarcity in studies on curriculum design of m-learning. This study is a part of an ongoing bigger study probing into the m-learning curriculum for secondary schools. The paper reports on the first phase of the study which aims to probe into the needs of curriculum design for m-learning at the secondary school level and the researcher adopted the needs analysis method. Data accrued from responses on survey questionnaires based on Lickert-point scale were analyzed statistically. The findings from this preliminary study serve as a basis for m-learning curriculum development for secondary schools.

    43
    10717
    Applications of Conic Optimization and Quadratic Programming in the Investigation of Index Arbitrage in the Thai Derivatives and Equity Markets
    Abstract:
    This research seeks to investigate the frequency and profitability of index arbitrage opportunities involving the SET50 futures, SET50 component stocks, and the ThaiDEX SET50 ETF (ticker symbol: TDEX). In particular, the frequency and profit of arbitrage are measured in the following three arbitrage tests: (1) SET50 futures vs. ThaiDEX SET50 ETF, (2) SET50 futures vs. SET50 component stocks, and (3) ThaiDEX SET50 ETF vs. SET50 component stocks are investigated. For tests (2) and (3), the problems involve conic optimization and quadratic programming as subproblems. This research is first to apply conic optimization and quadratic programming techniques in the context of index arbitrage and is first to investigate such index arbitrage in the Thai equity and derivatives markets. Thus, the contribution of this study is twofold. First, its results would help understand the contribution of the derivatives securities to the efficiency of the Thai markets. Second, the methodology employed in this study can be applied to other geographical markets, with minor adjustments.
    42
    10739
    Cultural Anxiety and Its Impact on Students- Life: A Case Study of International Students in Wuhan University
    Abstract:

    This article illustrates that how non similar culture become a cause of constant anxiety among international students in China. For that, a survey was carried out among international students of Wuhan University, China. The association among non similar culture, non familiarity of Chinese culture, self finance students and food problem is looked at through a regression line, and in the light of empirical results, a model is anticipated which elucidates these results. Some suggestions were directed at the end which will help to mitigate the anxiety among prospective students in Chinese universities.

    41
    10804
    Virtual Learning Environments in Spanish Traditional Universities
    Abstract:

    This communication is intended to provide some issues for thought on the importance of implementation of Blended Learning in traditional universities, particularly in the Spanish university system. In this respect, we believe that virtual environments are likely to meet some of the needs raised by the Bologna agreement, trying to maintain the quality of teaching and at the same time taking advantage of the functionalities that virtual learning platforms offer. We are aware that an approach of learning from an open and constructivist nature in universities is a complex process that faces significant technological, administrative and human barriers. Therefore, in order to put plans in our universities, it is necessary to analyze the state of the art of some indicators relating to the use of ICT, with special attention to virtual teaching and learning, so that we can identify the main obstacles and design adaptive strategies for their full integration in the education system. Finally, we present major initiatives launched in the European and state framework for the effective implementation of new virtual environments in the area of higher education.

    40
    10901
    Towards Good Accountability: The Role of Accounting in Islamic Religious Organisations
    Abstract:
    Non-profit organizations, especially religious-based institutions, have long played a very important role in society. Nevertheless, scandals such as inefficient management and the use of unlawful fundraising activities have raised questions regarding the governance and accountability of these organizations. As such, the issues have attracted considerable research interest. However, there is still limited research on accountability in religious based organizations, especially in the context of Islamic religious organizations. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues of accounting and accountability in religious organizations, specifically in Islamic religious establishments. The paper starts by looking at the conventional meaning and concept of accountability. This is followed by a discussion of the principles of accountability within the Islamic framework. In so doing, the history of the role of accounting within Muslim society and also the differences between the Islamic and conventional view of accountability are reviewed. Insights gained from previous research on accountability in faith based organizations are also discussed
    39
    10982
    A Model for Application of Knowledge Management in Public Organizations in Iran
    Abstract:

    This study examines knowledge management in the public organizations in Iran. The purpose of this article is to provide a conceptual framework for application of knowledge management in public organizations. The study indicates that an increasing tendency for implementation of knowledge management in organizations is emerging. Nonetheless knowledge management in public organizations is toddler and little has been done to bring the subject to use in the public sector. The globalization of change and popularization of some values like participation, citizen-orientation and knowledge-orientation in the new theories of public administration requires that the knowledge management is considered and attend to in the public sector. This study holds that a knowledge management framework for public organizations is different from this in the public sector, because public sector is stakeholder-dependent while the private is shareholder-dependent. Based on the research, we provide a conceptual model. The model proposed involves three factors: Organizational, knowledge citizens and contextual factors. The study results indicate these factors affect on knowledge management in public organizations in Iran.

    38
    11236
    Eco-innovation and Economic Performance in Industrial Clusters: Evidence from Italy
    Abstract:

    The article aims to investigate the presence of a correlation between eco-innovation and economic performance within industrial districts. The case analyzed in this article is based on a study concerning a sample of 54 Italian industrial clusters entitled "Eco-Districts" that has compiled a list of the most eco-efficient districts at the national level. After selecting two districts, this study assesses the economic performance of the last three years through the analysis of trends in four indicators. The results show that only in some cases there is a connection between eco innovation and economic performance.

    37
    11412
    Technological Innovation Capabilities and Firm Performance
    Abstract:
    Technological innovation capability (TIC) is defined as a comprehensive set of characteristics of a firm that facilities and supports its technological innovation strategies. An audit to evaluate the TICs of a firm may trigger improvement in its future practices. Such an audit can be used by the firm for self assessment or third-party independent assessment to identify problems of its capability status. This paper attempts to develop such an auditing framework that can help to determine the subtle links between innovation capabilities and business performance; and to enable the auditor to determine whether good practice is in place. The seven TICs in this study include learning, R&D, resources allocation, manufacturing, marketing, organization and strategic planning capabilities. Empirical data was acquired through a survey study of 200 manufacturing firms in the Hong Kong/Pearl River Delta (HK/PRD) region. Structural equation modelling was employed to examine the relationships among TICs and various performance indicators: sales performance, innovation performance, product performance, and sales growth. The results revealed that different TICs have different impacts on different performance measures. Organization capability was found to have the most influential impact. Hong Kong manufacturers are now facing the challenge of high-mix-low-volume customer orders. In order to cope with this change, good capability in organizing different activities among various departments is critical to the success of a company.
    36
    11547
    Drivers of Customer Satisfaction in an Industrial Company from Marketing Aspect
    Abstract:
    One of the basic concepts in marketing is the concept of meeting customers- needs. Since customer satisfaction is essential for lasting survival and development of a business, screening and observing customer satisfaction and recognizing its underlying factors must be one of the key activities of every business. The purpose of this study is to recognize the drivers that effect customer satisfaction in a business-to-business situation in order to improve marketing activities. We conducted a survey in which 93 business customers of a manufacturer of Diesel Generator in Iran participated and they talked about their ideas and satisfaction of supplier-s services related to its products. We developed the measures for drivers of satisfaction first by as investigative research (by means of feedback from executives and customers of sponsoring firm). Then based on these measures, we created a mail survey, and asked the respondents to explain their opinion about the sponsoring firm which was a supplier of diesel generator and similar products. Furthermore, the survey required the participants to mention their functional areas and their company features. In Conclusion we found that there are three drivers for customer satisfaction, which are reliability, information about product, and commercial features. Buyers/users from different functional areas attribute different degree of importance to the last two drivers. For instance, people from buying and management areas believe that commercial features are more important than information about products. But people in engineering, maintenance and production areas believe that having information about products is more important than commercial aspects. Marketing experts should consider the attribute of customers regarding information about the product and commercial features to improve market share.
    35
    11597
    The Prospects and Challenges of Open Learning and Distance Education in Malawi
    Abstract:
    Open and distance learning is a fairly new concept in Malawi. The major public provider, the Malawi College of Distance Education, rolled out its activities only about 40 years ago. Over the years, the demand for distance education has tremendously increased. The present government has displayed positive political will to uplift ODL as outlined in the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy as well as the National Education Sector Plan. A growing national interest in education coupled with political stability and a booming ICT industry also raise hope for success. However, a fragile economy with a GNI per capita of -US$ 200 over the last decade, poor public funding, erratic power supply and lack of expertise put strain on efforts towards the promotion of ODL initiatives. Despite the challenges, the nation appears determined to go flat out and explore all possible avenues that could revolutionise education access and equity through ODL.
    34
    11635
    Academic Staff Perceptions of the Value of the Elements of an Online Learning Environment
    Abstract:
    Based on 276 responses from academic staff in an evaluation of an online learning environment (OLE), this paper identifies those elements of the OLE that were most used and valued by staff, those elements of the OLE that staff most wanted to see improved, and those factors that most contributed to staff perceptions that the use of the OLE enhanced their teaching. The most used and valued elements were core functions, including accessing unit information, accessing lecture/tutorial/lab notes, and reading online discussions. The elements identified as most needing attention related to online assessment: submitting assignments, managing assessment items, and receiving feedback on assignments. Staff felt that using the OLE enhanced their teaching when they were satisfied that their students were able to access and use their learning materials, and when they were satisfied with the professional development they received and were confident with their ability to teach with the OLE.
    33
    11781
    Cost of Road Traffic Accidents in Egypt
    Abstract:

    The main objective of this paper is to estimate the cost of road traffic accidents in Egypt. The Human Capital (HC) approach, specifically the Gross-Loss-of-Output methodology, is adopted for estimation. Moreover, cost values obtained by previous national literature are updated using the inflation rates. The results indicate an estimated cost of road traffic accidents in Egypt of approximately 10 billion Egyptian Pounds (about $US 1.8 billion) for the year 2008. In addition, it is expected that this cost will rise in 2009 to 11.8 billion Egyptian Pounds (about $US 2.1 billion).

    32
    12397
    On Innovation and Knowledge Economy in Russia
    Abstract:

    Innovational development of regions in Russia is generally faced with the essential influence from federal and local authorities. The organization of effective mechanism of innovation development (and self-development) is impossible without establishment of defined institutional conditions in the analyzed field. Creative utilization of scientific concepts and information should merge, giving rise to continuing innovation and advanced production. The paper presents an analysis of institutional conditions in the field of creation and development of innovation activity infrastructure and transferring of knowledge and skills between different economic agents in Russia. Knowledge is mainly privately owned, developed through R&D investments and incorporated into technology or a product. Innovation infrastructure is a strong concentration mechanism of advanced facilities, which are mainly located inside large agglomerations or city-regions in order to benefit from scale effects in both input markets (human capital, private financial capital) and output markets (higher education services, research services). The empirical results of the paper show that in the presence of more efficient innovation and knowledge transfer and transcoding system and of a more open attitude of economic agents towards innovation, the innovation and knowledge capacity of regional economy is much higher.

    31
    12489
    The Introduction of Compulsory Electronic Exchange of Documents in the Czech Republic: Comparing Expectation and Reality
    Abstract:

    This contribution aims to outline some topics around the process of introduction of compulsory electronic exchange of documents (so called e-Boxes) in public administration. The research was conducted in order to gauge the difference between the expectation of those using internal email and their experience in reality. Both qualitative and quantitative research is employed to lead also to an estimation of the willingness and readiness of government bodies, business units and citizens to adopt new technologies. At the same time the most potent barriers to successful e-communication through the e-Boxes are identified.

    30
    12606
    Factors Influencing Students' Self-Concept among Malaysian Students
    Abstract:

    This paper examines the students’ self-concept among 16- and 17- year- old adolescents in Malaysian secondary schools. Previous studies have shown that positive self-concept played an important role in student adjustment and academic performance during schooling. This study attempts to investigate the factors influencing students’ perceptions toward their own self-concept. A total of 1168 students participated in the survey. This study utilized the CoPs (UM) instrument to measure self-concept. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed three factors: academic selfconcept, physical self-concept and social self-concept. This study confirmed that students perceived certain internal context factors, and revealed that external context factor also have an impact on their self-concept.

    29
    12634
    The Effect of Board Composition and Ownership Concentration on Earnings Management: Evidence from IRAN
    Abstract:
    The role of corporate governance is to reduce the divergence of interests between shareholders and managers. The role of corporate governance is more useful when managers have an incentive to deviate from shareholders- interests. One example of management-s deviation from shareholders- interests is the management of earnings through the use of accounting accruals. This paper examines the association between corporate governance internal mechanisms ownership concentration, board independence, the existence of CEO-Chairman duality and earnings management. Firm size and leverage are control variables. The population used in this study comprises firms listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) between 2004 and 2008, the sample comprises 196 firms. Panel Data method is employed as technique to estimate the model. We find that there is negative significant association between ownership concentration and board independence manage earnings with earnings management, there is negative significant association between the existence of CEO-Chairman duality and earnings management. This study also found a positive significant association between control variable (firm size and leverage) and earnings management.
    28
    12656
    Autobiographical Memory and Flexible Remembering: Gender Differences
    Abstract:
    In this study, we examined gender differences in: (1) a flexible remembering task, that asked for episodic memory decisions at an item-specific versus category-based level, and (2) the retrieval specificity of autobiographical memory during free recall. Differences favouring women were found on both measures. Furthermore, a significant association was observed, across gender groups, between level of specificity in the autobiographical memory interview and sensitivity to gist on the flexible remembering task. These results suggest that similar cognitive processes may partially contribute to both the ability for specific autobiographical recall and the capacity for inhibition of gist-information on the flexible remembering task.
    27
    12733
    The Service Failure and Recovery in the Information Technology Services
    Abstract:
    It is important to retain customer satisfaction in information technology services. When a service failure occurs, companies need to take service recovery action to recover their customer satisfaction. Although companies cannot avoid all problems and complaints, they should try to make up. Therefore, service failure and service recovery have become an important and challenging issue for companies. In this paper, the literature and the problems in the information technology services were reviewed. An integrated model of profit driven for the service failure and service recovery was established in view of the benefit of customer and enterprise. Moreover, the interaction between service failure and service recovery strategy was studied, the result of which verified the matching principles of the service recovery strategy and the type of service failure. In addition, the relationship between the cost of service recovery and customer-s cumulative value of service after recovery was analyzed with the model. The result attributes to managers in deciding on appropriate resource allocations for recovery strategies.
    26
    12756
    Non-Invasive Technology on a Classroom Chair for Detection of Emotions Used for the Personalization of Learning Resources
    Abstract:
    Emotions are related with learning processes and physiological signals can be used to detect them for the personalization of learning resources and to control the pace of instruction. A model of relevant emotions has been developed, where specific combinations of emotions and cognition processes are connected and integrated with the concept of 'flow', in order to improve learning. The cardiac pulse is a reliable signal that carries useful information about the subject-s emotional condition; it is detected using a classroom chair adapted with non invasive EMFi sensor and an acquisition system that generates a ballistocardiogram (BCG), the signal is processed by an algorithm to obtain characteristics that match a specific emotional condition. The complete chair system is presented in this work, along with a framework for the personalization of learning resources.
    25
    12817
    Strategies for Development of Information Society in Montenegro
    Abstract:
    Creation of information society, or in other words, a society based on knowledge, has wide consequences, both on individual and complete society, and in general – on a economy of one country. Development and implementation of ICT represents a stimulant for economic growth. On individual level, knowledge, skills and information gathered using ICT, are expanding individual possibilities of persons, enabling them to have access to timely sensitive information, such as market prices or investment conditions, possibilities to access Government-s or private development funds, etc. By doing so, productivity is increased both on individual and national level and therefore social wellbeing in general. In one word, creation of information society - a knowledge society is happening. This work will describe challenges and strategies that will follow the development as well as obstacles in creating information society – knowledge society in Montenegro.
    24
    12885
    A Norm-based Approach for Profiling Business Knowledge
    Abstract:
    Knowledge is a key asset for any organisation to sustain competitive advantages, but it is difficult to identify and represent knowledge which is needed to perform activities in business processes. The effective knowledge management and support for relevant business activities definitely gives a huge impact to the performance of the organisation as a whole. This is because that knowledge have the functions of directing, coordinating and controlling actions within business processes. The study has introduced organisational morphology, a norm-based approach by applying semiotic theories which emphasise on the representation of knowledge in norms. This approach is concerned with the identification of activities into three categories: substantive, communication and control activities. All activities are directed by norms; hence three types of norms exist; each is associated to a category of activities. The paper describes the approach briefly and illustrates the application of this approach through a case study of academic activities in higher education institutions. The result of the study shows that the approach provides an effective way to profile business knowledge and the profile enables the understanding and specification of business requirements of an organisation.
    23
    13021
    Identification of the Key Sustainability Issues to Develop New Decision Support Tools in the Spanish Furniture Sector
    Abstract:

    The environmental impacts caused by the current production and consumption models, together with the impact that the current economic crisis, bring necessary changes in the European industry toward new business models based on sustainability issues that could allow them to innovate and improve their competitiveness. This paper analyzes the key environmental issues and the current and future market trends in one of the most important industrial sectors in Spain, the furniture sector. It also proposes new decision support tools -diagnostic kit, roadmap and guidelines- to guide companies to implement sustainability criteria into their organizations, including eco-design strategies and other economical and social strategies in accordance with the sustainability definition, and other available tools such as eco-labels, environmental management systems, etc., and to use and combine them to obtain the results the company expects to help improve its competitiveness.

    22
    13090
    A Hypermap for Supply Chain Management
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    We present a prototype interactive (hyper) map of strategic, tactical, and logistic options for Supply Chain Management. The map comprises an anthology of options, broadly classified within the strategic spectrum of efficiency versus responsiveness, and according to logistic and cross-functional drivers. They are exemplified by cases in diverse industries. We seek to get all these information and ideas organized to help supply chain managers identify effective choices for specific business environments. The key and innovative linkage we introduce is the configuration of competitive forces. Instead of going through seemingly endless and isolated cases and wondering how one can borrow from them, we aim to provide a guide by force comparisons. The premise is that best practices in a different industry facing similar forces may be a most productive resource in supply chain design and planning. A prototype template is demonstrated.

    21
    13094
    Benchmarking Cleaner Production Performance of Coal-fired Power Plants Using Two-stage Super-efficiency Data Envelopment Analysis
    Abstract:
    Benchmarking cleaner production performance is an effective way of pollution control and emission reduction in coal-fired power industry. A benchmarking method using two-stage super-efficiency data envelopment analysis for coal-fired power plants is proposed – firstly, to improve the cleaner production performance of DEA-inefficient or weakly DEA-efficient plants, then to select the benchmark from performance-improved power plants. An empirical study is carried out with the survey data of 24 coal-fired power plants. The result shows that in the first stage the performance of 16 plants is DEA-efficient and that of 8 plants is relatively inefficient. The target values for improving DEA-inefficient plants are acquired by projection analysis. The efficient performance of 24 power plants and the benchmarking plant is achieved in the second stage. The two-stage benchmarking method is practical to select the optimal benchmark in the cleaner production of coal-fired power industry and will continuously improve plants- cleaner production performance.
    20
    13135
    Knowledge Flows and Innovative Performances of NTBFs in Gauteng, South Africa: An Attempt to Explain Mixed Findings in Science Park Research
    Abstract:
    Science parks are often established to drive regional economic growth, especially in countries with emerging economies. However, mixed findings regarding the performances of science park firms are found in the literature. This study tries to explain these mixed findings by taking a relational approach and exploring (un)intended knowledge transfers between new technology-based firms (NTBFs) in the emerging South African economy. Moreover, the innovation outcomes of these NTBFs are examined by using a multi-dimensional construct. Results show that science park location plays a significant role in explaining innovative sales, but is insignificant when a different indicator of innovation outcomes is used. Furthermore, only for innovations that are new to the firms, both science park location and intended knowledge transfer via informal business relationships have a positive impact; whereas social relationships have a negative impact.
    19
    13194
    Secure and Failure Factors of e-Government Projects Implementation in Developing Country: A Study on the Implementation of Kingdom of Bahrain
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    The concept of e-government has begun to spread among countries. It is based on the use of information communication technology (ICT) to fully utilize government resources, as well as to provide government services to citizens, investors and foreigners. Critical factors are the factors that are determined by the senior management of each organization; the success or failure of the organization depends on the effective implementation of critical factors. These factors vary from one organization to another according to their activity, size and functions. It is very important that organizations identify them in order to avoid the risk of implementing initiatives that may fail to work, while simultaneously exploiting opportunities that may succeed in working. The main focus of this paper is to investigate the majority of critical success factors (CSFs) associated with the implementation of e-government projects. This study concentrates on both technical and nontechnical factors. This paper concludes by listing the majority of CSFs relating to successful e-government implementation in Bahrain.

    18
    13598
    GRI – Reporting Chemical Sector's Environmental Item Disclosures
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    In this content analysis research note the aim was to explore to how sustainability and especially environmental issues are conveyed into environmental items in annual reports and disclosures. As The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) is a globally wide multistakeholder process, the enterprises using voluntarily GRI framework are considered to be aware of sustainability and environmental concerns. The findings were that although these enterprises included in an environmentally sensitive industry sector and had special capabilities to consider environmental issues there were few GRIreporting enterprises presented substantially detailed environmental items in audited financial statements. There were only slight differences between publishing years 2008 and 2009 - the beginning years of economic turmoil. The environmental issues seemed not to be considered substantial enough for financial reporting as a basis for concerning investment or voting decisions.

    17
    13649
    Factors Affecting the e-Business Adoption among the Home-Based Businesses (HBBs) in Malaysia
    Abstract:
    Research in e-Business has been growing tremendously covering all related aspects such as adoption issues, e- Business models, strategies, etc. This research aims to explore the potential of adopting e-Business for a micro size business operating from home called home-based businesses (HBBs). In Malaysia, the HBB industry started many years ago and were mostly monopolized by women or housewives managed as a part-time job to support their family economy. Today, things have changed. The availability of the Internet technology and the emergence of e-Business concept promote the evolution of HBBs, which have been adopted as another alternative as a professional career for women without neglecting their family needs especially the children. Although this study is confined to a limited sample size and within geographical biasness, the findings show that it concurs with previous large scale studies. In this study, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used and data were gathered using triangulation methods via interview, direct observation, document analysis and survey questionnaires. This paper discusses the literature review, research methods and findings pertaining to e-Business adoption factors that influence the HBBs in Malaysia.
    16
    13822
    Paradigm and Paradox: Knowledge Management and Business Ethics
    Abstract:
    Knowledge management (KM) is generally considered to be a positive process in an organisation, facilitating opportunities to achieve competitive advantage via better quality information handling, compilation of expert know-how and rapid response to fluctuations in the business environment. The KM paradigm as portrayed in the literature informs the processes that can increase intangible assets so that corporate knowledge is preserved. However, in some instances, knowledge management exists in a universe of dynamic tension among the conflicting needs to respect privacy and intellectual property (IP), to guard against data theft, to protect national security and to stay within the laws. While the Knowledge Management literature focuses on the bright side of the paradigm, there is also a different side in which knowledge is distorted, suppressed or misappropriated due to personal or organisational motives (the paradox). This paper describes the ethical paradoxes that occur within the taxonomy and deontology of knowledge management and suggests that recognising both the promises and pitfalls of KM requires wisdom.
    15
    14022
    Operational Risk – Scenario Analysis
    Abstract:
    This paper focuses on operational risk measurement techniques and on economic capital estimation methods. A data sample of operational losses provided by an anonymous Central European bank is analyzed using several approaches. Loss Distribution Approach and scenario analysis method are considered. Custom plausible loss events defined in a particular scenario are merged with the original data sample and their impact on capital estimates and on the financial institution is evaluated. Two main questions are assessed – What is the most appropriate statistical method to measure and model operational loss data distribution? and What is the impact of hypothetical plausible events on the financial institution? The g&h distribution was evaluated to be the most suitable one for operational risk modeling. The method based on the combination of historical loss events modeling and scenario analysis provides reasonable capital estimates and allows for the measurement of the impact of extreme events on banking operations.
    14
    14239
    The Impact of ERP Systems on Accounting Processes
    Abstract:

    Advances in information technology, recent changes in business environment, globalization, deregulation, privatization have made running a successful business more difficult than ever before. To remain successful and to be competitive have forced companies to react to the new changes in order to survive and succeed. The implementation of an Enterprise Resource planning (ERP) system improves information flow, reduce costs, establish linkage with suppliers and reduce response time to customer needs. This paper focuses on a sample of Greek companies, investigates the ERP market in Greece, the reasons why the Greek companies are investing in ERP systems, the benefits that users have achieved and the influence of ERP systems on the use of new accounting practices. The results indicate a greater level on information integration, flexibility in information access and greater functionality provided by ERP systems but little influence on the use of new accounting practices.

    13
    14420
    Optimization of Transfer Pricing in a Recession with Reflection on Croatian Situation
    Abstract:
    Countries in recession, among them Croatia, have lower tax revenues as a result of unfavorable economic situation, which is decrease of the economic activities and unemployment. The global tax base has decreased. In order to create larger state revenues, states use the institute of tax authorities. By controlling transfer pricing in the international companies and using certain techniques, tax authorities can create greater tax obligations for the companies in a short period of time.
    12
    14464
    The Impact of Bus Rapid Transit on Land Development: A Case Study of Beijing, China
    Abstract:

    Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) has emerged as a cost-effective transport system for urban mobility. However its ability to stimulate land development remains largely unexplored. The study makes use of qualitative (interview method) and quantitative analysis (questionnaire survey and longitudinal analysis of property data) to investigate land development impact resulting from BRT in Beijing, China. The empirical analysis suggests that BRT has a positive impact on the residential and commercial property attractiveness along the busway corridor. The statistical analysis suggests that accessibility advantage conferred by BRT is capitalized into higher property price. The average price of apartments adjacent to a BRT station has gained a relatively faster increase than those not served by the BRT system. The capitalization effect mostly occurs after the full operation of BRT, and is more evident over time and particularly observed in areas which previously lack alternative mobility opportunity.

    11
    14508
    Development of Organizational Justice in Incentive Allocation of the Thai Public Sector
    Abstract:
    An incentive for performance, as one subsystem of a new performance management system, has been implemented in the Thai public sector since 2004. This research investigates the development of organizational justice in the incentive allocation by comparing the roles of distributive and procedural justice on national personnel-s attitudinal outcomes (incentive satisfaction and job performance) between 2 periods, i.e. 2006 and 2008. The data were collected via self-administered questionnaires completed by national government officers and employees. They were stratified using multistage sampling with 2,600 usable samples or 72.0% response rate in 2006, and 1,969 usable samples or 59.3% in 2008. The findings are: (1) There is no difference in means between the two periods relating to distributive justice, procedural justice, incentive satisfaction and job performance. (2) Distributive justice and procedural justice played more important roles in predicting incentive satisfaction and job performance in 2008 than in 2006.
    10
    14672
    Dyadic Adjustment as a Mediator of the Relationship between Attachment, Attributional Style, and Violence in Male Batterers
    Abstract:
    This study examines the mediating effects of male dyadic adjustment on the relationships between attachment and attributional styles, and both psychological and physical husband violence. Based on data from 68 married violent men recruited through community organizations that work with violent men, regression analyses showed that husbands- dyadic adjustment mediates the associations between avoidant attachment and attributional style, and psychological aggression, but not physical violence. Scientific and clinical implications are discussed
    9
    14696
    Identity Negotiation of the Black African Diaspora through Discourse with Singaporeans
    Abstract:
    The African Diaspora in Singapore (and larger Asia) is a topic that has received little scholarly attention and research. This exploratory study will analyze the changing identity of Africans throughout the process of cultural adaptation in Singapore. For the focus of this study, “black Africans" will be defined as any black Africans from sub-Saharan Africa who have lived in Singapore for at least six months. The dialectic relationship between Singaporean conceptions of black African identity and African self-consciousness will be analyzed from the perspective of black Africans so as to evaluate the impact of intercultural discourse on the evolution of the African identity in Singapore.
    8
    14742
    Customer-Supplier Collaboration in Casting Industry: a Review on Organizational and Human Aspects
    Abstract:
    Customer-supplier collaboration enables firms to achieve greater success than acting independently. Nevertheless, not many firms have fully utilized the potential of collaboration. This paper presents organizational and human related success factors for collaboration in manufacturing supply chains in casting industry. Our research approach was a case study including multiple cases. Data was gathered by interviews and group discussions in two different research projects. In the first research project we studied seven firms and in the second five. It was found that the success factors are interrelated, in other words, organizational and human factors together enable success but not any of them alone. Some of the found success factors are a culture of following agreements, and a speed of informing the partner about changes affecting to the product or the delivery chain.
    7
    14785
    Development of a Robust Supply Chain for Dynamic Operating Environment
    Abstract:
    Development of a Robust Supply Chain for Dynamic Operating Environment as we move further into the twenty first century, organisations are under increasing pressure to deliver a high product variation at a reasonable cost without compromise in quality. In a number of cases this will take the form of a customised or high variety low volume manufacturing system that requires prudent management of resources, among a number of functions, to achieve competitive advantage. Purchasing and Supply Chain management is one of such function and due to the substantial interaction with external elements needs to be strategically managed. This requires a number of primary and supporting tools that will enable the appropriate decisions to be made rapidly. This capability is especially vital in a dynamic environment as it provides a pivotal role in increasing the profit margin of the product. The management of this function can be challenging by itself and even more for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) due to the limited resources and expertise available at their disposal. This paper discusses the development of tools and concepts towards effectively managing the purchasing and supply chain function. The developed tools and concepts will provide a cost effective way of managing this function within SMEs. The paper further shows the use of these tools within Contechs, a manufacturer of luxury boat interiors, and the associated benefits achieved as a result of this implementation. Finally a generic framework towards use in such environments is presented.
    6
    14930
    An Assessment of Technological Competencies on Professional Service Firms Business Performance
    Abstract:
    This study was initiated with a three prong objective. One, to identify the relationship between Technological Competencies factors (Technical Capability, Firm Innovativeness and E-Business Practices and professional service firms- business performance. To investigate the predictors of professional service firms business performance and finally to evaluate the predictors of business performance according to the type of professional service firms, a survey questionnaire was deployed to collect empirical data. The questionnaire was distributed to the owners of the professional small medium size enterprises services in the Accounting, Legal, Engineering and Architecture sectors. Analysis showed that all three Technology Competency factors have moderate effect on business performance. In addition, the regression models indicate that technical capability is the most highly influential that could determine business performance, followed by e-business practices and firm innovativeness. Subsequently, the main predictor of business performance for all types of firms is Technical capability.
    5
    15063
    Malaysia Folk Literature in Early Childhood Education
    Abstract:
    Malay Folk Literature in early childhood education served as an important agent in child development that involved emotional, thinking and language aspects. Up to this moment not much research has been carried out in Malaysia particularly in the teaching and learning aspects nor has there been an effort to publish “big books." Hence this article will discuss the stance taken by university undergraduate students, teachers and parents in evaluating Malay Folk Literature in early childhood education to be used as big books. The data collated and analyzed were taken from 646 respondents comprising 347 undergraduates and 299 teachers. Results of the study indicated that Malay Folk Literature can be absorbed into teaching and learning for early childhood with a mean of 4.25 while it can be in big books with a mean of 4.14. Meanwhile the highest mean value required for placing Malay Folk Literature genre as big books in early childhood education rests on exemplary stories for undergraduates with mean of 4.47; animal fables for teachers with a mean of 4.38. The lowest mean value of 3.57 is given to lipurlara stories. The most popular Malay Folk Literature found suitable for early children is Sang Kancil and the Crocodile, followed by Bawang Putih Bawang Merah. Pak Padir, Legends of Mahsuri, Origin of Malacca, and Origin of Rainbow are among the popular stories as well. Overall the undergraduates show a positive attitude toward all the items compared to teachers. The t-test analysis has revealed a non significant relationship between the undergraduate students and teachers with all the items for the teaching and learning of Malay Folk Literature.
    4
    15123
    The Key Challenges of the New Bank Regulations
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    The New Basel Capital Accord (Basel II) influences how financial institutions around the world, and especially European Union institutions, determine the amount of capital to reserve. However, as the recent global crisis has shown, the revision of Basel II is needed to reflect current trends, such as increased volatility and correlation, in the world financial markets. The overall objective of Basel II is to increase the safety and soundness of the international financial system. Basel II builds on three main pillars: Pillar I deals with the minimum capital requirements for credit, market and operational risk, Pillar II focuses on the supervisory review process and finally Pillar III promotes market discipline through enhanced disclosure requirements for banks. The aim of this paper is to provide the historical background, key features and impact of Basel II on financial markets. Moreover, we discuss new proposals for international bank regulation (sometimes referred to as Basel III) which include requirements for higher quality, constituency and transparency of banks' capital and risk management, regulation of OTC markets and introduction of new liquidity standards for internationally active banks.

    3
    15223
    Marital Interactions in Predicting Treatment Outcome in Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia
    Abstract:
    This study had two goals. First, it investigated marital interaction variables as predictors of treatment outcome in panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) in sixty-five couples with one spouse suffering from PDA. Second, it analyzed the impact of PDA improvement, following therapy, on marital interaction patterns of both spouses. The partners were observed during a problem-solving task, before and after treatment. Negative behaviors at the outset of therapy, both in the PDA and the NPDA partners, predicted less improvement at post-test. It also appears that improvement in some PDA symptoms following therapy is linked to increase in the dominant behavior of the NPDA spouse and to an improvement in terms of his intrusiveness.
    2
    15748
    Linking OpenCourseWares and Open Education Resources: Creating an Effective Search and Recommendation System
    Abstract:
    With a growing number of digital libraries and other open education repositories being made available throughout the world, effective search and retrieval tools are necessary to access the desired materials that surpass the effectiveness of traditional, allinclusive search engines. This paper discusses the design and use of Folksemantic, a platform that integrates OpenCourseWare search, Open Educational Resource recommendations, and social network functionality into a single open source project. The paper describes how the system was originally envisioned, its goals for users, and data that provides insight into how it is actually being used. Data sources include website click-through data, query logs, web server log files and user account data. Based on a descriptive analysis of its current use, modifications to the platform's design are recommended to better address goals of the system, along with recommendations for additional phases of research.
    1
    15946
    A Hidden Dimension in Site Planning: Exploring Affective Experience as Part of Sense of Place on the Farm Kromdraai, Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site, South Africa
    Abstract:

    Uniqueness and distinctiveness of localities (referred to as genius loci or sense of place) are important to ensure people-s identification with their locality. Existing frameworks reveals that the affective dimension of environments is rarely mentioned or explored and limited public participation was used in constructing the frameworks. This research argues that the complexity of sense of place would be recognised and appropriate planning guidelines formulated by exploring and integrating the affective dimension of a site. Aims of the research therefore are to (i) explore relational dimensions between people and a natural rural landscape, (ii) to implement a participatory approach to obtain insight into different relational dimensions, and (ii) to concretise socio-affective relational dimensions into site planning guidelines. A qualitative, interdisciplinary research approach was followed and conducted on the farm Kromdraai, Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site. In essence the first phase of the study reveals various affective responses and projections of personal meanings. The findings in phase 1 informed the second phase, to involve people from various disciplines and different involvement with the area to make visual presentations of appropriate planning and design of the site in order to capture meanings of the interactions between people and their environment. Final site planning and design guidelines were formulated, based on these. This research contributed to provide planners with new possibilities of exploring the dimensions between people and places as well as to develop appropriate methods for participation to obtain insight into the underlying meanings of sites.