Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 79

Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering

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  • 79
    237
    Towards An Extended International HRM Model for Emerging Multinational Enterprises
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    This paper critiques several exiting strategic international human resource management (SIHRM) frameworks and discusses their limitations to apply directly to emerging multinational enterprises (EMNEs), especially those generated from China and other BRICS nations. To complement the existing SIHRM frameworks, key variables relevant to emerging economies are identified and the extended model with particular reference to EMNEs is developed with several research propositions. It is believed that the extended model would better capture the recent development of MNEs in transition, and alert emerging international managers to address several human resource management challenges in the global context
    78
    340
    Variations of Body Mass Index with Age in Masters Athletes (World Masters Games)
    Abstract:
    Whilst there is growing evidence that activity across the lifespan is beneficial for improved health, there are also many changes involved with the aging process and subsequently the potential for reduced indices of health. The nexus between health, physical activity and aging is complex and has raised much interest in recent times due to the realization that a multifaceted approached is necessary in order to counteract a growing obesity epidemic. By investigating age based trends within a population adhering to competitive sport at older ages, further insight might be gleaned to assist in understanding one of many factors influencing this relationship. BMI was derived using data gathered on a total of 6,071 masters athletes (51.9% male, 48.1% female) aged 25 to 91 years ( =51.5, s =±9.7), competing at the Sydney World Masters Games (2009). Using linear and loess regression it was demonstrated that the usual tendency for prevalence of higher BMI increasing with age was reversed in the sample. This trend in reversal was repeated for both male and female only sub-sets of the sample participants, indicating the possibility of improved prevalence of BMI with increasing age for both the sample as a whole and these individual subgroups. This evidence of improved classification in one index of health (reduced BMI) for masters athletes (when compared to the general population) implies there are either improved levels of this index of health with aging due to adherence to sport or possibly the reduced BMI is advantageous and contributes to this cohort adhering (or being attracted) to masters sport at older ages. Demonstration of this proportionately under-investigated World Masters Games population having an improved relationship between BMI and increasing age over the general population is of particular interest in the context of the measures being taken globally to curb an obesity epidemic.
    77
    440
    Constitutional Complaint as an Instrument of Fulfilling the Worker ׳s Rights in Croatian Legal System
    Abstract:

    This paper begins with formal defining of human rights and freedoms, and the basic document regarding the said subject is undoubtedly French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 789. This paper furthermore parses legal sources relevant for the workers' rights in legal system of the Republic of Croatia, international contracts and the Labour Act, which is also a master bill regarding workers' rights The authors are also dealing with issues of Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia and its' position in judicial system of the Republic of Croatia, as well as with the specifics of Constitutional Complaint, and the crucial part of the paper is based on the research conducted with an aim to determine implementation of rights and liberties guaranteed by the articles 54. and 55. of the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia by means of Constitutional Complaint.

    76
    443
    The Organizational Innovativeness of Public Listed Housing Developers in Malaysia
    Abstract:
    This paper investigated the organizational innovativeness of public listed housing developers in Malaysia. We conceptualized organizational innovativeness as a multi-dimensional construct consisting of 5 dimensions: market innovativeness, product innovativeness, process innovativeness, behavior innovativeness and strategic innovativeness. We carried out questionnaire survey with all accessible public listed developers in Malaysia and received a 56 percent response. We found that the innovativeness of public listed housing developers is low. The paper ends by providing some explanations for the results.
    75
    448
    Optimal Allocation Between Subprime Structured Mortgage Products and Treasuries
    Abstract:

    This conference paper discusses a risk allocation problem for subprime investing banks involving investment in subprime structured mortgage products (SMPs) and Treasuries. In order to solve this problem, we develop a L'evy process-based model of jump diffusion-type for investment choice in subprime SMPs and Treasuries. This model incorporates subprime SMP losses for which credit default insurance in the form of credit default swaps (CDSs) can be purchased. In essence, we solve a mean swap-at-risk (SaR) optimization problem for investment which determines optimal allocation between SMPs and Treasuries subject to credit risk protection via CDSs. In this regard, SaR is indicative of how much protection investors must purchase from swap protection sellers in order to cover possible losses from SMP default. Here, SaR is defined in terms of value-at-risk (VaR). Finally, we provide an analysis of the aforementioned optimization problem and its connections with the subprime mortgage crisis (SMC).

    74
    563
    Evaluation of Curriculum Quality of Postgraduate Studies of Actuarial Science Field at Public Universities of Iran
    Abstract:

    Evaluation and survey of curriculum quality as one of the most important components of universities system is necessary for different levels in higher education. The main purpose of this study was to survey of the curriculum quality of Actuarial science field. Case: University of SHahid Beheshti and Higher education institute of Eco insurance (according to viewpoint of students, alumni, employers and faculty members). Descriptive statistics (mean, tables, percentage, and frequency distribution) and inferential statistics (CHI SQUARE) were used to analyze the data. Six criteria considered for the Quality of curriculum: objectives, content, teaching and learning methods, space and facilities, Time, assessment of learning. Content, teaching and learning methods, space and facilities, assessment of learning criteria were relatively desirable level, objectives and time criterions were desirable level. The quality of curriculum of Actuarial Science field was relatively desirable level.

    73
    1078
    The Low-fertility problem in Hong Kong: Do Mainlanders- Births Help to Rejuvenate Low-fertility Problem?
    Abstract:

    Hong Kong is one of the regions in the world where Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is very low. In 2001, the TFR dropped until 0.931, which means 1 woman even cannot give birth to one child on average. However, after the reformation of the 'Right of Abode of Hong Kong' in 2001 and the Chinese Central Government loosened the disembarkation procedure of mainland Chinese (mainlander) to enter Hong Kong in 2003; mainlander couples started to cross the border for giving births in Hong Kong. This action raises Hong Kong-s TFR quickly from 0.931 (2001) to 1.094 (2010). Usually, an increasing trend of TFR means a sign of rejuvenation in low-fertility, but in the case of Hong Kong, the increase of TFR does not, rather it generates other population problems. This paper is going to discuss do mainlanders- births help to solve the low-fertility problem in Hong Kong.

    72
    1113
    To Be Smooth of The Interest and Output of Accepted Companies Stock at Negotiable Paper Exchange of Tehran
    Abstract:
    In this research relationship between to be smooth the interest and output of accepted companies stock at negotiable paper exchange of Tehran is studied. Static community capacity included 363 companies member of negotiable paper exchange of Tehran that 54 companies were, by considering research limitation, selected from 2004 to 2009. Needed data for model test in librarian method was chosen from RAH AVARDE NOVIN informative banks, TADBIR and collecting needed data was selected from Tehran negotiable paper exchange archive. Given results show that in spite of belief among people based on companies have more smooth interest have more output, but resulted outcomes of test-done reveals that there is no relation between smooth interest and stock output.
    71
    2085
    The Engineering Eportfolio: Enhancing Communication, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving and Teamwork Skills?
    Abstract:
    Graduate attributes have received increasing attention over recent years as universities incorporate these attributes into the curriculum. Graduates who have adequate technical knowledge only are not sufficiently equipped to compete effectively in the work place; they also need non disciplinary skills ie, graduate attributes. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of an eportfolio in a technical communication course to enhance engineering students- graduate attributes: namely, learning of communication, critical thinking and problem solving and teamwork skills. Two questionnaires were used to elicit information from the students: one on their preferred and the other on the actual learning process. In addition, student perceptions of the use of eportfolio as a learning tool were investigated. Preliminary findings showed that most of the students- expectations have been met with their actual learning. This indicated that eportfolio has the potential as a tool to enhance students- graduate attributes.
    70
    2360
    Electronic Transactions: Jurisdictional Issues in the European Union
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    One of the main consequences of the ubiquitous usage of Internet as a means to conduct business has been the progressive internationalization of contracts created to support such transactions. As electronic commerce becomes International commerce, the reality is that commercial disputes will occur creating such questions as: "In which country do I bring proceedings?" and "Which law is to be applied to solve disputes?" The decentralized and global structure of the Internet and its decentralized operation have given e-commerce a transnational element that affects two questions essential to any transaction: applicable law and jurisdiction in the event of dispute. The sharing of applicable law and jurisdiction among States in respect of international transactions traditionally has been based on the use of contact factors generally of a territorial nature (the place where real estate is located, customary residence, principal establishment, place of shipping goods). The characteristics of the Internet as a new space sometimes make it difficult to apply these rules, and may make them inoperative or lead to results that are surprising or totally foreign to the contracting parties and other elements and circumstances of the case.

    69
    2436
    Research on Hypermediated Images in Asian Films
    Abstract:
    In films, visual effects have played the role of expressing realities more realistically or describing imaginations as if they are real. Such images are immediated images representing realism, and the logic of immediation for the reality of images has been perceived dominant in visual effects. In order for immediation to have an identity as immediation, there should be the opposite concept hypermediation. In the mid 2000s, hypermediated images were settled as a code of mass culture in Asia. Thus, among Asian films highly popular in those days, this study selected five displaying hypermediated images – 2 Korean, 2 Japanese, and 1 Thailand movies – and examined the semiotic meanings of such images using Roland Barthes- directional and implicated meaning analysis and Metz-s paradigmatic analysis method, focusing on how hypermediated images work in the general context of the films, how they are associated with spaces, and what meanings they try to carry.
    68
    2844
    Research of Potential Cluster Development in Pannonian Croatia
    Abstract:
    The paper presents an analysis of linkages and structures of co-operation and their intensity like the potential for the establishment of clusters in the Central and Eastern (Pannonian) Croatian. Starting from the theoretical elaboration of the need for entrepreneurs to organize through the cluster model and the terms of their self-actualization, related to the importance of traditional values in terms of benefits, social capital and assess where the company now is, in order to prove the need to create their own identity in terms of clustering. The institutional dimensions of social capital where the public sector has the best role in creating the social structure of clusters, and social dimensions of social capital in terms of trust, cooperation and networking will be analyzed to what extent the trust and coherency are present between companies in the Brod posavina and Pozega slavonia County, expressed through the readiness of inclusion in clusters in the NUTS II region - Central and Eastern (Pannonian) Croatia, as a homogeneous economic entity, with emphasis on limiting factors that stand in the way of greater competitiveness.
    67
    3234
    User Acceptance of Educational Games: A Revised Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)
    Abstract:

    Educational games (EG) seem to have lots of potential due to digital games popularity and preferences of our younger generations of learners. However, most studies focus on game design and its effectiveness while little has been known about the factors that can affect users to accept or to reject EG for their learning. User acceptance research try to understand the determinants of information systems (IS) adoption among users by investigating both systems factors and users factors. Upon the lack of knowledge on acceptance factors for educational games, we seek to understand the issue. This study proposed a model of acceptance factors based on Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). We use original model (performance expectancy, effort expectancy and social influence) together with two new determinants (learning opportunities and enjoyment). We will also investigate the effect of gender and gaming experience that moderate the proposed factors.

    66
    3428
    The Relationship between Business-model Innovation and Firm Value: A Dynamic Perspective
    Abstract:
    When consistently innovative business-models can give companies a competitive advantage, longitudinal empirical research, which can reflect dynamic business-model changes, has yet to prove a definitive connection. This study consequently employs a dynamic perspective in conjunction with innovation theory to examine the relationship between the types of business-model innovation and firm value. This study tries to examine various types of business-model innovation in high-end and low-end technology industries such as HTC and the 7-Eleven chain stores with research periods of 14 years and 32 years, respectively. The empirical results suggest that adopting radical business-model innovation in addition to expanding new target markets can successfully lead to a competitive advantage. Sustained advanced technological competences and service/product innovation are the key successful factors in high-end and low-end technology industry business-models respectively. In sum up, the business-model innovation can yield a higher market value and financial value in high-end technology industries than low-end ones.
    65
    3546
    Employee Loyalty and Telecommuting
    Abstract:
    Telecommuting has become an increasingly popular work arrangement. However, little research has examined the impact of telecommuting on the relationship between employees and the organization. This study aims to shed light on this aspect by comparing the loyalty of telecommuters and non telecommuters as it can be viewed from three angles: organizational loyalty, peer loyalty, and professional loyalty. Furthermore, this paper will explore the dynamics among employee loyalty, productivity, and job satisfaction. Whereas previous studies had looked on employees that are not fully telecommuting, the current study concentrates on employees that are exclusively working from home.
    64
    3563
    Where has All the Physical Education Gone? Results of a Generalist Primary Schools Teachers- Survey on Teaching Physical Education
    Abstract:

    Concerns about low levels of children-s physical activity and motor skill development, prompted the Ministry of Education to trial a physical activity pilot project (PAPP) in 16 New Zealand primary schools. The project comprised professional development and training in physical education for lead teachers and introduced four physical activity coordinators to liaise with and increase physical activity opportunities in the pilot schools. A survey of generalist teachers (128 baseline, 155 post-intervention) from these schools looked at timetabled physical activity sessions and issues related to teaching physical education. The authors calculated means and standard deviations of data relating to timetabled PE sessions and used a one-way analysis of variance to determine significant differences. Results indicated time devoted to physical activity related subjects significantly increased over the course of the intervention. Teacher-s reported improved confidence and competence, which resulted in an improvement in quality physical education delivered more often.

    63
    3633
    Occupants- Behavior and Spatial Implications of Riverfront Residential in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
    Abstract:
    The urbanization phenomenon in Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia, encouraged people move to the city for getting jobs in the informal sectors. They live in some temporary houses in the three main riverbanks: Gadjahwong, Code, and Winongo. Triggered by its independent status they use it as the space for accommodating domestic, social and economy activities because of the non standardized room size of their houses, where are recognized as the environmental hazards. This recognition makes the ambivalent perception when was related to the twelfth point of the philosophy of community development concept: the empowering individuals and communities. Its spatial implication have actually described the territory and the place making phenomena. By analyzing some data collected the author-s fundamental research funded by The General Directorate of Higher Education of Indonesia, this paper will discuss how do the spatial implications of the occupants- behavior and the numerous perceptions of those phenomena.
    62
    3909
    Entrepreneurial Activity - Indicator of Regional Development in Croatia
    Abstract:

    Given that entrepreneurship is a very significant factor of regional development, it is necessary to approach systematically the development with measures of regional politics. According to international classification The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS II), there are three regions in Croatia. The indicators of entrepreneurial activities on the national level of Croatia are analyzed in the paper, taking into consideration the results of referent research. The level of regional development is shown based on the analysis of entrepreneurs- operations. The results of the analysis show a very unfavorable situation in entrepreneurial activities on the national level of Croatia. The origin of this situation is to be found in the surroundings with an expressed inequality of regional development, which is caused by the non-existence of a strategically directed regional policy. In this paper recommendations which could contribute to the reduction of regional inequality in Croatia, have been made.

    61
    4114
    Sustainability Management for Wine Production: A Case of Thailand
    Abstract:
    At present, increased concerns about global environmental problems have magnified the importance of sustainability management. To move towards sustainability, companies need to look at everything from a holistic perspective in order to understand the interconnections between economic growth and environmental and social sustainability. This paper aims to gain an understanding of key determinants that drive sustainability management and barriers that hinder its development. It employs semi-structured interviews with key informants, site observation and documentation. The informants are production, marketing and environmental managers of the leading wine producer, which aims to become an Asia-s leader in wine & wine based products. It is found that corporate image and top management leadership are the primary factors influencing the adoption of sustainability management. Lack of environmental knowledge and inefficient communication are identified as barriers.
    60
    4211
    The Low-carbon Transition Exploration of China's Traditional Manufacturing Industries
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    Aiming at the problems existing in low-carbon technology of Chinese manufacturing industries, such as irrational energy structure, lack of technological innovation, financial constraints, this paper puts forward the suggestion that the leading role of the government is combined with the roles of enterprises and market. That is, through increasing the governmental funding the adjustment of the industrial structures and enhancement of the legal supervision are supported. Technological innovation is accelerated by the enterprises, and the carbon trading will be promoted so as to trigger the low-carbon revolution in Chinese manufacturing field.

    59
    4253
    A Research about How the Dividend Policy Influences the Enterprise Value on the Condition of Consecutive Cash Payoff
    Abstract:

    this article conducts a research about the relationship between cash dividend policy and enterprise value based on the data coming from the A-share listed companies over period 2005-2009. In conclusion, the enterprise value has a negative correlation with the incremental and the degressive cash dividend per share, and has a positive correlation with the stable cash dividend per share.

    58
    4292
    A Comparative Analysis of the Perceived Bureaucracy in a Turkish State University
    Abstract:
    Organizational structure of the Turkish state universities is a form of bureaucracy, a high efficient system in rational and formal control. According to the dimensional approach bureaucracy can occur in an organization in a degree, as some bureaucracy characteristics can be stronger than others. In addition, the units of an organization due to their different specific characteristic properties can perceive the bureaucracy differently. In the study, Hall-s Organizational Inventory, which was developed for evaluating the degree of bureaucratization from the dimensional perspective, is used to find out if there is a difference in the perception of the bureaucracy between the academicians working in three different departments and two faculties in the same university.
    57
    4343
    Corruption and International Business Community Is Integration into International Business ameans of Reducing Corruption?The case of Russia
    Abstract:
    The article examines an opportunity of corruption restriction exercised by international business community in Russia. Integration of Russian economy into the international business does not reduce corruption inside the country. Foreign actors investing in Russia under the condition of obtaining their required rates of returns will be reluctant to harm their investments by involving into anticorruption activities. Furthermore, many Russian firms- competitive advantage could be directly related to their corruption connections. In this case, foreign investments would only accentuate corrupt companies- success by supporting them financially
    56
    4750
    A Critical Study of Media Profiling on Society-s Social Problems from a British Perspective
    Abstract:
    This article explores the sociological perspectives on social problems and the role of the media which has a delicate role to tread in balancing its duty to the public and the victim Whilst social problems have objective conditions, it is the subjective definition of such problems that ensure which social problem comes to the fore and which doesn-t. Further it explores the roles and functions of policymakers when addressing social problems and the impact of the inception of media profiling as well as the advantages and disadvantages of media profiling towards social problems. It focuses on the inception of media profiling due to its length and a follow up article will explore how current media profiling towards social problems have evolved since its inception.
    55
    4764
    Comparative Approach of Measuring Price Risk on Romanian and International Wheat Market
    Abstract:
    This paper aims to present the main instruments used in the economic literature for measuring the price risk, pointing out on the advantages brought by the conditional variance in this respect. The theoretical approach will be exemplified by elaborating an EGARCH model for the price returns of wheat, both on Romanian and on international market. To our knowledge, no previous empirical research, either on price risk measurement for the Romanian markets or studies that use the ARIMA-EGARCH methodology, have been conducted. After estimating the corresponding models, the paper will compare the estimated conditional variance on the two markets.
    54
    5226
    Survey of Curriculum Quality of Postgraduate Studies of Insurance Management Field Case: University of Allameh Taba Tabaee
    Abstract:

    Curriculum is one of the most important inputs in higher education system and for knowing the strong and weak spots of it we need evaluation. The main purpose of this study was to survey of the curriculum quality of Insurance Management field. Case: University of Allameh Taba Tabaee(according to view point of students,alumni,employer and faculty members).Descriptive statistics (mean, tables, percentages, frequency distribution) and inferential statistics (CHI SQUARE) were used to analyze the data. Six criterions considered for the Quality of curriculum: objectives, content, teaching and learning methods, space and facilities, Time, assessment of learning. objectives, teaching and learning methods criterions was desirable level, content criteria was undesirable level, space and facilities, time and assessment of learning were rather desirable level. The quality of curriculum of insurance management field was relatively desirable level.

    53
    5560
    Talent Management and its Use in the Field of Human Resources Management in the Organization of the Czech Republic
    Abstract:

    The article is aimed at bringing information on the scope and the level of use of talent management by organizations in one of the Czech Republic regions, in the Moravian-Silesian Region. On the basis of data acquired by a questionnaire survey it has been found out that organizations in the above-mentioned region are implementing the system of talent management on a small scale: this approach is used by 3.8 % of organizations only that is 9 from 237 (100 %) of the approached respondents. The main reasons why this approach is not used is either that organizations have no knowledge of it or there is lack of financial and personnel resources. In the article recommendations suggested by the author can be found for a wider application of talent management in the Czech practice.

    52
    6105
    Social Marketing and Nonprofit Organizations
    Abstract:
    Today the social marketing was constituted as a tool of significant value in what he refers to the promotion of changes of behaviors, attitudes end practices. With the objective of analyzing the benefits that the social marketing can bring for the organizations that use it the research was of the exploratory and descriptive. In the present study the comparative method was used, through a qualitative approach, to analyze the activities developed by three institutions: the Recovery Center Rosa de Saron, the House of Recovery for addicts and Teen Challenge Institute Children's Cancer of the Wasteland (ICIA), kindred of pointing out the benefits of the social marketing in organizations that don-t seek the profit.
    51
    6185
    Decision-Making Criteria of PPP Projects: Stakeholder Theoretic Perspective
    Abstract:
    Any decision-making is based on certain theory. Taking the public rental housing in Chongqing municipality as an example, this essay states that the stakeholder theory can provide innovative criteria and evaluation methods for Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects. It gives an analysis of how to choose decision-making criteria for different stakeholders in the PPP model and what measures to take to meet the criteria to form “symbiotic" decision-making mode through contracts and to boost the application of PPP model in large-scale public programs in China.
    50
    6218
    The Alterations of Some Pancreas Gland Hormones after an Aerobic Strenuous Exercise in Male Students
    Abstract:
    The alterations in pancreas gland secretion hormones following an aerobic and exhausting exercise was the purpose of this study. Sixteen healthy men participated in the study. The blood samples of these participants were taken in four stages under fasting condition. The first sample was taken before Bruce exhausting and aerobic test, the second sample was taken after Bruce exercise and the third and forth stages samples were taken 24 and 48 hours after the exercises respectively. The final results indicated that a strenuous aerobic exercise can have a significant effect on glucagon and insulin concentration of blood serum. The increase in blood serum insulin was higher after 24 and 48 hours. It seems that an intensive exercise has little effect on changes in glucagon concentration of blood serum. Also, disorder in secretion in glucagon and insulin concentration of serum disturbs athletes- exercise.
    49
    6232
    Development and Assessment of the Competence Creativity Applied to Technical Drawing
    Abstract:

    The results obtained after incorporating the competence “creativity" to the subject Technical Drawing of the first course of the Degree in Forestry, Technical University of Madrid, are presented in this study.At first, learning activities which could serve two functions at the same time -developing students- creativity and developing other specific competences of the subject- were considered. Besides, changes in the assessment procedure were made and a method which analyzes two aspects of the assessment of the competence creativity was established. On the one hand, the products are evaluated by analyzing the outcomes obtained by students in the essays suggested and by establishing a parameter to assess the creativity expressed in those essays. On the other, an assessment of the student is directly carried out through a psychometric test which has been previously chosen by the team.Moreover, these results can be applied to similar or could be of general application.

    48
    6460
    Ethics in the Technology Driven Enterprise
    Abstract:
    Innovations in technology have created new ethical challenges. Essential use of electronic communication in the workplace has escalated at an astronomical rate over the past decade. As such, legal and ethical dilemmas confronted by both the employer and the employee concerning managerial control and ownership of einformation have increased dramatically in the USA. From the employer-s perspective, ownership and control of all information created for the workplace is an undeniable source of economic advantage and must be monitored zealously. From the perspective of the employee, individual rights, such as privacy, freedom of speech, and freedom from unreasonable search and seizure, continue to be stalwart legal guarantees that employers are not legally or ethically entitled to abridge in the workplace. These issues have been the source of great debate and the catalyst for legal reform. The fine line between ethical and legal has been complicated by emerging technologies. This manuscript will identify and discuss a number of specific legal and ethical issues raised by the dynamic electronic workplace and conclude with suggestions that employers should follow to respect the delicate balance between employees- legal rights to privacy and the employer's right to protect its knowledge systems and infrastructure.
    47
    6561
    PSO-based Possibilistic Portfolio Model with Transaction Costs
    Abstract:
    This paper deals with a portfolio selection problem based on the possibility theory under the assumption that the returns of assets are LR-type fuzzy numbers. A possibilistic portfolio model with transaction costs is proposed, in which the possibilistic mean value of the return is termed measure of investment return, and the possibilistic variance of the return is termed measure of investment risk. Due to considering transaction costs, the existing traditional optimization algorithms usually fail to find the optimal solution efficiently and heuristic algorithms can be the best method. Therefore, a particle swarm optimization is designed to solve the corresponding optimization problem. At last, a numerical example is given to illustrate our proposed effective means and approaches.
    46
    6763
    A Case Study on the Efficacy of Technical Laboratory Safety in Polytechnic
    Abstract:
    Technical laboratories are typically considered as highly hazardous places in the polytechnic institution when addressing the problems of high incidences and fatality rates. In conjunction with several topics covered in the technical curricular, safety and health precaution should be highlighted in order to connect to few key ideas of being safe. Therefore the assessment of safety awareness in terms of safety and health about hazardous and risks at laboratories is needed and has to be incorporated with technical education and other training programmes. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of technical laboratory safety in one of the polytechnics in northern region. The study examined three related issues that were; the availability of safety material and equipment, safety practice adopted by technical teachers and administrator-s safety attitudes in enforcing safety to the students. A model of efficacy technical laboratory was developed to test the linear relationship between existing safety material and equipment, teachers- safety practice and administrators- attitude in enforcing safety and to identify which of technical laboratory safety issues was the most pertinent factor to realize safety in technical laboratory. This was done by analyzing survey-based data sets particularly those obtained from samples of 210 students in the polytechnic. The Pearson Correlation was used to measure the association between the variables and to test the research hypotheses. The result of the study has found that there was a significant correlation between existing safety material and equipment, safety practice adopted by teacher and administrator-s attitude. There was also a significant relationship between technical laboratory safety and safety practice adopted by teacher and between technical laboratory safety and administrator attitude. Hence, safety practice adopted by teacher and administrator attitude is vital in realizing technical laboratory safety.
    45
    7249
    Educational use of Interactive Multimedia based on Museum Collection
    Abstract:
    This research investigates the use of digital technology namely interactive multimedia in effective art education provided by museum. Several multimedia experience examples created for art education are study case subjected to assistance audiences- learning within the context of existing theory in the field of interactive multimedia.
    44
    7560
    A Comparative Study on Eastern and Western Wedding Ceremonies in Korean Films and Hollywood Films
    Abstract:

    As an adult man and woman love each other and come to have faith in each other as their spouse, they marry each other. Recently people-s economic life has become individualized and women are enjoying a high education level and increased participation in social activities, and these changes are creating environment favorable for single life. Thus, an increasing number of people are choosing celibacy, and many people prefer cohabitation to marriage. Nevertheless, marriage is still regarded as a must-to-do in our thought. Most of people throughout the world admit marriage as one of natural processes of life, and is an important passage rite in life that all people experience as we can see everywhere in the world despite the diversity of lifestyles. With regard to wedding ceremony, however, each country and culture has its own unique tradition and style of festival. It is not just a congratulatory ceremony but contains multiple concepts representing the age, country or culture. Moreover, the form and contents of wedding ceremony changes over time, and such features of wedding ceremony are well represented in films. This study took note of the fact that films reflect and reproduce each country-s historicity, culturality and analyzed four films, which are believed to show differences between Eastern and Western wedding ceremonies. The selected films are: A Perfect Match (2002), Marriage Is a Crazy Thing (2001), Bride Wars (2009) and 27 Dresses (2008). The author attempted to examine wedding ceremonies described in the four films, differences between the East and the West suggested by the films, and changes in their societies.

    43
    7576
    Approaches to Determining Optimal Asset Structure for a Commercial Bank
    Abstract:
    Every commercial bank optimises its asset portfolio depending on the profitability of assets and chosen or imposed constraints. This paper proposes and applies a stylized model for optimising banks' asset and liability structure, reflecting profitability of different asset categories and their risks as well as costs associated with different liability categories and reserve requirements. The level of detail for asset and liability categories is chosen to create a suitably parsimonious model and to include the most important categories in the model. It is shown that the most appropriate optimisation criterion for the model is the maximisation of the ratio of net interest income to assets. The maximisation of this ratio is subject to several constraints. Some are accounting identities or dictated by legislative requirements; others vary depending on the market objectives for a particular bank. The model predicts variable amount of assets allocated to loan provision.
    42
    8619
    A Framework for the Analysis of the Stereotypes in Accounting
    Abstract:
    Professions are concerned about the public image they have, and this public image is represented by stereotypes. Research is needed to understand how accountants are perceived by different actors in the society in different contexts, which would allow universities, professional bodies and employers to adjust their strategies to attract the right people to the profession and their organizations. We aim to develop in this paper a framework to be used in empirical testing in different environments to determine and analyze the accountant-s stereotype. This framework will be useful in analyzing the nuances associated to the accountant-s image and in understanding the factors that may lead to uniformity in the profession and of those leading to diversity from one context (country, type of countries, region) to another.
    41
    8865
    Functional Store Image and Corporate Social Responsibility Image: A Congruity Analysis on Store Loyalty
    Abstract:
    With previous studies that examined the importance of functional store image and CSR, this study is aimed at examining their effects in the self-congruity model in influencing store loyalty. In particular, this study developed and tested a structural model in the context of retailing industry on the self-congruity theory. Whilst much of the self-congruity studies have incorporated functional store image, there has been lack of studies that examined social responsibility image of retail stores in the self-congruity studies. Findings indicate that self-congruity influence on store loyalty was mediated by both functional store image and social responsibility image. In influencing store loyalty, the findings have shown that social responsibility image has a stronger influence on store loyalty than functional store image. This study offers important findings and implications for future research as it presents a new framework on the importance of social responsibility image.
    40
    8975
    Comparative Analysis of Tax Systems: Some Evidence from CEE Countries
    Abstract:
    During last decades is widely discussed the international harmonization of financial reporting. This harmonization is also affected by national tax systems in analyzed countries. This paper provides some evidence on current national tax systems in selected countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The linkage of accounting profit as a tax base might decrease the administrative burden for majority of SMEs, which are the most important engine of each national economy.
    39
    9150
    Discovery and Capture of Organizational Knowledge from Unstructured Information
    Abstract:
    Knowledge of an organization does not merely reside in structured form of information and data; it is also embedded in unstructured form. The discovery of such knowledge is particularly difficult as the characteristic is dynamic, scattered, massive and multiplying at high speed. Conventional methods of managing unstructured information are considered too resource demanding and time consuming to cope with the rapid information growth. In this paper, a Multi-faceted and Automatic Knowledge Elicitation System (MAKES) is introduced for the purpose of discovery and capture of organizational knowledge. A trial implementation has been conducted in a public organization to achieve the objective of decision capture and navigation from a number of meeting minutes which are autonomously organized, classified and presented in a multi-faceted taxonomy map in both document and content level. Key concepts such as critical decision made, key knowledge workers, knowledge flow and the relationship among them are elicited and displayed in predefined knowledge model and maps. Hence, the structured knowledge can be retained, shared and reused. Conducting Knowledge Management with MAKES reduces work in searching and retrieving the target decision, saves a great deal of time and manpower, and also enables an organization to keep pace with the knowledge life cycle. This is particularly important when the amount of unstructured information and data grows extremely quickly. This system approach of knowledge management can accelerate value extraction and creation cycles of organizations.
    38
    9424
    Goodwill in the Current Greek Accounting Environment
    Abstract:

    The growing interest in the issue of intangible assets not only in the scientific community but also in some professional bodies internationally can be explained by several points of view. From the business perspective, enterprises are increasingly motivated by external and internal forces to measure and proactively manage their intangibles. With respect to the issue of intangibles, goodwill has been debated in many countries throughout the world. Despite the numerous efforts and the existence of international accounting standards there is not yet a common accepted accounting treatment for goodwill. This study attempts on the one hand to impress the accounting treatment of goodwill internationally, on the other hand analyses the major subjects in relation to the accounting treatment of goodwill in Greece, since 2005, year where the international accounting standards have been in use for the Greek listed companies. The results indicate that the accounting treatment for the goodwill in Greece, despite the effort for accounting harmonization in Europe from 2005, sustains many differences especially for the no listed companies.

    37
    9446
    Native Framework of Economic Activities Development to Achieve The 1404 Iranian View Statement's Goals
    Abstract:

    Planning of economic activities development has various dimensions one of which determines adequate capacity of economic activities in provinces regarding the government-s goals. Paralleling planning goals of economic activities development including subjects being focused on the view statement is effective to better realize the statement's goals. Current paper presents a native framework for economic activities development in provincial level. Triple steps within the framework are concordant with the view statement-s goals achievement. At first step of the proposed framework, economic activities are being prioritized in terms of employment indices, and secondly economic activities regarding to the province's relative advantages are being recognized. In the third step, desirable capacity of economic activities is determined with regards to the government's goals and effective constraints in economic activities development. Development of economic activities related to the provinces- relative advantages, contributes on regional balance and on equal development of economic activities. Furthermore, results of the framework enable more confident investment, affect employment development and remove unemployment concern as the main goals of the view statement.

    36
    9473
    Heart Rate Variability in Responders and Non- Responders to Live-Moderate, Train-Low Altitude Training
    Abstract:
    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of an altitude training camp on heart rate variability and performance in elite triathletes. Ten athletes completed 20 days of live-high, train-low training at 1650m. Athletes underwent pre and post 800-m swim time trials at sea-level, and two heart rate variability tests at 1650m on the first and last day of the training camp. Based on their time trial results, athletes were divided into responders and non-responders. Relative to the non-responders, the responders sympathetic-toparasympathetic ratio decreased substantially after 20 days of altitude training (-0.68 ± 1.08 and -1.2 ± 0.96, mean ± 90% confidence interval for supine and standing respectively). In addition, sympathetic activity while standing was also substantially lower post-altitude in the responders compared to the non-responders (-1869 ± 4764 ms2). Results indicate that responders demonstrated a change to more vagal predominance compared to non-responders.
    35
    9486
    An Economic Evaluation of Subjective Well-Being Derived from Sport Participation
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    This study links up the theories of social psychology, economics and sport management to assess the impact of sport participation on subjective well-being (SWB) and use a simple statistic method to estimate the relative monetary value that sport participation derives SWB for Taiwan-s college students. By constructing proper measurements on sport participation and SWB respectively, a structural equation model (SEM) is developed to perform a confirmatory factory analysis, and the causal relationship between sport participation and SWB as well as the effect of the demographic variables on these two concepts are also discussed.
    34
    9568
    Towards the Creation of Adaptive Content from Web Resources in an E-Learning Platform to Learners Profiles
    Abstract:
    The evolution of information and communication technology has made a very powerful support for the improvement of online learning platforms in creation of courses. This paper presents a study that attempts to explore new web architecture for creating an adaptive online learning system to profiles of learners, using the Web as a source for the automatic creation of courses for the online training platform. This architecture will reduce the time and decrease the effort performed by the drafters of the current e-learning platform, and direct adaptation of the Web content will greatly enrich the quality of online training courses.
    33
    9682
    The Effect of Breaststroke Swimming Exercise to Increase the Value of Peak Expiratory Flow
    Abstract:

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of breaststroke swimming exercise to improving the peak expiratory flow. Methode: This study used 17 students of men aged 19-21 years, APE values measured before and after the study. Style swimming workout done in accordance with a program that has been made. Result: Value of peak expiratory flow in male students obtained on average before exercise (530 ± 15 811) liters / min and after doing the exercises (540.59 ± 17 092) liters / minute. Paired ttest showed t = -6.446 and p = 0.000, which means there are differences in peak expiratory flow values before and after exercise swimming breaststroke. Conclusion: The conclusion is the breaststroke swimming exercise can be improving of peak expiratory flow.

    32
    9732
    Social Network Management Enhances Customer Relationship
    Abstract:
    The study aims to develop a framework of social network management to enhance customer relationship. Social network management of this research is derived from social network site management, individual and organization social network usage motivation. The survey was conducted with organization employees who have used social network to interact with customers. The results reveal that content, link, privacy and security, page design and interactivity are the major issues of social network site management. Content, link, privacy and security, individual and organization motivation have major impacts on encouraging business knowledge sharing among employees. Moreover, Page design and interactivity, content, organization motivation and knowledge sharing can improve customer relationships.
    31
    9977
    Citizens- Expectations from Rural Telecentres: A Case Study of Implementation of Common Service Centres in Mushedpur Village, Haryana, India
    Abstract:
    Setting up of rural telecentres, popularly referred to as Common Service Centres (CSCs), are considered one of the initial forerunners of rural e-Governance initiatives under the Government of India-s National e-Governance Plan (NeGP). CSCs are implemented on public-private partnership (PPP) – where State governments play a major role in facilitating the establishment of CSCs and investments are made by private companies referred to as Service Centre Agencies (SCAs). CSC implementation is expected to help in improving public service delivery in a transparent and efficient manner. However, there is very little research undertaken to study the actual impact of CSC implementation at the grassroots level. This paper addresses the gap by identifying the circumstances, concerns and expectations from the point-of-view of citizens and examining the finer aspects of social processes in the context of rural e-Governance.
    30
    10137
    Effect of Teaching Games for Understanding Approach on Students- Cognitive Learning Outcome
    Abstract:
    The study investigated the effects of Teaching Games for Understanding approach on students ‘cognitive learning outcome. The study was a quasi-experimental non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design whereby 10 year old primary school students (n=72) were randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group. The experimental group students were exposed with TGfU approach and the control group with the Traditional Skill approach of handball game. Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI) was used to measure students' tactical understanding and decision making in 3 versus 3 handball game situations. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the data. The results reveal that there was a significant difference between the TGfU approach group and the traditional skill approach group students on post test score (F (1, 69) = 248.83, p < .05). The findings of this study suggested the importance of TGfU approach to improve primary students’ tactical understanding and decision making in handball game.
    29
    10331
    Students- Perception of the Evaluation System in Architecture Studios
    Abstract:
    Architecture education was based on apprenticeship models and its nature has not changed much during long period but the Source of changes was its evaluation process and system. It is undeniable that art and architecture education is completely based on transmitting knowledge from instructor to students. In contrast to other majors this transmitting is by iteration and practice and studio masters try to control the design process and improving skills in the form of supervision and criticizing. Also the evaluation will end by giving marks to students- achievements. Therefore the importance of the evaluation and assessment role is obvious and it is not irrelevant to say that if we want to know about the architecture education system, we must first study its assessment procedures. The evolution of these changes in western countries has literate and documented well. However it seems that this procedure has unregarded in Malaysia and there is a severe lack of research and documentation in this area. Malaysia as an under developing and multicultural country which is involved different races and cultures is a proper origin for scrutinizing and understanding the evaluation systems and acceptability amount of current implemented models to keep the evaluation and assessment procedure abreast with needs of different generations, cultures and even genders. This paper attempts to answer the questions of how evaluation and assessments are performed and how students perceive this evaluation system in the context Malaysia. The main advantage of this work is that it contributes in international debate on evaluation model.
    28
    10398
    A Co-writing Development Approachto Wikis: PedagogicalIssues and Implications
    Abstract:
    Wikis are promoted as collaborative writing tools that allow students to transform a text into a collective document by information sharing and group reflection. However, despite the promising collaborative capabilities of wikis, their pedagogical value regarding collaborative writing is still questionable. Wiki alone cannot make collaborative writing happen, and students do not automatically become more active, participate, and collaborate with others when they use wikis. To foster collaborative writing and active involvement in wiki development there is a need for a systematic approach to wikis. Themain goal of this paper is to propose and evaluate a co-writing approach to the development of wikis, along with the study of three wiki applications to report on pedagogical implications of collaborative writing in higher education.
    27
    10737
    The Relationship between Knowledge Management Strategy and Information Technology Strategy
    Abstract:
    Recently, a great number of theoretical frameworks have been proposed to develop the linkages between knowledge management (KM) and organizational strategies. However, while there has been much theorizing and case study in the area, validated research models integrating KM and information technology strategies for empirical testing of these theories have been scarce. In this research, we try to develop a research model for explaining the relationship between KM strategy and IT strategy and their effects on performance. Finally, meaningful propositions and conclusions are derived, and suggestions for future research are proposed and discussed.
    26
    10895
    Regional Role of Higher Education Institutions in Croatia
    Abstract:

    Development of knowledge based society carries multiple challenges to the higher education system. Some of the challenges laid before the higher education sector of countries which aspire to become knowledge based societies are: the entrepreneurial leadership of the higher education institutions, finding new sources of financing in order to minimize dependence on public resources, creating connections with the labor market, commercial utilization of R&D results, promotion of innovations as well as the overall promotion of science excellence relevant to the economic sector. Within a framework of this paper and its main subject of research, the challenge which is being put before the higher education institutions is an effort of establishing regional mission of higher education through the open collaboration with regional key factors, both private and public. Development of the mentioned collaboration and its contribution to the overall regional development in Croatia is the main subject of empirical research in this paper.

    25
    10904
    The Association between the Firm Characteristics and Corporate Mandatory Disclosure the Case of Greece
    Abstract:

    The main thrust of this paper is to assess the level of disclosure in the annual reports of non-financial Greek firms and to empirically investigate the hypothesized impact of several firm characteristics on the extent of mandatory disclosure. A disclosure checklist consisting of 100 mandatory items was developed to assess the level of disclosure in the 2009 annual reports of 43 Greek companies listed at the Athens stock exchange. The association between the level of disclosure and some firm characteristics was examined using multiple linear regression analysis. The study reveals that Greek companies on general have responded adequately to the mandatory disclosure requirements of the regulatory bodies. The findings also indicate that firm size was significant positively associated with the level of disclosure. The remaining variables such as age, profitability, liquidity, and board composition were found to be insignificant in explaining the variation of mandatory disclosures. The outcome of this study is undoubtedly of great concern to the investment community at large to assist in evaluating the extent of mandatory disclosure by Greek firms and explaining the variation of disclosure in light of firm-specific characteristics.

    24
    11018
    Towards a Unified Approach of Social Justice: Merging Tradition and Modernity in Public Policy Making in India
    Abstract:

    This paper explores the social and political imperatives in the sphere of public policy relating to social justice. In India, the colonial legacy and post-colonial social and political pressures sustained the appropriation of 'caste' category in allocating public resources to the backward class of citizens. For several reasons, 'economic' category could not be placed in allocating resources. This paper examines the reasons behind the deliberative exercises and formulating policies and seeks an alternative framework in realizing social justice in terms of a unified category. This attempt can be viewed as a reconciliation of traditional and modern values for a viable alternative in public policy making.

    23
    11110
    A Real Options Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment Competition in a News Uncertain Environment
    Abstract:
    The relation between taxation states and foreign direct investment has been studied for several perspectives and with states of different levels of development. Usually it's only considered the impact of tax level on the foreign direct investment volume. This paper enhances this view by assuming that multinationals companies (MNC) can use transfer prices systems and have got investment timing flexibility. Thus, it evaluates the impact of the use of international transfer pricing systems on the states- policy and on the investment timing of the multinational companies. In uncertain business environments (with periodical release of news), the investment can increase if MNC detain investment delay options. This paper shows how tax differentials can attract foreign direct investments (FDI) and influence MNC behavior. The equilibrium is set in a global environment where MNC can shift their profits between states depending on the corporate tax rates. Assuming the use of transfer pricing schemes, this paper confirms the relationship between MNC behavior and the release of new business news.
    22
    11350
    Heart Rate-Determined Physical Activity In New Zealand School Children: A Cross- Sectional Study
    Abstract:

    The aim of this study was to examine current levels of physical activity determined via heart rate monitoring. A total of 176 children (85 boys, 91 girls) aged 5-13 years wore sealed Polar heart rate monitors for at least 10 hours per day on at least 3 days. Mean daily minutes of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity was 65 ± 43 (mean ± SD) for boys and 54 ± 37 for girls. Daily minutes of vigorous-intensity activity was 31 ± 24 and 24 ± 21 for boys and girls respectively. Significant differences in physical activity levels were observed between school day and weekends, boys and girls, and among age and geographical groups. Only 36% of boys and 22% of girls met the New Zealand physical activity guideline. This research indicates that a large proportion of New Zealand children are not meeting physical activity recommendations.

    21
    12085
    Corporate Governance Practices and Analysts Forecast Accuracy Evidence for Romania
    Abstract:
    In the last few years, several steps were taken in order to improve the quality of corporate governance for Romanian listed companies. Higher standards of corporate governance is documented in the literature to lead to a better information environment, and, consequently, to increase analysts forecast accuracy. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which corporate governance policies affect analysts forecasts for companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange. The results showed that there is indeed a negative correlation between a corporate governance index – used as a proxy for the quality of corporate governance practices - and analysts forecast errors.
    20
    12375
    Romanian Single-parent Families: Quality of Life
    Abstract:

    The increasing divorce and fertility rates outside of marriage, the changing values in the last decades have led to a high prevalence of single parent families. Currently, worldwide, singleparent families represent about a quarter of all families. Recent changes occurring in the structure of single-parent families and also the multitude of factors that influence the quality of life of these families require the development of new research tools in order to provide foundations for social policies addressed to this type of family. The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis concerning the quality of life for single parent families in Romania, based on data collected through a research methodology developed by the authors within a scientific research project funded by a national grant called Partnerships in priority areas.

    19
    12390
    The Fit Effect Model among Facilitating Factors on Service Innovation Performance
    Abstract:
    In recent years, though, the concept of fit has been now in widespread used in strategic management research, it is in its infancy for applying fit concept to service innovation issue. Therefore, drawing on the concept of fit, this present research proposed an innovation service fit model within service innovation, market orientation, marketing strategy, and IT adoption are coexisted. The perspective of fit as covariation will be employed to test the hypothesis and identify the effects of fit. We contend that the fit among these four factors will contribution to business performance. Finally, according to the empirical data collected from manufacturing, service, and financial industry in Taiwan, meaningful findings and conclusions will be proposed and discussed.
    18
    12418
    Electronic Commerce: Costumer Protection In Electronic Payments
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    As a by-product of its "cyberspace" status, electronic commerce is global, encompassing a whole range of B2C relationships which need to be approached with solutions provided at a local level while remaining viable when applied to global issues. Today, the European Union seems to be endowed with a reliable legal framework for consumer protection. A question which remains, however, is enforcement of this protection. This is probably a matter of time and awareness from both parties in the B2C relationship. Business should realize that enhancing trust in the minds of consumers is more than a question of technology; it is a question of best practice. Best practice starts with the online service of high street banks as well as with the existence of a secure, user-friendly and cost-effective payment system. It also includes the respect of privacy and the use of smart cards as well as enhancing privacy technologies and fair information practice. In sum, only by offering this guarantee of privacy and security will the consumer be assured that, in cyberspace, his/her interests will be protected in the same manner as in a traditional commercial environment.
    17
    12465
    Marketing Segmentation of Students Willing to Study Abroad based on Cluster Analysis
    Abstract:
    Market segmentation is one of the most fundamental strategic marketing concepts. The better the segment which is chosen for targeting by a particular organisation, the more successful the organisation is assumed to be in the marketplace. Also higher education institutions have to improve their marketing tools for attracting foreign students, particularly when demanding tuition fees. This contribution aims at demonstrating the proper usage of the cluster analysis for segmentation (represented by students' willingness to study abroad) and also, based on large international survey, offers some practical marketing implications.
    16
    12501
    The Analysis of Knee Joint Movement During Golf Swing in Professional and Amateur Golfers
    Abstract:
    The understanding of knee movement during swing importance for golf swing improving and preventing injury. Thirty male professional and amateur golfers were assigned to swing time by time for 3 times. Data from a vedio-based motion capture were used to compute knee joint movement variables. The results showed that professional and amateur golfers were significantly in left knee flexion angle at the impact point and mid follow through phase. Nevertheless, left knee external rotation in both groups was also significant. The right knee were no significant different in all variable. However, pattern of knee joint movement are also likely between professional and amateur golfers.
    15
    12901
    On the Factors Influencing the Competitiveness of Chinese Service Trade after Entering WTO
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    Service trade is an important force of influencing economic development. A review on the related literatures is done firstly. Then through the construction of a Diamond Model, the main factors which influence the competitiveness of Chinese service trade are determined. With three competitiveness indexes served as the reference series respectively, the influencing factors served as the comparable series, three grey incidence models are then built up to conduct an empirical analysis on the main factors influencing the competitiveness of service trade after China entering WTO. The result indicates that urbanization level, open degree of service industry and foreign direct investment have larger impacts on Chinese service trade competitiveness, followed in turn by GDP in service industry and human capital, while commodity trade has the minimum impact. Further discussion provides train of thought for the upgrade of Chinese service trade competitiveness.

    14
    13146
    Effects of the Intermittent Exercise Programs on Lipid Profile and Anthropometric Characteristics at Obese Young Subjects
    Abstract:
    The aim of our research was to evaluate the effects of physical exercise on lipid profile and anthropometric characteristics in young subjects, diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MS). The study has been developed during 28 weeks on 20 young obese patients which have undertaken an intermittent submaximal exercise program. After 28 weeks of physical activity, the results show significant effects on anthropometric characteristics and serum lipid profile of research subjects. Additionally, the results of this study confirms the major correlation between the variations of intraabdominal adiposity, determined ultrasonographycally, and the changes of serum lipid concentrations, a better correlation than it is used abdominal circumference or body weight index.
    13
    13254
    Physical Education in the Brazilian Educational Law and National Curriculum Guidelines
    Abstract:

    The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the principles of Educational Sport and the objectives of Physical Education in two brasilian laws: National Curriculum Guidelines (PCNs) for the Elementary and Middle School Levels and the Guidelines and Basis Legislation (LDB). The method used was the survey analysis in order to determine the practices present in, or the opinions of, a specific population. The instrument used in this research was a questionnaire. After a broad review of the bibliography and according to the methodological procedures, the aim was to set the relationships between the Principles of Educational Sport and the objectives of Physical Education, according to the Brazilian Law (LDB) and National Curriculum Guidelines (PCNs) in a table made under the analysis of a group of specialists. As the relation between the principles of Educational Sport and the objectives of School Physical Education have shown, we can state that School Physical Education has gained pedagogical security for the potential use of Educational Sport as part of its contents.

    12
    13447
    Government Initiatives: The Missing Key for E-commerce Growth in KSA
    Abstract:

    This paper explores the issues that influence online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Retailers in Saudi Arabia have been reserved in their adoption of electronically delivered aspects of their business. Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growth of ICT marketplaces in the Arab region, e-commerce activities are not progressing at the same speed. Only very few Saudi companies, mostly medium and large companies from the manufacturing sector, are involved in e-commerce implementation. Based on qualitative data collected by conducting interviews with 16 retailers and 16 potential customers in Saudi Arabia, several factors influencing online retailing diffusion in Saudi Arabia are identified. However, government support comes the highest and most influencing factor for online retailing growth as identified by both parties; retailers and potential customers in Saudi Arabia.

    11
    13479
    Aplication`s Aspects Of Public Relations By Nonprofit Organizations. Case Study Albania
    Abstract:

    The traditional public relations manager is usually responsible for maintaining and enhancing the reputation of the organization among key publics. While the principal focus of this effort is on support publics, it is quite clearly recognized that an organization's image has important effects on its own employees, its donors and volunteers, and its clients. The aim of paper is to define application`s aspects of public relations media and tools by nonprofit organizations in Albanian reality. Actually does used public relations media and tools, like written material, audiovisual material, organizational identity media, news, interviews and speeches, events, web sites by nonprofit organizations to attract donors? If, public relations media and tools are used, does exists a relation between public relation media and fundraising?

    10
    13496
    Information content of Islamic Private Debt Announcement: Evidence from Malaysia
    Abstract:
    Different types of Islamic debts have been increasingly utilized as preferred means of debt funding by Malaysian private firms in recent years. This study examines the impact of Islamic debts announcement on private firms- stock returns. Our sample includes forty five listed companies on Bursa Malaysia involved in issuing of Islamic debts during 2005 to 2008. The abnormal returns and cumulative average abnormal returns are calculated and tested using standard event study methodology. The results show that a significant, negative abnormal return occurs one day before announcement date. This negative abnormal return is representing market participant-s adverse attitude toward Islamic private debt announcement during the research period.
    9
    13614
    Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Decathlon Performance Results in Olympic Athletes (1988-2008)
    Abstract:
    The performance results of the athletes competed in the 1988-2008 Olympic Games were analyzed (n = 166). The data were obtained from the IAAF official protocols. In the principal component analysis, the first three principal components explained 70% of the total variance. In the 1st principal component (with 43.1% of total variance explained) the largest factor loadings were for 100m (0.89), 400m (0.81), 110m hurdle run (0.76), and long jump (–0.72). This factor can be interpreted as the 'sprinting performance'. The loadings on the 2nd factor (15.3% of the total variance) presented a counter-intuitive throwing-jumping combination: the highest loadings were for throwing events (javelin throwing 0.76; shot put 0.74; and discus throwing 0.73) and also for jumping events (high jump 0.62; pole vaulting 0.58). On the 3rd factor (11.6% of total variance), the largest loading was for 1500 m running (0.88); all other loadings were below 0.4.
    8
    13651
    Multiple Intelligences Development of Athletes: Examination on Dominant Intelligences
    Abstract:
    The study attempted to identify the dominant intelligences of athletes by comparing the developmental differences of multiple intelligences between athletes and non-athletes. The weekly specialized training hours and years of specialized training was examined to see how it can predict the dominant intelligence with the age factor controlled. There were 355 participants in the research (202 athletes and 153 non-athletes). Collected data were analyzed with one-way MANOVA and multiple hierarchical regression. The results suggested the dominant intelligences of athletes were Interpersonal Intelligence, Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence, and Intrapersonal Intelligence. The weekly specialized training hours and years of specialized training could effectively predict the Interpersonal Intelligence, Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence, and Intrapersonal Intelligence of athletes. The author suggested the future studies could focus on the theory construction of weekly specialized training and years of specialized training. Also, the studies on using “Bridge strategy" by the athletes to guide disadvantage intelligences with dominant intelligences are highly valued.
    7
    13900
    Elucidating the Influence of Demographics and Psychological Traits on Investment Biases
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    This study explored the relationship between psychological traits, demographics and financial behavioral biases for individual investors in Taiwan stock market. By using questionnaire survey method conducted in 2010, there are 554 valid convenient samples collected to examine the determinants of three types of behavioral biases. Based on literature review, two hypothesized models are constructed and further used to evaluate the effects of big five personality traits and demographic variables on investment biases through Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis. The results showed that investment biases of individual investors are significantly related to four personality traits as well as some demographics.
    6
    14041
    Conservation and Repair Works for Traditional Timber Mosque in Malaysia: A Review on Techniques
    Abstract:

    Building life cycle will never be excused from the existence of defects and deterioration. They are common problems in building, existed in newly build or in aged building. Buildings constructed from wood are indeed affected by its agent and serious defects and damages can reduce values to a building. In repair works, it is important to identify the causes and repair techniques that best suites with the condition. This paper reviews the conservation of traditional timber mosque in Malaysia comprises the concept, principles and approaches of mosque conservation in general. As in conservation practice, wood in historic building can be conserved by using various restoration and conservation techniques which this can be grouped as Fully and Partial Replacement, Mechanical Reinforcement, Consolidation by Impregnation and Reinforcement, Removing Paint and also Preservation of Wood and Control Insect Invasion, as to prolong and extended the function of a timber in a building. It resulted that the common techniques adopted in timber mosque conservation are from the conventional ways and the understanding of the repair technique requires the use of only preserve wood to prevent the future immature defects.

    5
    14247
    Motor Skill Adaptation Depends On the Level of Learning
    Abstract:

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of the level of performance stabilization on the human adaptability to perceptual-motor perturbation in a complex coincident timing task. Three levels of performance stabilization were established operationally: pre-stabilization, stabilization, and super-stabilization groups. Each group practiced the task until reached its level of stabilization in a constant sequence of movements and under a constant time constraint before exposure to perturbation. The results clearly showed that performance stabilization is a pre-condition for adaptation. Moreover, variability before reaching stabilization is harmful to adaptation and persistent variability after stabilization is beneficial. Moreover, the behavior of variability is specific to each measure.

    4
    14306
    Sport Psychological Constructs Related To Participation in the 2009 World Masters Games
    Abstract:
    Whilst there is growing evidence that activity across the lifespan is beneficial for improved health, there are also many changes involved with the aging process and subsequently the potential for reduced indices of health. The nexus between all forms of health, physical activity and aging is complex and has raised much interest in recent times due to the realization that a multifaceted approached is necessary in order to counteract a growing obesity epidemic. By investigating age based trends within a population adherring to competitive sport at older ages, further insight might be gleaned to assist in understanding one of many factors influencing this relationship. This study evaluated those sport psychological constructs of health, physical fitness, mental health states, and social dimension factors in sport that were associated with factors to participate in sport and physical activity based on responses from the 2009 World Masters Games in Sydney. The sample consisted of 7846 athletes who competed at the games and who completed a 56 item sports participation survey using a 7-point Likert response (1 - not important to 7 - very important). Questions focuses on factors thought to promote participation, such as weight control, living longer, improving mental health (self-esteem, mood states), improving physical health and factors related to the athlete-s competitive perspective. The most significant factors related to participation with this cohort of masters athletes were the socializing environment of sport, getting physically fit and improving competitive personal best performances. Strategies to increase participation in masters sport should focus on these factors as other factors such as weight loss, improving mental health and living longer were not identified as important determinates of sports participation at the World Masters level.
    3
    14391
    Influence of Social Factors and Motives on Commitment of Sport Events Volunteers
    Abstract:
    In sport, human resources management gives special attention to method of applying volunteers, their maintenance, and participation of volunteers with each other and management approaches for better operation of events celebrants. The recognition of volunteers- characteristics and motives is important to notice, because it makes the basis of their participation and commitment at sport environment. The motivation and commitment of 281 volunteers were assessed using the organizational commitment scale, motivation scale and personal characteristics questionnaire.The descriptive results showed that; 64% of volunteers were women with age average 21/24 years old. They were physical education student, single (71/9%), without occupation (53%) and with average of 5 years sport experience. Their most important motivation was career factor and the most important commitment factor was normative factor. The results of examining the hypothesized showed that; age, sport experience and education are effective in the amount of volunteers- commitment. And the motive factors such as career, material, purposive and protective factors also have the power to predict the amount of sports volunteers- commitment value. Therefore it is recommended to provide possible opportunities for volunteers and carrying out appropriate instructional courses by events executive managers.
    2
    14825
    Identifying Impact Factors in Technology Transfer with the Aim of Technology Localization
    Abstract:
    Technology transfer is a common method for companies to acquire new technology and presents both challenges and substantial benefits. In some cases especially in developing countries, the mere possession of technology does not guarantee a competitive advantage if the appropriate infrastructure is not in place. In this paper, we identify the localization factors needed to provide a better understanding of the conditions necessary for localization in order to benefit from future technology developments. Our theoretical and empirical analyses allow us to identify several factors in the technology transfer process that affect localization and provide leverage in enhancing capabilities and absorptive capacity.The impact factors are categorized within different groups of government, firms, institutes and market, and are verified through the empirical survey of a technology transfer experience. Moreover, statistical analysis has allowed a deeper understanding of the importance of each factor and has enabled each group to prioritize their organizational policies to effectively localize their technology.
    1
    15217
    A Confucianism Observed in Disaster Films of East Asia
    Abstract:
    Hollywood has produced various blockbusters on the subject of disasters. Entering the 2000s, disaster films began to be produced in the East Asian region as well, and as most of them were successful, disaster films have settled as a popular genre in the region. East Asian disaster films utilize a plot structure similar to Hollywood films but, at the same time, represent East Asian people-s unique value system. East Asian people-s social behavior pattern defined as collectivism is a characteristic that distinguishes this region from other cultural regions. In order to examine Confucian culture in disaster films on the premise of the difference, the author conducts this research as follows.This study first reviews the concepts disaster and disaster film, and understands the genre through analyzing the narrative structure and style. In addition, it discusses collectivism, a characteristic of the East Asian region distinguished from the West, and investigates Confucian culture in films and examines differences among Korean, Chinese and Japanese Confucianism. Films selected for this study are Tidal Wave (Korea, 2009), After Shock (China, 2006), and The Sinking of Japan (Japan, 2006). Using the characters in these films, we analyze how Confucian thought is described and reproduced.