Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 103

Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering

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  • 103
    41
    Analysis of the Development Strategies of Cultural and Creative Industry in Small Towns of Western Zhejiang
    Abstract:

    This paper studies the cultural creative industry's characteristics between the eastern and western of Zhejiang Province. Through the Comparative analysis, this paper works out that the cultural creative industry in western Zhejiang Province is mainly promoted by the inside force, and its level of development is obviously much lower than the eastern Zhejiang Province whose cultural creative industry is mainly pulled by outside forces. So this paper worked out some strategies for the development of cultural creative industry in western Zhejiang Province, which are based on the economic foundation and the cultural resource endowments. Finally these strategies will help to improve the whole development level of western Zhejiang Province, and contribute to the balance development between the west and east of Zhejiang Province.

    102
    54
    Perspectives on Neuropsychological Testimony
    Abstract:
    For the last decade, statistics show traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing concern in our legal system. In an effort to obtain data regarding the influence of neuropsychological expert witness testimony in a criminal case, this study tested three hypotheses. H1: The majority of jurors will vote not guilty, due to mild head injury. H2: The jurors will give more credence to the testimony of the neuropsychologist rather than the psychiatrist. H3: The jurors will be more lenient in their sentencing, given the testimony of the neuropsychologist-s testimony. The criterion for inclusion in the study as a participant is identical to those used for inclusion in the eligibility for jury duty in the United States. A chisquared test was performed to analyze the data for the three hypotheses. The results supported all of the hypotheses; however statistical significance was seen in H1 and H2 only.
    101
    68
    Preparation a Study on the Use of the Resident Registration Number and Alternatives for RRN
    Abstract:

    The resident registration number was adopted for the purposes of enhanced services for resident convenience and effective performance of governmental administrative affairs. However, it has been used for identification purposes customarily and irrationally in line with the development and spread of the Internet. In response to the growing concern about the leakage of collected RRNs and possible abuses of stolen RRNs, e.g. identity theft, for crimes, the Korean Communications Commission began to take legal/regulatory actions in 2011 to minimize the online collection and use of resident registration numbers. As the use of the RRN was limited after the revision of the Act on Promotion of Information and Communications Network Utilization and Information Protection, etc., online business providers were required to have alternatives to the RRN for the purpose of identifying the user's identity and age, in compliance with the law, and settling disputes with customers. This paper presents means of verifying the personal identity by taking advantage of the commonly used infrastructure and simply replacing personal information entered and stored, without requiring users to enter their RRNs.

    100
    132
    The Shanghai Cooperation Organization: China's Grand Strategy in Central Asia
    Abstract:

    The Shanghai Cooperation Organization is one of the successful outcomes of China's foreign policy since the end of the Cold war. The expansion of multilateral ties all over the world by dint of pursuing institutional strategies as SCO, identify China as a more constructive power. SCO became a new model of cooperation that was formed on remains of collapsed Soviet system, and predetermined China's geopolitical role in the region. As the fast developing effective regional mechanism, SCO today has more of external impact on the international system and forms a new type of interaction for promoting China's grand strategy of 'peaceful rise'.

    99
    276
    Business Diversification Strategies in the Italian Energy Markets
    Abstract:
    The liberalization and privatization processes have forced public utility companies to face new competitive challenges, implementing strategies to gain market share and, at the same time, keep the old customers. To this end, many companies have carried out mergers, acquisitions and conglomerations in order to diversify their business. This paper focuses on companies operating in the free energy market in Italy. In the last decade, this sector has undergone profound changes that have radically changed the competitive scenario and have led companies to implement diversification strategies of the business. Our work aims to evaluate the economic and financial performances obtained by energy companies, following the beginning of the liberalization process, verifying the possible relationship with the implemented diversification strategies.
    98
    279
    Gated Community: The Past and Present in China
    Abstract:

    Gated community has gained its dominant in residential areas development that it has become the standard development pattern of the newly built residential areas in contemporary China. The form of gated community has its own advantages and rationality that meet the needs of quite a lot of residents, but it-s also believed by researchers that the form has great damage to the urban morphology and development, and has a negative impact on residents- living style. However, there is still a considerable controversy of the origins and outcomes. Though recognized as a global phenomenon, gated community developed in China is greatly to do with the specific local forces, respect to the unique historical, political and socio-cultural momentums. A historical review of the traditional settlements in China and the trends that how Gated community has gained its contemporary form, is indispensable for comprehending the local forces, and provide a new perspective to solve the controversy.

    97
    330
    Impacts of Project-Overload on Innovation inside Organizations: Agent-Based Modeling
    Abstract:

    Market competition and a desire to gain advantages on globalized market, drives companies towards innovation efforts. Project overload is an unpleasant phenomenon, which is happening for employees inside those organizations trying to make the most efficient use of their resources to be innovative. But what are the impacts of project overload on organization-s innovation capabilities? Advanced engineering teams (AE) inside a major heavy equipment manufacturer are suffering from project overload in their quest for innovation. In this paper, Agent-based modeling (ABM) is used to examine the current reality of the company context, and of the AE team, where the opportunities and challenges for reducing the risk of project overload and moving towards innovation were identified. Project overload is more likely to stifle innovation and creativity inside teams. On the other hand, motivations on proper challenging goals are more likely to help individual to alleviate the negative aspects of low level of project overload.

    96
    768
    The Impact of Financial System on Mixed Use Development – Unrest in UK and Sense of Safety in Mixed Use Development
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    The past decade has witnessed a good opportunities for city development schemes in UK. The government encouraged restoration of city centers to comprise mixed use developments with high density residential apartments. Investments in regeneration areas were doing well according to the analyses of Property Databank (IPD). However, more recent analysis by IPD has shown that since 2007, property in regeneration areas has been more vulnerable to the market downturn than other types of investment property. The early stages of a property market downturn may be felt most in regeneration where funding, investor confidence and occupier demand would dissipate because the sector was considered more marginal or risky when development costs rise. Moreover, the Bank of England survey shows that lenders have sequentially tightened the availability of credit for commercial real estate since mid-2007. A sharp reduction in the willingness of banks to lend on commercial property was recorded. The credit crunch has already affected commercial property but its impact has been particularly severe in certain kinds of properties where residential developments are extremely difficult, in particular city centre apartments and buy-to-let markets. Commercial property – retail, industrial leisure and mixed use were also pressed, in Birmingham; tens of mixed use plots were built to replace old factories in the heart of the city. The purpose of these developments was to enable young professionals to work and live in same place. Thousands of people lost their jobs during the recession, moreover lending was more difficult and the future of many developments is unknown. The recession casts its shadow upon the society due to cuts in public spending by government, Inflation, rising tuition fees and high rise in unemployment generated anger and hatred was spreading among youth causing vandalism and riots in many cities. Recent riots targeted many mixed used development in the UK where banks, shops, restaurants and big stores were robbed and set into fire leaving residents with horror and shock. This paper examines the impact of the recession and riots on mixed use development in UK.
    95
    1083
    Innovation at the Faculty-level Education through Service Learning
    Abstract:
    The paper presents the service learning project titled DicDucFac (idea-leadership-product), that was planned and conducted by the team of information sciences students. It was planned as a workshop dealing with the application of modern social media (Facebook, YouTube, Gmail) for the purposes of selfpromotion, free advertising via social networks and marketing own ideas and/or products in the virtual world. The workshop was organized for highly-skilled computer literate unemployed youth. These youth, as final beneficiaries, will be able to apply what they learned in this workshop to “the real world“, increasing their chances for employment and self-employment. The results of the project reveal that the basic, active-learning principles embodied in our teaching approach allow students to learn more effectively and gain essential life skills (from computer applications to teamwork) that can only be learned by doing. It also shows that our students received the essentials of professional ethics and citizenship through direct, personal engagement in professional activities and the life of the community.
    94
    1368
    Developing Islamic Tourism in Kazakhstan: A Result of a Religious Revival or a New Trend of Tourism
    Abstract:

    all of religions free towards society in Kazakhstan. Considering that Islam is more widespread religion in the region, Islamic industry is developing sector of Economy. There are some new sectors of Halal (Islamic) industry, which have importance for state developing on the whole. One of the youngest sectors of Halal industry is Islamic tourism, which became an object of disputes and led to dilemma, such as Islamic tourism is a result of a Religious revival and Islamic tourism is a new trend of Tourism. The paper was written under the research project “Islam in modern Kazakhstan: the nature and outcome of the religious revival".

    93
    1644
    Cross-Cultural Strategies for Web Design
    Abstract:
    People from different cultures favor web pages characterized by the values of their culture and, therefore, tend to prefer different characteristics of a website according to their cultural values in terms of navigation, security, product information, customer service, shopping and design tools. For a company aiming to globalize its market it is useful to implement country specific cultural interfaces and different web sites for countries with different cultures. This paper, following the conclusions proposed by two models of Hall and Hofstede, and the studies of Marcus and Gould, defines, through an empirical analysis, the guidelines of web design for both the Scandinavian countries and Malaysia.
    92
    1705
    Distributional Effects of Tax and Benefit Reforms in the Czech Republic
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    The Czech Republic has over the past decade carried out two waves of tax and benefit reforms. The first one took place in 2005–2006 during the left-wing government and the second one has been carried out in 2008 by the right-wing government. Using EUSILC data for selected types of households, the paper assesses changes in the distribution of gross incomes and effects of the changes in taxes and benefits on the distribution of incomes after taxes and a provision of social benefits. The analysis is carried out on four types of households with and without children. The analysis is performed using Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients. The results show that the tax system changes the distribution of incomes less significantly than benefits. The 2006 reform reduced the differential between the Gini coefficient for the gross income and the Gini coefficient after taxes and benefits for households with active parents and one child. Reform in 2008 supported families with children and an reduced the differential between the gross income and income after taxes and benefits for different types of families.

    91
    1726
    Curriculum Development of Successful Intelligence Promoting for Nursing Students
    Abstract:
    Successful intelligence (SI) is the integrated set of the ability needed to attain success in life, within individual-s sociocultural context. People are successfully intelligent by recognizing their strengths and weaknesses. They will find ways to strengthen their weakness and maintain their strength or even improve it. SI people can shape, select, and adapt to the environments by using balance of higher-ordered thinking abilities including; critical, creative, and applicative. Aims: The purposes of this study were to; 1) develop curriculum that promotes SI for nursing students, and 2) study the effectiveness of the curriculum development. Method: Research and Development was a method used for this study. The design was divided into two phases; 1) the curriculum development which composed of three steps (needs assessment, curriculum development and curriculum field trail), and 2) the curriculum implementation. In this phase, a pre-experimental research design (one group pretest-posttest design) was conducted. The sample composed of 49 sophomore nursing students of Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Surin, Thailand who enrolled in Nursing care of Health problem course I in 2011 academic year. Data were carefully collected using 4 instruments; 1) Modified essay questions test (MEQ) 2) Nursing Care Plan evaluation form 3) Group processing observation form (α = 0.74) and 4) Satisfied evaluation form of learning (α = 0.82). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. Results: The results revealed that the sample had post-test average score of SI higher than pre-test average score (mean difference was 5.03, S.D. = 2.84). Fifty seven percentages of the sample passed the MEQ posttest at the criteria of 60 percentages. Students demonstrated the strategies of how to develop nursing care plan. Overall, students- satisfaction on teaching performance was at high level (mean = 4.35, S.D. = 0.46). Conclusion: This curriculum can promote the attribute of characteristic of SI person and was highly required to be continued.
    90
    1783
    History of Appearance and Distribution of Hijab and Its Types
    Abstract:

    According to historical legend, after the revelation of the holy Qur'an, which gave the hijab compulsory and women were required to cover the head and body with a handkerchief, and the general form of clothing in her veil, Muslim women have begun to comply with this worthy tradition. This article discusses the history of the rise and spread of the hijab and its types. And here is described in detail types of hijab and its intended value, style hijab in different regions. Now wearing the hijab, hijab in general the problem is important not only in the Arab world, but also in the world.

    89
    1934
    Strategic Human Resources Management practice, “Are We There yet“? The Incorporation of a Human Resources Strategy within a University's Strategic Plan
    Abstract:

    This study examines the structural and systematic processes of the Human Resources Division at The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago for evidence of incorporation of the University's 2012- 2017 Strategic Plan. In conducting the study the structure of the Human Resources Management Division and its functions were carefully reviewed and measured against the strategic direction of the organisation. Findings indicate disconnect between these areas as there is apparent failure of the Human Resources Division to totally align its mandate with that of the organisation-s strategic direction. This action serves to threaten the viability of the organisation and its efficiency and effectiveness as an institution. The recommendations being put forward are for the realignment of the Human Resources Management Division and for its focus to mirror that of the organisation and the organisation-s goals and objectives. This may entail a restructuring of the Division.

    88
    2182
    A Study of Filmmakers Interaction through Social Exchange Theory
    Abstract:

    Film, as an art form playing a vital role and is a powerful tool in documenting, influencing and shaping the society. Films are the collective creation of a large number of separate individuals, each contributing with creative input, unique talents, and technical expertise to the project. Recently, the Malaysian Independent (or “Indie") filmmakers have made their presence felt by winning awards at various international film festivals. Working in the digital video (DV) format, a number of independent filmmakers really hit their stride with a range of remarkably strong titles and international recognition has been quick in coming and their works are now regularly in exhibition or in competition, winning many top prizes at prestigious festivals around the world. The interaction factors among crewmembers are emphasized as imperative for group success. An in-depth interview is conducted to analyze the social interactions and exchanges between filmmakers through Social Exchanges Theory (SET). Certainly the new millennium that was marked as the digital technology revolution has changed the face of filmmaking in Malaysia. There is a clear need to study the Malaysian independent cinema especially from the perspective of understanding what causes the independent filmmakers to work so well given all of the difficulties and constraints.

    87
    2463
    Linking Urban Planning and Water Planning to Achieve Sustainable Development and Liveability Outcomes in the New Growth Areas of Melbourne, Australia
    Abstract:

    The city of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia, provides a number of examples of how a growing city can integrate urban planning and water planning to achieve sustainable urban development, environmental protection, liveability and integrated water management outcomes, and move towards becoming a “Water Sensitive City". Three examples are provided - the development at Botanic Ridge, where a 318 hectare residential development is being planned and where integrated water management options are being implemented using a “triple bottom line" sustainability investment approach; the Toolern development, which will capture and reuse stormwater and recycled water to greatly reduce the suburb-s demand for potable water, and the development at Kalkallo where a 1,200 hectare industrial precinct development is planned which will merge design of the development's water supply, sewerage services and stormwater system. The Paper argues that an integrated urban planning and water planning approach is fundamental to creating liveable, vibrant communities which meet social and financial needs while being in harmony with the local environment. Further work is required on developing investment frameworks and risk analysis frameworks to ensure that all possible solutions can be assessed equally.

    86
    2821
    Socio-Spatial Resilience Strategic Planning Through Understanding Strategic Perspectives on Tehran and Bath
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    Planning community has been long discussing emerging paradigms within the planning theory in the face of the changing conditions of the world order. The paradigm shift concept was introduced by Thomas Kuhn, in 1960, who claimed the necessity of shifting within scientific knowledge boundaries; and following him in 1970 Imre Loktas also gave priority to the emergence of multi-paradigm societies [24]. Multi-paradigm is changing our predetermined lifeworld through uncertainties. Those uncertainties are reflected in two sides, the first one is uncertainty as a concept of possibility and creativity in public sphere and the second one is uncertainty as a risk. Therefore, it is necessary to apply a resilience planning approach to be more dynamic in controlling uncertainties which have the potential to transfigure present time and space definitions. In this way, stability of system can be achieved. Uncertainty is not only an outcome of worldwide changes but also a place-specific issue, i.e. it changes from continent to continent, a country to country; a region to region. Therefore, applying strategic spatial planning with respect to resilience principle contributes to: control, grasp and internalize uncertainties through place-specific strategies. In today-s fast changing world, planning system should follow strategic spatial projects to control multi-paradigm societies with adaptability capacities. Here, we have selected two alternatives to demonstrate; these are; 1.Tehran (Iran) from the Middle East 2.Bath (United Kingdom) from Europe. The study elaborates uncertainties and particularities in their strategic spatial planning processes in a comparative manner. Through the comparison, the study aims at assessing place-specific priorities in strategic planning. The approach is to a two-way stream, where the case cities from the extreme end of the spectrum can learn from each other. The structure of this paper is to firstly compare semi-periphery (Tehran) and coreperiphery (Bath) cities, with the focus to reveal how they equip to face with uncertainties according to their geographical locations and local particularities. Secondly, the key message to address is “Each locality requires its own strategic planning approach to be resilient.--

    85
    2880
    Functional Zoning Analysis of Suburban Area of Krasnoyarsk City
    Abstract:

    Suburban area is an important area to the development of a city and a country. Russias economy is going through major transitions. These transitions are rapidly changing the relationship between cities (urban areas), countryside (rural areas) and the development, growth, and popularity of suburbia. The process of suburbanization takes place in biggest cities of Russia, including Krasnoyarsk City. The modern Krasnoyarsk with a population of about 1mln people occupies the territory of 34115 ha. This article examines the analysis of functions of suburban area and connects these functions with zoning of the suburban territory. The author uses the method of hierarchy to select the best conditions to each function in connection with nature component, transportation and distance from the city. The result of this research is the map of the functional zoning of suburban area of Krasnoyarsk City. The author uses a variety of factors, which have an influence on suburban area, to compare and choose the best conditions. KeywordsSuburban area, zoning of territory, Krasnoyarsk City.

    84
    3023
    Gap Analysis of Cassava Sector in Cameroon
    Abstract:
    Recently, Cassava has been the driving force of many developing countries- economic progress. To attain this level, prerequisites were put in place enabling cassava sector to become an industrial and a highly competitive crop. Cameroon can achieve the same results. Moreover, it can upgrade the living conditions of both rural and urban dwellers and stimulate the development of the whole economy. Achieving this outcome calls for agricultural policy reforms. The adoption and implementation of adequate policies go along with efficient strategies. To choose effective strategies, an indepth investigation of the sector-s problems is highly recommended. This paper uses gap analysis method to evaluate cassava sector in Cameroon. It studies the present situation (where it is now), interrogates the future (where it should be) and finally proposes solutions to fill the gap.
    83
    3073
    Challenges to Technological Advancement in Economically Weak Countries: An Assessment of the Nigerian Educational Situation
    Abstract:
    Nigeria is considered as one of the many countries in sub-Saharan Africa with a weak economy and gross deficiencies in technology and engineering. Available data from international monitoring and regulatory organizations show that technology is pivotal to determining the economic strengths of nations all over the world. Education is critical to technology acquisition, development, dissemination and adaptation. Thus, this paper seeks to critically assess and discuss issues and challenges facing technological advancement in Nigeria, particularly in the education sector, and also proffers solutions to resuscitate the Nigerian education system towards achieving national technological and economic sustainability such that Nigeria can compete favourably with other technologicallydriven economies of the world in the not-too-distant future.
    82
    3248
    Corporate Governance Networks and Interlocking Directorates in the Czech Republic
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    This paper presents an exploration into the structure of the corporate governance network and interlocking directorates in the Czech Republic. First a literature overview and a basic terminology of the network theory is presented. Further in the text, statistics and other calculations relevant to corporate governance networks are presented. For this purpose an empirical data set consisting of 2 906 joint stock companies in the Czech Republic was examined. Industries with the highest average number of interlocks per company were healthcare, and energy and utilities. There is no observable link between the financial performance of the company and the number of its interlocks. Also interlocks with financial companies are very rare.

    81
    3447
    Economic Evaluations Using Genetic Algorithms to Determine the Territorial Impact Caused by High Speed Railways
    Abstract:

    The evolution of technology and construction techniques has enabled the upgrading of transport networks. In particular, the high-speed rail networks allow convoys to peak at above 300 km/h. These structures, however, often significantly impact the surrounding environment. Among the effects of greater importance are the ones provoked by the soundwave connected to train transit. The wave propagation affects the quality of life in areas surrounding the tracks, often for several hundred metres. There are substantial damages to properties (buildings and land), in terms of market depreciation. The present study, integrating expertise in acoustics, computering and evaluation fields, outlines a useful model to select project paths so as to minimize the noise impact and reduce the causes of possible litigation. It also facilitates the rational selection of initiatives to contain the environmental damage to the already existing railway tracks. The research is developed with reference to the Italian regulatory framework (usually more stringent than European and international standards) and refers to a case study concerning the high speed network in Italy.

    80
    3501
    A Model for Business Network Governance: Case Study in the Pharmaceutical Industry
    Abstract:

    This paper discusses the theory behind the existence of an idealistic model for business network governance and uses a clarifying case-study, containing governance structures and processes within a business network framework. The case study from a German pharmaceutical industry company complements existing literature by providing a comprehensive explanation of the relations between supply chains and business networks, and also between supply chain management and business network governance. Supply chains and supply chain management are only one side of the interorganizational relationships and ensure short-term performance, while real-world governance structures are needed for ensuring the long-term existence of a supply chain. Within this context, a comprehensive model for business governance is presented. An interesting finding from the case study is that multiple business network governance systems co-exist within the evaluated supply chain.

    79
    3760
    The Portrayal of Muslim Militants "Southern Bandits" in Thai Newspapers
    Abstract:

    This paper examines the depiction of Muslim militants in Thai newspapers in 2004. Stuart Hall-s “representation" and “public idioms" are used as theoretical frameworks. Critical Discourse Analysis is employed as a methodology to examine 240 news articles from two leading Thai language newspapers. The results show that the militants are usually labeled as “southern bandits." This suggests that they are just a culprit of the violence in the deep south of Thailand. They are usually described as people who cause turbulence. Consequently, the military have to get rid of them. However, other aspects of the groups such as their political agenda or the failures of the Thai state in dealing with the Malay Muslims were not mention in the news stories. In the time of violence, the researcher argues that this kind of newspaper coverage may help perpetuate the discourse of Malay Muslim, instead of providing fuller picture of the ongoing conflicts.

    78
    3957
    The Impact of High Performance Work Systems- on Firm Performance in MNCs and Local Manufacturing Firms in Malaysia
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    The empirical studies on High Performance Work Systems (HPWSs) and their impacts on firm performance have remarkably little in the developing countries. This paper reviews literatures on the HPWSs practices in different work settings, Western and Asian countries. A review on the empirical research leads to a conclusion that, country differences influence the Human Resource Management (HRM) practices. It is anticipated that there are similarities and differences in the extent of implementation of HPWSs practices by the Malaysian manufacturing firms due to the organizational contextual factors and, the HPWSs have a significant impact on firms- better performance amongst MNCs and local firms.

    77
    4062
    Turkic - Indian Lexical Parallels in the Framework of the Nostratic Language's Macrofamily
    Abstract:
    From ancient times Turkic languages have been in contact with numerous representatives of different language families. The article discusses the Turkic - Indian language contact and were shown promise and necessity of this trend for the Turkic linguistics, were given Turkic - Indian lexical parallels in the framework of the nostratic language's macro family. The research work has done on the base of lexical parallels (LP) -of Turkic (which belong to the Altaic family of languages) and Indian (including Dravidian and Indo-Aryan languages).
    76
    4065
    Information Support for Emergency Staff Processes and Effective Decisions
    Abstract:
    Managing the emergency situations at the Emergency Staff requires a high co-operation between its members and their fast decision making. For these purpose it is necessary to prepare Emergency Staff members adequately. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of information support that focuses to emergency staff processes and effective decisions. The information support is based on the principles of process management, and Process Framework for Emergency Management was used during the development. The output is the information system that allows users to simulate an emergency situation, including effective decision making. The system also evaluates the progress of the emergency processes solving by quantitative and qualitative indicators. By using the simulator, a higher quality education of specialists can be achieved. Therefore, negative impacts resulting from arising emergency situations can be directly reduced.
    75
    4124
    A Cognitive Architectural Approach to the Institutional Roles of Agent Societies
    Abstract:
    This paper concerns a formal model to help the simulation of agent societies where institutional roles and institutional links can be specified operationally. That is, this paper concerns institutional roles that can be specified in terms of a minimal behavioral capability that an agent should have in order to enact that role and, thus, to perform the set of institutional functions that role is responsible for. Correspondingly, the paper concerns institutional links that can be specified in terms of a minimal interactional capability that two agents should have in order to, while enacting the two institutional roles that are linked by that institutional link, perform for each other the institutional functions supported by that institutional link. The paper proposes a cognitive architecture approach to institutional roles and institutional links, that is, an approach in which a institutional role is seen as an abstract cognitive architecture that should be implemented by any concrete agent (or set of concrete agents) that enacts the institutional role, and in which institutional links are seen as interactions between the two abstract cognitive agents that model the two linked institutional roles. We introduce a cognitive architecture for such purpose, called the Institutional BCC (IBCC) model, which lifts Yoav Shoham-s BCC (Beliefs-Capabilities-Commitments) agent architecture to social contexts. We show how the resulting model can be taken as a means for a cognitive architecture account of institutional roles and institutional links of agent societies. Finally, we present an example of a generic scheme for certain fragments of the social organization of agent societies, where institutional roles and institutional links are given in terms of the model.
    74
    4144
    Different Teaching Methods for Program Design and Algorithmic Language
    Abstract:
    This paper covers the present situation and problem of experimental teaching of mathematics specialty in recent years, puts forward and demonstrates experimental teaching methods for different education. From the aspects of content and experimental teaching approach, uses as an example the course “Experiment for Program Designing & Algorithmic Language" and discusses teaching practice and laboratory course work. In addition a series of successful methods and measures are introduced in experimental teaching.
    73
    4287
    Analysis of the Ambient Media Approach of Advertisement Samples from the Adman Awards and Symposium under the Category of Outdoor and Ambience
    Abstract:
    This research is to study the types of products and services that employs 'ambient media and respective techniques in its advertisement materials. Data collection has been done via analyses of a total of 62 advertisements that employed ambient media approach in Thailand during the years 2004 to 2011. The 62 advertisement were qualifying advertisements of the Adman Awards & Symposium under the category of Outdoor & Ambience. Analysis results reveal that there is a total of 14 products and services that chooses to utilize ambient media in its advertisement. Amongst all ambient media techniques, 'intrusion' uses the value of a medium in its representation of content most often. Following intrusion is 'interaction', where consumers are invited to participate and interact with the advertising materials. 'Illusion' ranks third in its ability to subject the viewers to distortions of reality that makes the division between reality and fantasy less clear.
    72
    4697
    Hospital Administration for Humanized Healthcare in Thailand
    Abstract:
    Due to the emergence of “Humanized Healthcare" introduced by Professor Dr. Prawase Wasi in 2003[1], the development of this paradigm tends to be widely implemented. The organizations included Healthcare Accreditation Institute (public organization), National Health Foundation, Mahidol University in cooperation with Thai Health Promotion Foundation, and National Health Security Office (Thailand) have selected the hospitals or infirmaries that are qualified for humanized healthcare since 2008- 2010 and 35 of them are chosen to be the outstandingly navigating organizations for the development of humanized healthcare, humanized healthcare award [2]. The research aims to study the current issue, characteristics and patterns of hospital administration contributing to humanized healthcare system in Thailand. The selected case studies are from four hospitals including Dansai Crown Prince Hospital, Leoi; Ubolrattana Hospital, Khon Kaen; Kapho Hospital, Pattani; and Prathai Hospital, Nakhonrachasima. The methodology is in-depth interviewing with 10 staffs working as hospital executive directors, and representatives from leader groups including directors, multidisciplinary hospital committees, personnel development committees, physicians and nurses in each hospital. (Total=40) In addition, focus group discussions between hospital staffs and general people (including patients and their relatives, the community leader, and other people) are held by means of setting 4 groups including 8 people within each group. (Total=128) The observation on the working in each hospital is also implemented. The findings of the study reveal that there are five important aspects found in each hospital including (1) the quality improvement under the mental and spiritual development policy from the chief executives and lead teams, leaders as Role model and they have visionary leadership; (2) the participation hospital administration system focusing on learning process and stakeholder- needs, spiritual human resource management and development; (3) the relationship among people especially staffs, team work skills, mutual understanding, effective communication and personal inner-development; (4) organization culture relevant to the awareness of patients- rights as well as the participation policy including spiritual growth achieving to the same goals, sharing vision, developing public mind, and caring; and (5) healing structures or environment providing warmth and convenience for hospital staffs, patients and their relatives and visitors.
    71
    4718
    Challenges and Opportunities for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Development of Ecotourism in Lalzi Bay, Durres County, Albania - Today's Science for Tomorrow's Management. A Methodology Guide with a Concrete Example by Lalzi Bay, Durres County, Albania
    Abstract:
    Tourism and coastal lines are the business sectors since centuries especially in the European Nations and Albania is one such spots. However, in recent decades tourism is experienced as vulnerability of the surrounding ecological conditions of air, soil, water, land and the communities that are dependant and sharing the ecosystem among flora and fauna. Experts opine that apart from the maintenance of near-originality of ecological biodiversity the tourism rather known as ecotourism an indigenous socio-cultural maintenance of indigenous/traditional knowledge of the local people must be well cared in order to sustain on sustainable grounds. As a general tendency, growth of tourism has been affected by the deterioration in the economic conditions on one aspect and unsustainable ecological areas affected since human interventions earlier to this has negative impact on futuristic tourist spots. However, tourism in Albania as of now is 11% of GDP and coastal regions accounting to 2-4%. An amicable Mediterranean climate with 300 sunny days similar parameters of Greece and Spain throws up sustainable ecotourism in future decades provided public services namely, transportation, road safety, lodging, food availability, recreational regiments, banking accessibility are as per the World Tourism Organizations- protocols. Thus as of Albanian situation, classification of ecotourism activities to safe-guard the localities with its maintenance of ecological land, water and climate has become a paramount importance with a wanting and satisfactory options through harnessing human energy for profit and fitness of ecological flora and fauna. A check on anthropogenic wastes and their safer utilizations inclusive of agricultural and industrial operations in line with Lalzi Bay Coastal Line are of utmost importance for the reason that the Adriatic Sea Coast is the one long stretch of Albanian Lifeline. The present work is based on the methodology of the sustainable management of the same issue.
    70
    4903
    Paradigm of Relocation of Urban Poor Habitats (Slums): Case Study of Nagpur City
    Abstract:
    Developing countries are facing a problem of slums and there appears to be no fool proof solution to eradicate them. For improving the quality of life there are three approaches of slum development and In-situ up-gradation approach is found to be the best one, while the relocation approach has proved to be failure. Factors responsible for failure of relocation projects are needed to be assessed, which is the basic aim of the paper. Factors responsible for failure of relocation projects are loss of livelihood, security of tenure and inefficiency of the Government. These factors are traced out & mapped from the examples of Western & Indian cities. National habitat, Resettlement policy emphasized relationship between shelter and work place. SRA has identified 55 slums for relocation due reservation of land uses, security of tenure and non- notified status of slums. The policy guidelines have been suggested for successful relocation projects. KeywordsLivelihood, Relocation, Slums, Urban poor.
    69
    4923
    Arabic and Islamic Education in Nigeria: The Case of Al-Majiri Schools
    Abstract:
    The AL-MAJIRI school system is a variant of private Arabic and Islamic schools which cater for the religious and moral development of Muslims. In the past, the system produced clerics, scholars, judges, religious reformers, eminent teachers and great men who are worthy of emulation, particularly in northern Nigeria. Gradually, the system lost its glory but continued to discharge its educational responsibilities to a certain extent. This paper takes a look at the activities of the AL-MAJIRI schools. The introduction provides background information about Nigeria where the schools operate. This is followed by an overview of the Nigerian educational system, the nature and the features of the AL-MAJIRI school system, its weaknesses and the current challenges facing the schools. The paper concludes with emphasis on the urgent need for a comprehensive reform of the curriculum content of the schools. The step by step procedure required for the reform is discussed.
    68
    5157
    The Patterns of Unemployment and the Geography of Social Housing
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    During the last few decades in the academic field, the debate has increased on the effects of social geography on the opportunities of socioeconomic integration. On one hand, it has been discussed how the contents of the urban structure and social geography affect not only the way people interact, but also their chances of social and economic integration. On the other hand, it has also been discussed how the urban structure is also constrained and transformed by the action of social actors. Without questioning the powerful influence of structural factors, related to the logic of the production system, labor markets, education and training, the research has shown the role played by place of residence in shaping individual outcomes such as unemployment. In the context of this debate the importance of territory of residence with respect to the problem of unemployment has been highlighted. Although statistics of unemployment have already demonstrated the unequal incidence of the phenomenon in social groups, the issue of uneven territorial impact on the phenomenon at intra-urban level remains relatively unknown. The purpose of this article is to show and to interpret the spatial patterns of unemployment in the city of Porto using GIS (Geographic Information System - GIS) technology. Under this analysis the overlap of the spatial patterns of unemployment with the spatial distribution of social housing, allows the discussion of the relationship that occurs between these patterns and the reasons that might explain the relative immutability of socioeconomic problems in some neighborhoods.
    67
    5364
    The Role of Human Resource System on Crisis Resolve
    Abstract:

    Within the new world order, the term “crisis" is nowadays familiar to companies. Organizations are experiencing conditions which are surprising, uncertain, often adverse and usually unstable. The companies, who grasp the importance of transformation within the information age, have felt the need to develop modern methods to achieve the ability to thrive despite severe shocks. Through strategically managing human resource and developing appropriate elements of human resource system, companies can be assured for resolving the crisis. In this paper the role of HR system on resolving crisis has been evaluated. To help accomplish this, an insight on previous strategic HRM literature and an introduction to the elements and relationship within HR systems has been presented. It also reviews different attitude around resilience in literature. It continues by reviewing three elements central to developing an organization-s capacity for crisis resolving and it will demonstrate how designing proper elements of HR system can lead the organizations to possess the ability for passing through crisis. Finally it will evaluate an Iranian Insurance organization in case of one of the three central elements (specific cognitive ability) and observe how successful they were on developing an effective HR system to be ready for facing crisis.

    66
    5421
    Political Information Exposures, Politicians- Perceptions, Political Attitudes and Political Participations among People in Bangkok Metropolitan Area
    Abstract:
    The purposes of this study are to study political information exposure, politicians- perceptions, political attitudes and political participations among people in Bangkok Metropolitan Area. The sample consisted of 420 which were selected by using accidental sampling method. Questionnaires were administered to all of the respondents to obtain the data for this research. T-test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson-s correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. The findings are as follows: The difference in gender, education, income and occupation has significantly effect upon political information exposures. The difference in age, income has significantly effect upon politicians- perceptions. The difference in income has significantly effect upon political attitudes. The difference in gender, income and occupation has significantly effect upon political participations. There were a significantly relations between political information exposures, political attitudes, political participations and between politicians- perceptions, political attitudes and political participations.
    65
    5579
    Direct Democracy and Social Contract in Ancient Athens
    Abstract:

    In the present essay, a model of choice by actors is analysedby utilizing the theory of chaos to explain how change comes about. Then, by using ancient and modern sources of literature, the theory of the social contract is analysed as a historical phenomenon that first appeared during the period of Classical Greece. Then, based on the findings of this analysis, the practice of direct democracy and public choice in ancient Athens is analysed, through two historical cases: Eubulus and Lycurgus political program in the second half of the 4th century. The main finding of this research is that these policies can be interpreted as an implementation of a social contract, through which citizens were taking decisions based on rational choice according to economic considerations.

    64
    5737
    Visual Arts as a Vehicle of Communication
    Abstract:
    This paper reports a case study on how a conceptual and analytical thinking approach was used in Art and Design Department at Multimedia University (Malaysia) in addressing the issues of one nation and its impact in the society through artworks. The art project was designed for students to increase the know-how and develop creative thinking in design and communication. Goals of the design project were: (1) to develop creative thinking in design and communication, (2) to increase student understanding on the process of problem solving for design work, and (3) to use design elements and principles to generate interest, attention and emotional responses. An exhibition entitled "One Nation" was showcased to local and international viewers consisting of the general public, professionals, academics, artists and students. Findings indicate that the project supported several visual art standards, as well as generated awareness in the society. This project may be of interest to current and future art educators and others interested in the potential of utilizing global issues as content for art, community and environment studies for the purpose of educational art.
    63
    5891
    The Measurement of Latvian and Russian Ethnic Attitudes, Using Evaluative Priming Task and Self-Report Methods
    Abstract:

    The purposes of researches - to estimate implicit ethnic attitudes by direct and indirect methods, to determine the accordance of two types measuring, to investigate influence of task type used in an experiment, on the results of measuring, as well as to determine a presence or communication between recent episodic events and chronologic correlations of ethnic attitudes. Method of the implicit measuring - an evaluative priming (EPT) carried out with the use of different SOA intervals, explicit methods of research are G.Soldatova-s types of ethnic identity, G.Soldatova-s index of tolerance, E.Bogardus scale of social distance. During five stages of researches received results open some aspects of implicit measuring, its correlation with the results of self-reports on different SOA intervals, connection of implicit measuring with emotional valence of episodic events of participants and other indexes, presenting a contribution to the decision of implicit measuring application problem for study of different social constructs

    62
    5988
    Identification of Industrial Health Using ANN
    Abstract:

    The customary practice of identifying industrial sickness is a set traditional techniques which rely upon a range of manual monitoring and compilation of financial records. It makes the process tedious, time consuming and often are susceptible to manipulation. Therefore, certain readily available tools are required which can deal with such uncertain situations arising out of industrial sickness. It is more significant for a country like India where the fruits of development are rarely equally distributed. In this paper, we propose an approach based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to deal with industrial sickness with specific focus on a few such units taken from a less developed north-east (NE) Indian state like Assam. The proposed system provides decision regarding industrial sickness using eight different parameters which are directly related to the stages of sickness of such units. The mechanism primarily uses certain signals and symptoms of industrial health to decide upon the state of a unit. Specifically, we formulate an ANN based block with data obtained from a few selected units of Assam so that required decisions related to industrial health could be taken. The system thus formulated could become an important part of planning and development. It can also contribute towards computerization of decision support systems related to industrial health and help in better management.

    61
    5992
    Some Physical Fitness Values of Physical Education Department Students Engaged In Different Team Sport Branches
    Abstract:
    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare physical fitness values of students engaged in different team sport branches Totally 60 female, and 60 male athletes, that 20 athletes in each branch which are volleyball, basketball and football participated the study as a volunteer. The mean ages of female and male athletes were 21.20 ±1.87 and 21.61 ± 1.61 respectively. Age, height, body weight, body mass index, flexibility, body fat percentage, 30m sprint, maximum oxygen consumption capacity (MaxVO2) and drop jump values were measured. As a result of measurements, significant differences were found in height, weight, MaxVO2, shuttle run speed between different sports branches in female athletes. In male athletes, height, body weight, flexibility, 30m split speed and drop jump values were found significantly different between sports branches. As a conclusion and as a literature, it can be said that structure of body has to be appropriate with the engaged sports branch. Physical fitness values that required the sports branches can be expressed clearly by increasing the number of subjects.
    60
    5995
    Information Seeking through Assimilation Process in Thai Organization
    Abstract:

    The purpose of this study is to examine employee assessments of the usefulness/value of different types of information available to those employees during the process of organizational assimilation. Participants in the study were 247 “new" employees at Bangkok Bank. Bangkok Bank considers employees whose length of stay with the bank has been less than 18 months as new employees. Questionnaires were administered to all of the Bank-s new employees to obtain the data for this study. Repeated measures analysis was used to analyze the data. The data were summed and coded by using Statistical Package for Social Science. Newcomers indicate that social information is the most useful information, followed by job (technical, referent, and appraisal information), political, normative, and organizational information. Essentially, social, job, and political information are evaluated by newcomers as highly useful, while normative and organizational information are rated as moderately useful.

    59
    6225
    SWOT Analysis of Cassava Sector in Cameroon
    Abstract:
    Cassava is one of the top five crops in Cameroon. Its evolution has remained constant since the independence period and the production has more than tripled. It is a crop with multiple industrial capacities but the sector-s business opportunities are underexploited. Using Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis method, this paper examines the cassava actual state. It appraises the sector-s strengths (S), considers suitable measures to strengthen weaknesses (W), evaluates strategies to fully benefit from the sector numerous business opportunities (O) and explore means to convert threats (T) into opportunities. Data were collected from the ministry of agriculture and rural development and different actors. The results show that cassava sector embodies many business opportunities and stands as a raw material provider for many industries but ultimately requires challenges to be tackled appropriately.
    58
    6303
    An Analysis of the Themes of Alcoholic Beverage Advertisements in Thailand after the Enactment of the Alcoholic Beverage Control Act of 2008
    Abstract:
    The objective of this research was to study the themes of alcoholic beverage advertisements in Thailand after the enactment of the 2008 Alcoholic Beverage Control Act. Data was collected through textual analysis of 35 television and cinema advertisements for alcoholic beverage products broadcast in Thailand. Nine themes were identified, seven of which were themes that had previously been used before the new law (i.e. power, competition, friendship, Thainess, success, romance and safety) and two of which were new themes (volunteerism and conservation) that were introduced as a form of adaptation and negotiation in response to the new law.
    57
    6462
    A National Idea in Conditions of the Islamic Revival
    Abstract:
    Discussion and development of principles of the uniform nation formation within the limits of the Kazakhstan state obviously became one of the most pressing questions of the day. The fact that this question has not been solved "from above" as many other questions has caused really brisk discussion, shows us increase of civil consciousness in Kazakhstan society, and also the actuality of this theme which can be carried in the category of fatal questions. In any sense, nation building has raised civil society to a much higher level. It would be better to begin with certain definitions. First is the word "nation". The second is the "state". Both of these terms are very closely connected with each other, so that in English language they are in general synonyms. In Russian more shades of these terms exist. For example in Kazakhstan the citizens of the country irrespective of nationality (but mainly with reference to non-kazakhs) are called «kazakhstanians», while the name of the title nation is \"Kazakhs\". The same we can see in Russia, where, for example, the Chechen or the Yakut –are \"Rossiyane\" which means “the citizens of Russian Federation, but not \"Russians\". The paper was written under the research project “Islam in modern Kazakhstan: the nature and outcome of the religious revival”.
    56
    6552
    Coordination on Agrifood Supply Chain
    Abstract:
    Coordinated supply chain represents major challenges for the different actors involved in it, because each agent responds to individual interests. The paper presents a framework with the reviewed literature regarding the system's decision structure and nature of demand. Later, it characterizes an agri food supply chain in the Central Region of Colombia, it responds to a decentralized distribution system and a stochastic demand. Finally, the paper recommends coordinating the chain based on shared information, and mechanisms for each agent, as VMI (vendor-managed inventory) strategy for farmer-buyer relationship, information system for farmers and contracts for transportation service providers.
    55
    6620
    Estimating Cost of R&D Activities for Feasibility Study of Public R&D Investment
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    Since the feasibility study of R&D programs have been initiated for efficient public R&D investments, year 2008, feasibility studies have improved in terms of precision. Although experience related to these studies of R&D programs have increased to a certain point, still methodological improvement is required. The feasibility studies of R&D programs are consisted of various viewpoints, such as technology, policy, and economics. This research is to provide improvement methods to the economic perspective; especially the cost estimation process of R&D activities. First of all, the fundamental concept of cost estimation is reviewed. After the review, a statistical and econometric analysis method is applied as empirical analysis. Conclusively, limitations and further research directions are provided.
    54
    6827
    Multimethod Approach to Research in Interlanguage Pragmatics
    Abstract:

    Argument over the use of particular method in interlanguage pragmatics has increased recently. Researchers argued the advantages and disadvantages of each method either natural or elicited. Findings of different studies indicated that the use of one method may not provide enough data to answer all its questions. The current study investigated the validity of using multimethod approach in interlanguage pragmatics to understand the development of requests in Arabic as a second language (Arabic L2). To this end, the study adopted two methods belong to two types of data sources: the institutional discourse (natural data), and the role play (elicited data). Participants were 117 learners of Arabic L2 at the university level, representing four levels (beginners, low-intermediate, highintermediate, and advanced). Results showed that using two or more methods in interlanguage pragmatics affect the size and nature of data.

    53
    6987
    Structural Funds of Polish Agriculture
    Abstract:

    The research objective of the project and article “The impact of Structural Funds on the growth of competitiveness of Polish agriculture" is to assess competitiveness of regions in Poland from the perspective of Polish agriculture by analysing the efficiency of the use of Structural Funds, the economic procedure of their distribution and the regulatory and organisational framework under the Rural Development Programme (RDP). It must be stressed that defining the scope of research in the above manner limits the analysis only to the part of Structural Funds directed to support Polish agriculture.

    52
    7041
    Modeling of Knowledge-Intensive Business Processes
    Abstract:
    Knowledge development in companies relies on knowledge-intensive business processes, which are characterized by a high complexity in their execution, weak structuring, communication-oriented tasks and high decision autonomy, and often the need for creativity and innovation. A foundation of knowledge development is provided, which is based on a new conception of knowledge and knowledge dynamics. This conception consists of a three-dimensional model of knowledge with types, kinds and qualities. Built on this knowledge conception, knowledge dynamics is modeled with the help of general knowledge conversions between knowledge assets. Here knowledge dynamics is understood to cover all of acquisition, conversion, transfer, development and usage of knowledge. Through this conception we gain a sound basis for knowledge management and development in an enterprise. Especially the type dimension of knowledge, which categorizes it according to its internality and externality with respect to the human being, is crucial for enterprise knowledge management and development, because knowledge should be made available by converting it to more external types. Built on this conception, a modeling approach for knowledgeintensive business processes is introduced, be it human-driven,e-driven or task-driven processes. As an example for this approach, a model of the creative activity for the renewal planning of a product is given.
    51
    7066
    The Environmental Conservation Behavior of the Applied Health Science Students of Green and Clean University
    Abstract:
    The aim of this study was to investigate the environmental conservation behavior of the Applied Health Science students of Suranaree University of Technology, a green and clean university. The sample group was 184 Applied Health Science students (medical, nursing, and public health). A questionnaire was used to collect information. The result of the study found that the students had more negative than positive behaviors towards energy, water, and forest conservation. This result can be used as basic information for designing long-term behavior modification activities or research projects on environmental conservation. Thus Applied Health Science students will be encouraged to be conscious and also be a good example of environmental conservation behavior.
    50
    7074
    Eurasian Economic Integration: Eurasian Economic Community and Shanghai Cooperation Organization
    Abstract:
    The purpose of this article is to analyze economic and political tendencies of development of integration processes with different developing level and speed on the Eurasian space, by considering two organizations at the region – Eurasian Economic Community and Shanghai Cooperation Organization, by considering the interests of participations in organizations of Russia and China as a global powers and Kazakhstan as a leader among the Central Asian countries. This article investigates what certain goals Eurasian countries (especially Russia, Kazakhstan and China) are waiting from integration within the SCO and the EurAsEC, linking the process with the theories of regional integration. After European debt crisis it is more topically to research the integration within the specific region's conditions.
    49
    7239
    Engagement Strategies for Stakeholder Management in New Technology Development in the Fertilizer Industry – A Conceptual Framework
    Abstract:

    Communication is becoming a significant tool to engage stakeholders since half of the century ago. In the recent years, there has been rapid growth of new technology developments. In tandem with such developments, there has been growing emphasis in communication strategies and management especially in determining the level of influence and management strategies among the said stakeholders on particular field. This paper presents a research conceptual framework focusing on stakeholder theories, communication and management strategies to be implied on the engagement of stakeholders of new technology developments of fertilizer industry in Malaysia. Framework espoused in this paper will provide insights into the various stakeholder theories and engagement strategies from different principal necessary for a successful introduction of new technology development in the above stated industry. The proposed framework has theoretical significance in filling the gap of the body of knowledge in the implementation of communication strategies in Malaysian fertilizer industry.

    48
    7395
    Intellectual Capital and Competitive Advantage: An Analysis of the Biotechnology Industry
    Abstract:

    Intellectual capital measurement is a central aspect of knowledge management. The measurement and the evaluation of intangible assets play a key role in allowing an effective management of these assets as sources of competitiveness. For these reasons, managers and practitioners need conceptual and analytical tools taking into account the unique characteristics and economic significance of Intellectual Capital. Following this lead, we propose an efficiency and productivity analysis of Intellectual Capital, as a determinant factor of the company competitive advantage. The analysis is carried out by means of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI). These techniques identify Bests Practice companies that have accomplished competitive advantage implementing successful strategies of Intellectual Capital management, and offer to inefficient companies development paths by means of benchmarking. The proposed methodology is employed on the Biotechnology industry in the period 2007-2010.

    47
    7830
    Measuring the CSR Company-Stakeholder Fit
    Abstract:

    As a company competitiveness depends more and more on the relationship with its stakeholders, the topic of companystakeholder fit is becoming increasingly important. This fit affects the extent to which a stakeholder perceives CSR company commitment, values and behaviors and, therefore, stakeholder identification in a company and his/her loyalty to it. Consequently, it is important to measure the alignment or the gap between stakeholder CSR demands, values, preferences and perceptions, and the company CSR disclosed commitment, values and policies. In this paper, in order to assess the company-stakeholder fit about corporate responsibility, an innovative CSR fit positioning matrix is proposed. This matrix is based on the measurement of a company CSR disclosed commitment and stakeholder perceived and required commitment. The matrix is part of a more complex methodology based on Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) indicators, content analysis and stakeholder questionnaires. This methodology provides appropriate indications for helping companies to achieve CSR company-stakeholder fit, by leveraging both CSR commitment and communication. Moreover, it could be used by top management for comparing different companies and stakeholders, and for planning specific CSR strategies, policies and activities.

    46
    7997
    Islam in the Context of Political Processes in Modern Kazakhstan
    Abstract:

    Religion revival including Islam in Kazakhstan represents reaction, first of all on internal social and political change, events after disintegration of the USSR. Process of revival of Kazakhstan Islam was accompanied as positive, so by negative tendencies. Old mosques were restored, were under construction new, Islamic schools and high schools were created, was widely studied religious the dogmatic person, the corresponding literature was published, expanded contacts with foreign Muslim brothers in the faith, the centers of the Arab-Muslim culture extended. At the same time in Kazakhstan, there are religious-political parties and movements, pursuing radical goals down to change the spiritual and cultural identity of Muslims of Kazakhstan by the forcible introduction of non-traditional religious and political, ethnic and cultural values.

    45
    8045
    The Effect of Sport Specific Exercises on the Visual Skills of Rugby Players
    Abstract:

    Introduction: Visual performance is an important factor in sport excellence. Visual involvement in a sport varies according to environmental demands associated with that sport. These environmental demands are matched by a task specific motor response. The purpose of this study was to determine if sport specific exercises will improve the visual performance of male rugby players, in order to achieve maximal results on the sports field. Materials & Methods: Twenty six adult male rugby players, aged 16-22, were chosen as subjects. In order to evaluate the effect of sport specific exercises on visual skills, a pre-test - post-test experimental group design was adopted for the study. Results: Significant differences (p≤0.05) were seen in the focussing, tracking, vergence, sequencing, eye-hand coordination and visualisation components Discussion & Conclusions: Sport specific exercises improved visual skills in rugby players which may provide them with an advantage over their opponents. This study suggests that these training programs and participation in regular on-line EyeDrills sports vision exercises (www.eyedrills.co.za) aimed at improving the athlete-s visual coordination, concentration, focus, hand-eye co-ordination, anticipation and motor response should be incorpotated in the rugby players exercise regime.

    44
    8396
    A Systematic Mapping Study on Software Engineering Education
    Abstract:

    Inadequate curriculum for software engineering is considered to be one of the most common software risks. A number of solutions, on improving Software Engineering Education (SEE) have been reported in literature but there is a need to collectively present these solutions at one place. We have performed a mapping study to present a broad view of literature; published on improving the current state of SEE. Our aim is to give academicians, practitioners and researchers an international view of the current state of SEE. Our study has identified 70 primary studies that met our selection criteria, which we further classified and categorized in a well-defined Software Engineering educational framework. We found that the most researched category within the SE educational framework is Innovative Teaching Methods whereas the least amount of research was found in Student Learning and Assessment category. Our future work is to conduct a Systematic Literature Review on SEE.

    43
    8469
    Analysis of Impact of Land Use Regulations against Urban Spatial Structure - Centering around Shiheung City
    Abstract:

    In this paper, we analyzed the pattern of urban spatial structure of Siheung City that had been divided into two parts and presented alternative plans in order to get rid of these phenomena. Concerning patterns of urban spatial structure, we examined it through means of analyzing status of land use, population density and distribution of residence, status of distribution of main facilities, medical facilities, status of distribution of cultural facilities, distribution of land prices and traffic volume trends. The results of study revealed that status of facilities distribution and distribution of land prices, etc. were bisected by the surrounding area of former municipal office and the district of Sihwa, which were both regarded as one apex of the city divide, forming a duo-centric city. In order to get rid of this problem concerned with urban spatial structure that has been bisected, it is required that measures in order to expand facilities in Siheung City should be taken.

    42
    8484
    Study on Guangzhou's Employment Subcentres and Polycentricity
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    Since the late 1980s, the new phenomena of 'employment subcentres' or 'polycentricity' has appeared in the metropolises of North American and Western Europe and it has been an interesting topic for academics and researchers. This paper specifically uses one case study-Guangzhou to explore the development and the mechanism of employment subcentres and polycentricity in Chinese metropolises by spatial analysis method on the basis of the first economic census data. In conclusion, the paper regards that the employment subcentres and polycentricity has existed in Chinese metropolises. And that, the mechanism of them is mainly from the secondary industry instead of the tertiary industry in North American and Western Europe

    41
    8515
    Promoting Mathematical Understanding Using ICT in Teaching and Learning
    Abstract:

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in mathematical education is a very active field of research and innovation, where learning is understood to be meaningful and grasping multiple linked representation rather than rote memorization, a great amount of literature offering a wide range of theories, learning approaches, methodologies and interpretations, are generally stressing the potentialities for teaching and learning using ICT. Despite the utilization of new learning approaches with ICT, students experience difficulties in learning concepts relevant to understanding mathematics, much remains unclear about the relationship between the computer environment, the activities it might support, and the knowledge that might emerge from such activities. Many questions that might arise in this regard: to what extent does the use of ICT help students in the process of understanding and solving tasks or problems? Is it possible to identify what aspects or features of students' mathematical learning can be enhanced by the use of technology? This paper will highlight the interest of the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into the teaching and learning of mathematics (quadratic functions), it aims to investigate the effect of four instructional methods on students- mathematical understanding and problem solving. Quantitative and qualitative methods are used to report about 43 students in middle school. Results showed that mathematical thinking and problem solving evolves as students engage with ICT activities and learn cooperatively.

    40
    8733
    The Role of the Dominant Party of the Republic of Kazakhstan and China's Ruling Party in a Country's Modernization: Similarities and Differences
    Abstract:

    The purpose of this work is to identify the positive and negative aspects of parties- participation in the country-s modernization, which in turn, will help a country to determine the necessary steps to improve the social-economic development. The article considers a question of the role of the dominating party of Kazakhstan and ruling party of China in the country-s modernization. Using a comparative analysis reveals differences between the People's Democratic Party “Nur Otan" and the Communist Party of China. It is discussed the policy of carrying out of modernization, the main actions of political parties of both countries with a view of modernization implementation.

    39
    8868
    Risk Monitoring through Traceability Information Model
    Abstract:

    This paper shows a traceability framework for supply risk monitoring, beginning with the identification, analysis, and evaluation of the supply chain risk and focusing on the supply operations of the Health Care Institutions with oncology services in Bogota, Colombia. It includes a brief presentation of the state of the art of the Supply Chain Risk Management and traceability systems in logistics operations, and it concludes with the methodology to integrate the SCRM model with the traceability system.

    38
    8953
    A Study on Use of User Demand Evaluation in Interactive Interface – Using Virtual Fitting-Room as an Example
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    The purpose of this study is to research on thoughts transmitted from virtual fitting-room and to deduce discussion in an auxiliary narrative way. The research structure is based on 3D virtual fitting-room as the research subject. Initially, we will discuss the principles of narrate study, User Demand and so on by using a narrative design pattern to transmit their objective indications of “people-situation-reason-object", etc, and then to analyze the virtual fitting-room examples that are able to provide a new thinking for designers who engaged in clothing related industry – which comes in “story telling" and “user-centered design" forms. Clothing designs are not just to cover up the body to keep warm but to draw closer to people-s demand physiologically and psychologically through interactive designs so as to achieve cognition between people and environment. In the “outside" goal of clothing-s functional designs, we use tribal group-s behavior characteristics to “transform" the existing personal cultural stories, and “reform" them to design appropriate interactive products. Synthesizing the above matters, apart from being able to regard “narrate" as a kind of functional thinking process, we are also able to regard it as a kind of choice, arrangement and an activity of story expression, allowing interactive design-s spirit, product characteristics and experience ideas be transmitted to target tribal group in a visual image performance method. It is a far more confident and innovative attempt, and meanwhile, able to achieve entertainment, joyful and so forth fundamental interactive transmissions. Therefore, this study takes “user-centered design" thinking as a basis to establish a set of clothing designs with interactive experience patterns and to assist designers to examine the five sensual feeling of interactive demands in order to initiate a new value in textile industry.

    37
    8979
    A Study on the Differences of Academic Achievement, Self-Efficacy, and Engineering Self-Efficacy with Gender of Engineering Students
    Abstract:

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between satisfaction with major and career decision efficacy and career attitude maturity of engineering college students by performing correlation analysis. Gender differences in between satisfaction with major and career decision efficacy and career attitude maturity were also examined by T-test. The results T-test revealed gender differences in only career decision efficacy. Male Students scored significantly higher than did female students on career decision efficacy and satisfaction with major. The results of correlation analysis showed a) satisfaction with major were significantly associated with career decision efficacy, b) satisfaction with major were significantly associated with career attitude maturity, and c) career decision efficacy were significantly associated with career attitude maturity. As a result,we found the importance of satisfaction in engineering college students- major studies when deciding their career.

    36
    9104
    Village Construction under China-s Rapid Urbanization: The Role and Strategy of Planning in the Rural Areas
    Abstract:

    With China's urbanization continuing to accelerate, a amount of rural people flood into China's cities in recent years, and the issue of agriculture, rural areas and farmers is getting more and more serious. In 2005, the Chinese government put forward a plan for “the construction of new rural village", in order to coordinate the development of both urban and rural areas. The planning method of rural region differs sharply from that of urban areas, as same as village social structure and habits of farmer-s life, so the studies which can consider the special needs of village construction in China are absolutely essential. This paper expresses explore current situation and problems existing in the construction of China-s new rural village, such as bigger gap between urban and rural areas, excessive new construction projects, extinct traditional village style and so on. It tries to analyze the deep reason of the present situation of the village from law system, industrial structure, financial sources and planning method. Then it also provides a guide for developing policies and procedures promoting the development of china-s rural areas.

    35
    9332
    Outcomes of Teenage Mothers at Dankhunthot Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima
    Abstract:
    The aim of this study was to investigate the pregnancy outcomes of teenage mothers at DanKhunThot hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted in 573 of teenage pregnant from charts reviewed from 1st October 2010-31st March, 2012. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution, mean and Standard Deviation. The results shown several problems and negatives outcomes of pregnancy in teenager such as not attended prenatal care, Low birth weight infants, death fetus in utero and other complications. The results of this study can be utilized in the development of prenatal, perinatal and post natal care services, especially in DanKhunthot Hospital contexts. Moreover, the results were present to the District Health Care committees in order to enhance health care service system for teenage pregnancy of DanKhunthot District in further.
    34
    9472
    A Comparative Study on the Financial Characteristics for Development Methods of Urban Development Project - Focusing on Multi-level Replotting Method -
    Abstract:
    The purpose of this study is comparing and analysing of the financial characteristics for development methods of the urban development project in the established area, focusing on the multi-level replotting. Analysis showed that the type of the lowest expenditure was 'combination type of group-land and multi-level replotting' and the type of the highest profitability was 'multi-level replotting type'. But 'multi-level replotting type' has still risk of amount of cost for the additional architecture. In addition, we subdivided standard amount for liquidation of replotting and analysed income-expenditure flow. Analysis showed that both of 'multi-level replotting type' and 'combination type of group-land and multi-level replotting' improved profitability of project and property change ratio. However, when the standard was under a certain amount, amount of original property for the replotting was increased exponentially, and profitability of project.
    33
    9800
    Modernization of the People's Republic of China: History and Complexities
    Abstract:

    The aim of this paper is to investigate a process of modernization of the People-s Republic of China. The theme of scientific research is interesting, first, because the Chinese model of development is recognized as successful and most dynamically developing. They are obliged by these successes of the modernization spent in the country. Economy modernization as the basic motive power of progress of the country is a priority direction of development in the Republic of Kazakhstan. So the example of successful development modernization processes in China can be rather useful to use in working out of the Kazakhstan national reforms.

    32
    9877
    What Creative Industries Have to Offer to Business? Creative Partnerships and Mutual Benefits
    Abstract:

    In the time of globalisation, growing uncertainty, ambiguity and change, traditional way of doing business are no longer sufficient and it is important to consider non-conventional methods and approaches to release creativity and facilitate innovation and growth. Thus, creative industries, as a natural source of creativity and innovation, draw particular attention. This paper explores feasibility of building creative partnerships between creative industries and business and brings attention to mutual benefits derived from such partnerships. Design/approach - This paper is a theoretical exploration of projects, practices and research findings addressing collaboration between creative industries and business. Thus, it concerns creative industries, arts, business and its representatives in order to define requirements for creative partnerships to work and succeed. Findings – Current practices in engaging into arts-business partnerships are still very few, although most of creative partnerships proved to be highly valuable and mutually beneficial. Certain conditions shall be provided in order to benefit from arts-business creative synergy. Originality/value- By integrating different sources of literature, this article provides a base for conducting empirical research in several dimensions within arts-business partnerships.

    31
    9988
    Promoting a Strategic Plan in the University Environment
    Abstract:
    This paper is concerned with the role strategic management plays in higher education and the methods it entails. Using the University of West Bohemia and the Czech Republic as examples, the paper describes the methods used in furthering strategic objectives within institutions and their different parts (faculties, institutes). The nature of the demands faced by the university dictates the need for a strategic framework which defines the basic objectives and parameters of tertiary education and research in a local, regional and national context. Sharing strategies with a wider range of actors (universities, cities, regions, the practical sphere) is key to laying the foundations for more efficient cooperation.
    30
    10108
    Branding Urban Spaces as an Approach for City Branding -Case study: Cairo City, Egypt
    Abstract:
    With the beginning of the new century, man still faces many challenges in how to form and develop his urban environment. To meet these challenges, many cities have tried to develop its visual image. This is by transforming their urban environment into a branded visual image; this is at the level of squares, the main roads, the borders, and the landmarks. In this realm, the paper aims at activating the role of branded urban spaces as an approach for the development of visual image of cities, especially in Egypt. It concludes the need to recognize the importance of developing the visual image in Egypt, through directing the urban planners to the important role of such spaces in achieving sustainability.
    29
    10202
    Greening the Greyfields: Unlocking the Redevelopment Potential of the Middle Suburbs in Australian Cities
    Abstract:
    Pressures for urban redevelopment are intensifying in all large cities. A new logic for urban development is required – green urbanism – that provides a spatial framework for directing population and investment inwards to brownfields and greyfields precincts, rather than outwards to the greenfields. This represents both a major opportunity and a major challenge for city planners in pluralist liberal democracies. However, plans for more compact forms of urban redevelopment are stalling in the face of community resistance. A new paradigm and spatial planning platform is required that will support timely multi-level and multi-actor stakeholder engagement, resulting in the emergence of consensus plans for precinct-level urban regeneration capable of more rapid implementation. Using Melbourne, Australia as a case study, this paper addresses two of the urban intervention challenges – where and how – via the application of a 21st century planning tool ENVISION created for this purpose.
    28
    10369
    Process of Reprivatization of Agricultural Properties in the Selected European Countries
    Abstract:
    Political transition of agricultural properties in Poland and the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) after 1989 had to include not only Reprivatization but also the issue of returning the properties in kind to their former owners. Restitution in kind applied in GDR to all forms of ownership which were subject to expropriation between 1933 and 1989 except for properties taken over during Soviet occupation in 1945-49. This issue was one of the flashpoints during the process of ownership changes. Privatization, limited as it was, took place in unequal legal environment where only one group of owners was privileged. Executing restitution in kind created a feeling of uncertainty among potential real estate buyers.
    27
    10440
    Employees- Perceptions and Expectations toward Corporate Social Responsibility: A Case Study of Private Company Employees in Bangkok Metropolitan Area
    Abstract:

    This research aimed to study employees- perceptions and expectations toward their organization-s corporate social responsibility (CSR), to study the differences between employees- personal factors and level of perceptions and expectations toward CSR, and to study the relationship between employees- perceptions and expectations toward CSR. Purposive sampling and questionnaire were applied to collect information from 400 private company employees in Bangkok metropolitan area. The results revealed that employees had “high" level of perceptions and expectations toward CSR, of which the highest level were given on the area of “corporate governance and transparency". It was found that there was different level of expectations of employees with different period of employment, position and employment (by listed and non-listed companies). Employees of different age and period of employment also had different level of expectations. Employees- perceptions were correlated with their expectations toward CSR.

    26
    10487
    The Influence of Institutional Shareholder Activism as a Corporate Governance Monitoring Mechanism in Malaysia
    Abstract:

    Not many studies have been undertaken on shareholder activism in emerging economies, including Malaysia. Shareholder activism in emerging economies is on the rise. This paper seeks to comprehend the elements of this activism that are unique to Malaysia, specifically with respect to how the agency problem is controlled through shareholder activism in improving corporate governance practices within target companies. Through shareholder activism, shareholders make contact with a target company to voice their dissatisfaction, suggestions, or recommendations. This paper utilises agency theory to explain institutional shareholder activism. This theory has been extensively used within literature on corporate governance with regards to shareholder activism. The effectiveness of shareholder activism in improving corporate governance will be examined as well. This research provides a further understanding of shareholder activism in emerging economies, such as Malaysia; this research also has the potential to enhance shareholder activism and corporate governance practices in general.

    25
    10514
    Developing Forecasting Tool for Humanitarian Relief Organizations in Emergency Logistics Planning
    Abstract:

    Despite the availability of natural disaster related time series data for last 110 years, there is no forecasting tool available to humanitarian relief organizations to determine forecasts for emergency logistics planning. This study develops a forecasting tool based on identifying probability distributions. The estimates of the parameters are used to calculate natural disaster forecasts. Further, the determination of aggregate forecasts leads to efficient pre-disaster planning. Based on the research findings, the relief agencies can optimize the various resources allocation in emergency logistics planning.

    24
    10833
    Using Model to Plan of Strategic Objectives
    Abstract:

    Importance of strategic planning is unquestionable. However, the practical implementation of a strategic plan faces too many obstacles. The aim of the article is explained the importance of strategic planning and to find how companies in Moravian-Silesian Region deal with strategic planning, and to introduce the model, which helps to set strategic goals in financial indicators area. This model should be part of the whole process of strategic planning and can be use to predict the future values of financial indicators of the company with regard to the factor, which influence these indicators.

    23
    10836
    Urban Transformations of the Mediterranean Cities in Light of Developments in the Modern Era
    Abstract:
    The urban transformation processes in its framework and its general significance became a fundamental and vital subject of consideration for both the developed and the developing societies. It has become important to regulate the architectural systems adopted by the city, to sustain the present development on one hand, and on the other hand, to facilitate its future growth. Thus, the study dealt with the phenomenon of urban transformation of the Mediterranean cities, and the city of Alexandria in particular, because of its significant historical and cultural legacy, its historical architecture and its contemporary urbanization. This article investigates the entirety of cities in the Mediterranean region through the analysis of the relationship between inflation and growth of these cities and the extent of the complexity of the city barriers. We hope to analyze not only the internal transformations, but the external relationships (both imperial and post-colonial) that have shaped Alexandria city growth from the nineteenth century until today.
    22
    10897
    Improving the Decision-Making Process and Transparency of Corporate Governance Using XBRL
    Abstract:
    Several recent studies have shown that the transparency of financial reporting have a significant influence on investor-s decisions. Thus, regulation authorities and professional organizations (IFAC) have emphasized the role of XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) and interactive data as a means of promoting transparency and monitoring corporate reporting. In this context, this paper has as objective the analysis of interactive reporting through XBRL and its use as a support in the process of taking decisions in corporate governance, namely the potential of interactive reports in XBRL to increase the transparency and monitoring process of corporate governance.
    21
    10924
    A Study on the Design Elements of Sidewalk in Urban Commercial District
    Abstract:
    This study was to search for the desirable direction of the sidewalk planning in Korea by establishing the concepts of walking and pedestrian space, and analyzing the advanced precedents in and out of country. Also, based on the precedent studies and relevant laws, regulations, and systems, it aimed for the following sequential process: firstly, to derive design elements from the functions and characteristics of sidewalk and cluster the similar elements by each characteristics, sampling representative characteristics and making them hierarchical; then, to analyze their significances via the first questionnaire survey, and the relative weights and priorities of each elements via the Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP); finally, based on the analysis result, to establish the frame of suggesting the direction of policy to improve the pedestrian environment of sidewalk in urban commercial district for the future planning and design of pedestrian space.
    20
    11115
    Philosophy of Education: The Challenges of Globalization and Innovation in the Information Society
    Abstract:

    Information society is an absolutely new public formation at which the infrastructure and the social relations correspond to the socialized essence of «information genotype» mankind. Information society is a natural social environment which allows the person to open completely the information nature, to use intelligence for joint creation with other people of new information on the basis of knowledge earlier saved up by previous generations.

    19
    11475
    Masouleh: A City; A History
    Abstract:

    Human always tried to create a suitable situation for their life according to environmental conditions. In fact, geography has an important role in the shape of our living area. Iran also as a four-season country has different climate type: hot and humid, hot and dry, mid and humid, and cold; therefore, we can find different architecture styles in Iran. Gilan-s traditional architecture is a suitable sample of sustainable construction in Iran. Because the main factors of every dwelling are the climatic, social, economic and cultural effects which demonstrate the interaction between environment and people settlement. This paper was determined the interaction between environmental factors and the rural dwellings in the Gilan province. Also, traditional village (city) of Masouleh as a rare sample of rural and sustainable architecture was introduced.

    18
    11505
    Improvement of New Government R&D Program Plans through Preliminary Feasibility Studies
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    As a part of an evaluation system for R&D programs, the Korean Government has applied the preliminary feasibility study to new government R&D program plans. Basically, the fundamental purpose of the preliminary feasibility study is to decide that the government will either do or do not invest in a new R&D Program. Additionally, the preliminary feasibility study can contribute to the improvement of R&D program plans. For example, 2 cases of new R&D program plans applied to the study are explained in this paper and there are expectations that these R&D programs would yield better performance than without the study. It is thought that the important point of the preliminary feasibility study is not only the effective decision making process of R&D program but also the opportunity to improve R&D program plan actually.
    17
    11526
    Balance of Rural and Urban Structures
    Abstract:
    Urbanization and regionalization are two different approaches when it comes to economical structures and development, infrastructure and mobility, quality of life and living, education, social cohesion and many other topics. At first glance, the structures associated with urbanization and regionalization seems to be contradicting. This paper discusses possibilities of transfer and cooperation between rural and urban structures. An empirical investigation contributed to reveal scenarios of supposable forms of exchange and cooperation of remote rural areas and big cities.
    16
    12058
    The Tendencies of Development of the Management in the Education System of the Republic of Kazakhstan
    Abstract:
    In this article the authors investigate the main tendencies of development of the management in the education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan: problems, solutions and development of the education system of Kazakhstan in the realities of globalization.
    15
    12611
    Deep Learning and Virtual Environment
    Abstract:

    While computers are known to facilitate lower levels of learning, such as rote memorization of facts, measurable through electronically administered and graded multiple-choice questions, yes/no, and true/false answers, the imparting and measurement of higher-level cognitive skills is more vexing. These require more open-ended delivery and answers, and may be more problematic in an entirely virtual environment, notwithstanding the advances in technologies such as wikis, blogs, discussion boards, etc. As with the integration of all technology, merit is based more on the instructional design of the course than on the technology employed in, and of, itself. With this in mind, this study examined the perceptions of online students in an introductory Computer Information Systems course regarding the fostering of various higher-order thinking and team-building skills as a result of the activities, resources and technologies (ART) used in the course.

    14
    12789
    Impact of the Amendments of Malaysian Code of Corporate Governance (2007) on Governance of GLCs and Performance
    Abstract:
    The study aims to investigate the impact on board and audit committee characteristics and firm performance before and after the revision of MCCG (2007) on GLCs over the period 2005-2010. We used Return on Assets (ROA) as a proxy for firm performance. The data consists of two groups; data collected before and after the amendments of MCCG (2007). Findings show that boards of directors with accounting / finance qualifications (BEXP) are statistically significant with performance for period before the amendments. As for audit committee members with accounting or finance qualifications (ACEXP), correlation results indicate a negative association and non-significant results for the years before amendments. However, the years after the amendments show positive relationship with highly significant correlations (1%) to ROA. This indicates that the amendments of MCCG 2007 on the audit committee members- literacy in accounting have impacted the governance structures and performance of GLCs.
    13
    12834
    Functioning of Turkic Elements in Modern Hindi
    Abstract:
    It is discussed about modern usage of adopted words and their vocabularies, Turkism usage fields, phonetic, grammatical and lexis-semantic assimilation of the typological-morphological structures of entering to different Hindi languages in comparative typological aspects in this scientific article. The lexis vocabulary is rich, the prevalence area is wide and it has researched the entering process of vocabulary into the great languages of Turkic elements from the speakers- numbers. The research work has worked on the base of Hindi vocabulary.
    12
    12968
    A Proposed Innovation Management System Framework – A Solution for Organizations Aimed for Obtaining Performance
    Abstract:

    Today, any organization - regardless of the specific activity - must be prepared to face continuous radical changes, innovation thus becoming a condition of survival in a globalized market. Few managers have a wider vision that includes innovation, to enable better performance of the critical activities, namely the degree of novelty that it must submit an innovation to be considered as such. Companies need not only radical changes in the products or their services, but also to their business strategies. Not all managers have an overall view on the real size of necessary innovation potential. Unfortunately there is still no common understanding (and correct) of the term of innovation among managers. Moreover, not all managers are aware of the need for innovation. In these conditions, increasing the processes adaptability of firms (through innovation) to meet the needs and performance requirements is difficult without a systematic framework. To overcome this disadvantage, the authors propose a framework for designing an innovation management system,, to cover all the important aspects of a business system, to reach the actual performance of an organization.

    11
    12991
    Corporate Governance and Gender Diversity in Nigerian Boardrooms
    Abstract:

    In recent times, corporations are increasingly under pressure to ensure diversity within their boardrooms and a large number of academic research have reported findings consistent with the view that boards perform better when they include a diverse range of people. Women have unique characteristics needed to positively influence the strategic direction of a corporation and contribute to the growth of firms. In spite of such revelations, evidence suggests that women are under-represented in senior executive and board positions. In many parts of Africa, socio-cultural traditions inhibit women from attaining these roles. Given the emphasis placed on board diversity and inclusion of women as an essential part of good corporate governance, the relationship between gender diversity and board effectiveness deserves both theoretical and empirical investigation. This research is important because it represents the first theoretical review on gender diversity in corporate boards in Nigeria.

    10
    13022
    Higher Education in Kazakhstan: New Opportunities and Problems of Crystallization of the Middle Strata Status
    Abstract:
    Education in the modern world provides the socioeconomic progress of society. In today's society, where the presence of large middle class ensures its stability and is a symbol of resolution of hidden economic problems, education is an integral part of formation and reproduction of the middle class. This article presents part of results of the sociological study conducted under the project "Kazakhstan model of education: international experience and national traditions" supported by the Foundation of the First President of Republic of Kazakhstan - Leader of the Nation to determine the ratio of students to the transformations of the educational system. The authors conclude that the Kazakhstani system of education, passing through the transformation processes, improving the quality of educational programs and trying to correspond to the international standards, not yet in full range, but begins to perform important functions in the formation of the middle class.
    9
    13035
    Spatial Analysis and Statistics for Zoning of Urban Areas
    Abstract:

    The use of statistical data and of the neural networks, capable of elaborate a series of data and territorial info, have allowed the making of a model useful in the subdivision of urban places into homogeneous zone under the profile of a social, real estate, environmental and urbanist background of a city. The development of homogeneous zone has fiscal and urbanist advantages. The tools in the model proposed, able to be adapted to the dynamic changes of the city, allow the application of the zoning fast and dynamic.

    8
    13177
    Sustainability of Urban Cemeteries and the Transformation of Malay Burial Practices in Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan Region
    Abstract:

    Land shortage for burials is one of many issues that emerge out of accelerated urban growth in most developing Asian cities, including Kuala Lumpur. Despite actions taken by the federal government and local authorities in addressing this issue, there is no strategic solution being formulated. Apart from making provisions for land to be developed as new cemeteries, the future plan is merely to allocate reserve land to accommodate the increasing demands of burial grounds around the city. This paper examines problems that arise from the traditional practices of Malay funerary as well as an insight to current urban practices in managing Muslim burial spaces around Kuala Lumpur metropolitan region. This paper will also provide some solutions through design approach that can be applied to counter the existing issues.

    7
    13271
    Properties of the Research Teaching Organization of Military Masters
    Abstract:
    In the article there have been revealed the properties of designing the research teaching the military masters and in the context it has been offered the program of mastering by the masters military men the methodology of research work, in the course of practical teaching activity there has been considered the developed and approbated model of organization of the process of mastering by the masters the methodology of research work. As a whole, the research direction of master preparation leaves its sign to the content of education, forms of organization of educational process, scientific work of masters. In this connection the offered in the article properties of organization of research teaching and a model of organization of mastering by the masters military men the methodology of research work can be taken into account when designing the content of master preparation.
    6
    13756
    Efficacy of Selected Mobility Exercises and Participation in Special Games on Psychomotor Abilities, Functional Abilities and Game Performance among Intellectually Disabled Children of Under 14 Age
    Abstract:
    The purpose of the study was to find out the efficacy of selected mobility exercises and participation in special games on psychomotor abilities, functional abilities and skill performance among intellectually disabled children of age group under 14. Thirty male students who were studying in Balar Kalvi Nilayam and YMCA College Special School, Chennai, acted as subjects for the study. They were only mild and moderate in intellectual disability. These students did not undergo any special training or coaching programme apart from their regular routine physical activity classes as a part of the curriculum in the school. They were attached at random, based on age in which 30 belonged to under 14 age group, which was divided into three equal group of ten for each experimental treatment. 10 students (Treatment group I) underwent calisthenics and special games participation, 10 students (Treatment group II) underwent aquatics and special games participation, 10 students (Treatment group III) underwent yoga and special games participation. The subjects were tested on selected criterion variables prior (pre test) and after twelve weeks of training (post test). The pre and post test data collected from three groups on functional abilities(self care, learning, capacity for independent living), psychomotor variables(static balance, eye hand coordination, simple reaction time test) and skill performance (bocce skill, badminton skill, table tennis skill) were statistically examined for significant difference, by applying the analysis ANACOVA. Whenever an 'F' ratio for adjusted test was found to be significant for adjusted post test means, Scheffe-s test was followed as a post-hoc test to determine which of the paired mean differences was significant. The result of the study showed that among under 14 age groups there was a significant improvement on selected criterion variables such as, Balance, Coordination, self-care and learning and also in Bocce, Badminton & Table Tennis skill performance, due to mobility exercises and participation in special games. However there were no significant differences among the groups.
    5
    14292
    Contractor Selection in Saudi Arabia
    Abstract:

    Contractor selection in Saudi Arabia is very important due to the large construction boom and the contractor role to get over construction risks. The need for investigating contractor selection is due to the following reasons; large number of defaulted or failed projects (18%), large number of disputes attributed to contractor during the project execution stage (almost twofold), the extension of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) into construction industry, and finally the few number of researches. The selection strategy is not perfect and considered as the reason behind irresponsible contractors. As a response, this research was conducted to review the contractor selection strategies as an integral part of a long advanced research to develop a good selection model. Many techniques can be used to form a selection strategy; multi criteria for optimizing decision, prequalification to discover contractor-s responsibility, bidding process for competition, third party guarantee to enhance the selection, and fuzzy techniques for ambiguities and incomplete information.

    4
    14377
    Corporate Governance Practices and Audit Quality: An Empirical Study of the Listed Companies in Egypt
    Abstract:

    Recent financial international scandals around the world have led to a number of investigations into the effectiveness of corporate governance practices and audit quality. Although evidence of corporate governance practices and audit quality exists from developed economies, very scanty studies have been conducted in Egypt where corporate governance is just evolving. Therefore, this study provides evidence on the effectiveness of corporate governance practices and audit quality from a developing country. The data for analysis are gathered from the top 50 most active companies in the Egyptian Stock Exchange, covering the three year period 2007-2009. Logistic regression was used in investigating the questions that were raised in the study. Findings from the study show that board independence; CEO duality and audit committees significantly have relationship with audit quality. The results also, indicate that institutional investor and managerial ownership have no significantly relationship with audit quality. Evidence also exist that size of the company; complexity and business leverage are important factors in audit quality for companies quoted on the Egypt Stock Exchange.

    3
    15285
    A Trace of Islamic Art in Thai Mosques
    Abstract:
    The mosques have been appearance in Thailand since Ayutthaya Kingdom (1350 to 1767 A.D.) Until today, more than 400 years later; there are many styles of art form behind their structure. This research intended to identify Islamic Art in Thai mosques. A framework was applied using qualitative research methods; Thai Muslims with dynamic roles in Islamic culture were interviewed. In addition, a field survey of 40 selected mosques from 175 Thai mosques was studied. Data analysis will be according to the pattern of each period. The identification of Islamic Art in Thai Mosques are 1) the image of Thai identity: with Thai traditional art style and Government policy. 2) The image of the Ethnological identity: with the traditional culture of Asian Muslims in Thailand. 3) The image of the Nostalgia identity: with Islamic and Arabian conservative style. 4) The image of the Neo Classic identity: with Neo – Classic and Contemporary art. 5) The image of the new identity: with Post Modern and Deconstruction art.
    2
    15558
    Islam and Kazakh Society before Soviet Era
    Abstract:
    The article considers religious aspects of Kazakh society pre-Soviet times. Studying the mental, political and spiritual content of Islam, the reasons for its wide distribution among the ancestors of the Kazakhs is analyzed. Interested Russians since the accession of the Kazakh Khanate to the Russian Empire more than once pointed out that Islam is a synthesis of Islam and Shamanism. But shamanism is a generalization of the name of religion, which took place prior to Islam in the land of the Kazakh people. Here we can see the elements of Zoroastrianism, Tengrianism, etc. This shows that the ancestors of the Kazakhs - Turkic people - not renounced the ancient beliefs completely and leave some portion of these religions as an integral part of the worldview of the people, by the device. Therefore, the founder of the Turkic Sufi Yasaui still has a huge impact on the religiosity of the Kazakhs. He managed elements of the ancient religion, which formed the basis of the Kazakhs world, interpreted in the Muslim perspective. The Russian authorities tried to quell by Islamization Kazakh people. But it was Islam that has revived the national consciousness of the Kazakh people.
    1
    15561
    Problems that Impede Sustainable Tourism Development in Egypt
    Abstract:
    This paper analysis the tourism development on the Red Sea in Egypt (west bank) and the needed ongoing action toward a sustainable approach. It addresses, at the first, the development's evolution occurred in the coastal area, the environmental effects it left, and how to minimize those impacts in the future. The second main point is dealing with the most important issues that hinder the achievement of sustainable tourism development on the Red Sea coast and how we can overcome them in the future.