Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 32

Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering

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  • 32
    A Pragmatic Study of Metaphorization in English Newspaper Headlines

    This paper attempts to explore the phenomenon of metaphorization in English newspaper headlines from the perspective of pragmatic investigation. With relevance theory as the guideline, this paper makes an explanation of the processing of metaphor with a pragmatic approach and points that metaphor is the stimulus adopted by journalists to achieve optimal relevance in this ostensive communication, as well as the strategy to fulfill their writing purpose.

    Determination of Skills Gap between School-Based Learning and Laboratory-Based Learning in Omar Al-Mukhtar University

    This paper provides an identification of the existing practical skills gap between school-based learning (SBL) and laboratory based learning (LBL) in the Computing Department within the Faculty of Science at Omar Al-Mukhtar University in Libya. A survey has been conducted and the first author has elicited the responses of two groups of stakeholders, namely the academic teachers and students.

    The primary goal is to review the main strands of evidence available and argue that there is a gap between laboratory and school-based learning in terms of opportunities for experiment and application of skills. In addition, the nature of experimental work within the laboratory at Omar Al-Mukhtar University needs to be reconsidered. Another goal of our study was to identify the reasons for students’ poor performance in the laboratory and to determine how this poor performance can be eliminated by the modification of teaching methods. Bloom’s taxonomy of learning outcomes has been applied in order to classify questions and problems into categories, and the survey was formulated with reference to third year Computing Department students. Furthermore, to discover students’ opinions with respect to all the issues, an exercise was conducted. The survey provided questions related to what the students had learnt and how well they had learnt. We were also interested in feedback on how to improve the course and the final question provided an opportunity for such feedback.

    Lean in Large Enterprises: Study Results

    The idea of Lean Manufacturing has been known for 20 years. In Polish enterprises its first implementation took place in the automotive industry in the 90s. Many companies, in order to reduce costs, use lower quality materials or overload employees with work and do not notice other possibilities for improving the company’s effectiveness. Enterprises are afraid of the unknown. And that is the problem in many cases with the Lean Manufacturing conception. This article presents the study results conducted in enterprises, the aim of which was to identify waste awareness and the need of lean manufacturing implementation. The authors also wanted to gain information on the most commonly used tools and the way of implementation and the methods of the effects assessment of using the mentioned conception. The study was conducted in large enterprises located on a limited area.

    A Study of Current Maintenance Strategies and the Reliability of Critical Medical Equipment in Hospitals in Relation to Patient Outcomes

    This study investigates the relationship between the reliability of critical medical equipment (CME) and the effectiveness of CME maintenance management strategies in relation to patient outcomes in 84 public hospitals of a top 20 OECD country. The work has examined the effectiveness of CME maintenance management strategies used by the public hospital system of a large state run health organization. The conceptual framework was designed to examine the significance of the relationship between six variables: (1) types of maintenance management strategies, (2) maintenance services, (3) maintenance practice, (4) medical equipment reliability, (5) maintenance costs and (6) patient outcomes. The results provide interesting insights into the effectiveness of the maintenance strategies used. For example, there appears to be about a 1 in 10 000 probability of failure of anesthesia equipment, but these seem to be confined to specific maintenance situations. There are also some findings in relation to outsourcing of maintenance. For each of the variables listed, results are reported in relation to the various types of maintenance strategies and services. Decision-makers may use these results to evaluate more effective maintenance strategies for their CME and generate more effective patient outcomes.

    The HDH Model for the Development of Creative Structural Thinking and Its Applications to Other Systems

    Teaching structures and structural design in architectural studies is considered a difficult mission due to complex reasons and circumstances. This article proposes a new conceptual model (HDH) for teaching structures and structural design in architectural studies. Because of its systems-thinking orientation it is also relevant and applicable to other fields and systems. The HDH model was developed in order to encourage the integration of science and art, especially in relation to structures, in architectural studies.

    Supplier Selection Criteria and Methods in Supply Chains: A Review

    An effective supplier selection process is very important to the success of any manufacturing organization. The main objective of supplier selection process is to reduce purchase risk, maximize overall value to the purchaser, and develop closeness and long-term relationships between buyers and suppliers in today’s competitive industrial scenario. The literature on supplier selection criteria and methods is full of various analytical and heuristic approaches. Some researchers have developed hybrid models by combining more than one type of selection methods. It is felt that supplier selection criteria and method is still a critical issue for the manufacturing industries therefore in the present paper the literature has been thoroughly reviewed and critically analyzed to address the issue.

    Investments Attractiveness via Combinatorial Optimization Ranking

    The paper proposes an approach to ranking a set of potential countries to invest taking into account the investor point of view about importance of different economic indicators. For the goal, a ranking algorithm that contributes to rational decision making is proposed. The described algorithm is based on combinatorial optimization modeling and repeated multi-criteria tasks solution. The final result is list of countries ranked in respect of investor preferences about importance of economic indicators for investment attractiveness. Different scenarios are simulated conforming to different investors preferences. A numerical example with real dataset of indicators is solved. The numerical testing shows the applicability of the described algorithm. The proposed approach can be used with any sets of indicators as ranking criteria reflecting different points of view of investors. 

    The Loyalty of Banks’ Employees in the Context of the Acceptance of Clients’ Needs and Their Own Productivity. A Case Study from the Czech and Slovak Republic

    The aim of this article was to analyze the relationship between the loyalty of banks´ employees and the acceptance of clients’ needs and to analyze the relationship between the loyalty of banks’ employees and the lack of their productivity in the Czech and Slovak banking sector. Our research has been realized through a questionnaire survey.

    The loyalty of banks’ employees was higher in the Czech Republic than in Slovak Republic which has been transformed into a higher acceptance rate of customers’ needs and lower lack of employees’ productivity. Within both countries, it has been found that the approach of loyal employees to the acceptance of clients’ needs is not statistically significantly different from the approach of other employees. It has been also discovered that loyal employees did not work more intensively and did not feel statistically significant lower lack of their own productivity.

    Issues in the User Interface Design of a Content Rich Vocational Training Application for Digitally Illiterate Users

    This paper discusses our preliminary experiences in the design of a user interface of a computerized content-rich vocational training courseware meant for users with little or no computer experience. In targeting a growing population with limited access to skills training of any sort, we faced numerous challenges, including language and cultural differences, resource limits, gender boundaries and, in many cases, the simple lack of trainee motivation. With the size of the unskilled population increasing much more rapidly than the numbers of sufficiently skilled teachers, there is little choice but to develop teaching techniques that will take advantage of emerging computer-based training technologies. However, in striving to serve populations with minimal computer literacy, one must carefully design the user interface to accommodate their cultural, social, educational, motivational and other differences. Our work, which uses computer based and haptic simulation technologies to deliver training to these populations, has provided some useful insights on potential user interface design approaches.

    The European Union’s Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) and the Prospect of a Unified Database

    Free access for Georgian goods to the EU markets is one of the important factors for Georgia’s economic development, attraction of investments and raising the standard of living. The European Union is the most important trade partner for Georgia. Great experience has been accumulated with respect to removing trade barriers between Georgia and the European Union. Despite it, certain problems still persist.

    In the present article, we have reviewed the systems of preferences with the European Union, the EU’s Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) and the essence of ongoing reform; we have assessed weak and strong sides of relations established between the European Union and Georgia in this regard; analyzed Georgia’s export and import over the past years; also reviewed the prospect of a unified database; established existing and anticipated positive and negative factors. Based on the analysis, we have provided the relevant recommendations. 

    Problem Based Learning in B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences

    Problem based learning is one of the highly acclaimed learning methods in medical education since its first introduction at Mc-Master University in Canada in the 1960s. It has now been adopted as a teaching learning method in many medical colleges of Nepal. B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), a health science deemed university is the second institute in Nepal to establish problem-based learning academic program and need-based teaching approach hence minimizing teaching through lectures since its inception. During the first two years of MBBS course, the curriculum is divided into various organ-systems incorporated with problem-based learning exercise each of one week duration.

    Using Strategic CSR to Achieve the Hybrid Middle Ground in Social Entrepreneurship: The Case of Telenor Hungary

    To be considered a socially entrepreneurial organization today requires achieving what can be termed a “hybrid middle ground” equilibrium, comprising of economic as well as social sustainability. This middle ground requires some blend of both business and social commitments. In this paper, we use the case of Hungary's second ranked mobile operator, Telenor Hungary to illustrate an example of a company that is moving to the hybrid middle ground by transitioning from a for-profit company to a socially responsible business using the concept of strategic CSR. In this line of thinking, the organization explicitly supports programs and initiatives that have a direct link to the core business and bring operational and/or financial advantages for the company, while creating a positive social and/or environmental impact. The important lessons learned from the company transition are also discussed. 

    A Consideration of the Achievement of Productive Level Parallel Programming Skills

    This paper gives a consideration of the achievement of productive level parallel programming skills, based on the data of the graduation studies in the Polytechnic University of Japan. The data show that most students can achieve only parallel programming skills during the graduation study (about 600 to 700 hours), if the programming environment is limited to GPGPUs. However, the data also show that it is a very high level task that a student achieves productive level parallel programming skills during only the graduation study. In addition, it shows that the parallel programming environments for GPGPU, such as CUDA and OpenCL, may be more suitable for parallel computing education than other environments such as MPI on a cluster system and Cell.B.E. These results must be useful for the areas of not only software developments, but also hardware product developments using computer technologies.

    A Study of Priority Evaluation and Resource Allocation for Revitalization of Cultural Heritages in the Urban Development

    Proper maintenance and preservation of significant cultural heritages or historic buildings is necessary. It can not only enhance environmental benefits and a sense of community, but also preserve a city's history and people’s memory. It allows the next generation to be able to get a glimpse of our past, and achieve the goal of sustainable preserved cultural assets. However, the management of maintenance work has not been appropriate for many designated heritages or historic buildings so far. The planning and implementation of the reuse has yet to have a breakthrough specification. It leads the heritages to a mere formality of being “reserved”, instead of the real meaning of “conservation”. For the restoration and preservation of cultural heritages study issues, it is very important due to the consideration of historical significance, symbolism, and economic benefits effects. However, the decision makers such as the officials from public sector they often encounter which heritage should be prioritized to be restored first under the available limited budgets. Only very few techniques are available today to determine the appropriately restoration priorities for the diverse historical heritages, perhaps because of a lack of systematized decision-making aids been proposed before. In the past, the discussions of management and maintenance towards cultural assets were limited to the selection of reuse alternatives instead of the allocation of resources. In view of this, this research will adopt some integrated research methods to solve the existing problems that decision-makers might encounter when allocating resources in the management and maintenance of heritages and historic buildings.

    The purpose of this study is to develop a sustainable decision making model for local governments to resolve these problems. We propose an alternative decision support model to prioritize restoration needs within the limited budgets. The model is constructed based on fuzzy Delphi, fuzzy analysis network process (FANP) and goal programming (GP) methods. In order to avoid misallocate resources; this research proposes a precise procedure that can take multi-stakeholders views, limited costs and resources into consideration. Also, the combination of many factors and goals has been taken into account to find the highest priority and feasible solution results. To illustrate the approach we propose in this research, seven cultural heritages in Taipei city as one example has been used as an empirical study, and the results are in depth analyzed to explain the application of our proposed approach.

    Natural Disaster Impact on Annual Visitors of Recreation Area: The Taiwan Case

    This paper aims to quantify the impact of natural disaster on tourism by the change of annual visitors to scenic spots. The data of visitors to Alishan, Sun Moon Lake, Sitou and Palace Museum in Taiwan during 1986 to 2012 year is collected, and the trend analysis is used to predict the annual visitors to these scenic spots. The findings show that 1999 Taiwan earthquake had significant effect on the visitors to Alishan, Sun Moon Lake and Sitou with an average impact of 55.75% during 1999 to 2000 year except for Palace Museum. The impact was greater as closer epicenter of 1999 earthquake. And the discovery period of visitors is about 2 to 9 years. Further, the impact of heavy rainfall on Alishan, Taiwan is estimated. As the accumulative rainfall reaches to 500 mm, the impact on visitors can be predicted. 

    A Statistical Prediction of Likely Distress in Nigeria Banking Sector Using a Neural Network Approach

    One of the most significant threats to the economy of a nation is the bankruptcy of its banks. This study evaluates the susceptibility of Nigerian banks to failure with a view to identifying ratios and financial data that are sensitive to solvency of the bank. Further, a predictive model is generated to guide all stakeholders in the industry. Thirty quoted banks that had published Annual Reports for the year preceding the consolidation i.e. year 2004 were selected. They were examined for distress using the Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network Analysis. The model was used to analyze further reforms by the Central Bank of Nigeria using published Annual Reports of twenty quoted banks for the year 2008 and 2011. The model can thus be used for future prediction of failure in the Nigerian banking system.

    Legal Knowledge of Legislated Employment Rights: An Empirical Study

    This article aims to assess the level of basic knowledge of statutory employment rights at the workplace as prescribed by the Malaysian Employment Act 1955. The statutory employment rights comprises of a variety of individual employment rights such as protections of wages, statutory right to the general standard of working time, statutory right to rest day, public holidays, annual leave and sick leave as well as female employee’s statutory right to paid maternity leave. A field survey was carried out to collect data by using self-administered questionnaires from Human Resource (HR) practitioners in the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The results reveal that the level of basic knowledge of legislated employment rights varies between different types of statutory rights from high level to low level.

    Impact of Liquidity Crunch on Interbank Network

    Most empirical studies have analyzed how liquidity risks faced by individual institutions turn into systemic risk. Recent banking crisis has highlighted the importance of grasping and controlling the systemic risk, and the acceptance by Central Banks to ease their monetary policies for saving default or illiquid banks. This last point shows that banks would pay less attention to liquidity risk which, in turn, can become a new important channel of loss. The financial regulation focuses on the most important and “systemic” banks in the global network. However, to quantify the expected loss associated with liquidity risk, it is worth to analyze sensitivity to this channel for the various elements of the global bank network. A small bank is not considered as potentially systemic; however the interaction of small banks all together can become a systemic element. This paper analyzes the impact of medium and small banks interaction on a set of banks which is considered as the core of the network. The proposed method uses the structure of agent-based model in a two-class environment. In first class, the data from actual balance sheets of 22 large and systemic banks (such as BNP Paribas or Barclays) are collected. In second one, to model a network as closely as possible to actual interbank market, 578 fictitious banks smaller than the ones belonging to first class have been split into two groups of small and medium ones. All banks are active on the European interbank network and have deposit and market activity. A simulation of 12 three month periods representing a midterm time interval three years is projected. In each period, there is a set of behavioral descriptions: repayment of matured loans, liquidation of deposits, income from securities, collection of new deposits, new demands of credit, and securities sale. The last two actions are part of refunding process developed in this paper. To strengthen reliability of proposed model, random parameters dynamics are managed with stochastic equations as rates the variations of which are generated by Vasicek model. The Central Bank is considered as the lender of last resort which allows banks to borrow at REPO rate and some ejection conditions of banks from the system are introduced.

    Liquidity crunch due to exogenous crisis is simulated in the first class and the loss impact on other bank classes is analyzed though aggregate values representing the aggregate of loans and/or the aggregate of borrowing between classes. It is mainly shown that the three groups of European interbank network do not have the same response, and that intermediate banks are the most sensitive to liquidity risk.

    Quality Management in Public e-Administration

    Since the late 1970s, quality management has become an important tool for achieving a high quality of public e-administration services in many countries. Very important part of quality management in e-administration is measurement of quality indicators related to this sector. Therefore, this paper gives a description of e-administration, including statistics about it and other examples from many countries worldwide, as well as the explanation of quality management in public e-administration. The paper also gives a list and description of quality indicators relevant to e-administration, as part of quality management within the e-administration. Through a literature review and best practices, the paper aims to analyze quality indicators measurement and other parts of good quality management when it comes to the public e-administration and consequently to show the usefulness of quality management in public e-administration in order to provide services of high quality.

    Didactic Material Resources in the Teaching of National History and Geography: Selected Results of a Qualitative Survey

    The paper is the first output of a larger research project conducted at the Faculty of Education of the University of Hradec Králové, which deals with an improved understanding of teachers' work in the subject of National History and Geography. Partial findings focusing on the use of didactic material resources in teaching are presented in this phase. With the regard to promotion of independent activity of students within learner based education, material equipment of schools with didactic aids is becoming increasingly important. This paper is based on qualitative research, where the possibilities and mainly the reasons for use of material didactic resources in teaching were investigated through semi-structured interviews. Attention was focused on ways of working with different teaching aids and their implementation in the educational process. It turns out that teachers accept current constructivist and humanistic approaches to education associated with the requirement to prepare students for life in an information society, and accordingly they adjust their teaching.

    Regional Development Programs: A Reason for Them Failing

    This paper contributes to the analysis of the design of regional development programs. This is a case study the birth, life, death and afterlife of a stately development program in Norway, supporting diffusion of innovations by promoting e-business in SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises).

    The study shows that joint projects like regional development programs have to be designed such that the present value of the future benefits always exceeds the present value of the future effort for all stakeholders vital for the survival of the project. The study also indicate that a development program not always have one common goal which all the stakeholders agree upon. There are several stakeholders who may have different goals by playing a part in the realization of the program.

    Even if some parties evaluate the results of a development program as a failure, other may have attained their goals. The lessons learned from this study may advise the designers of development programs involving many independent stakeholders. There is a lack of research examining failing development programs, investigating the reasons for it to be considered a failure. This paper shows why a development program was terminated and gives hint to how joint programs could be designed in order for the program to deliver the wanted results to all the key stakeholders.

    Innovation Culture – Determinant of Firms´ Sustainability

    Changes in global economy require changes in firms. They need to adapt to speed producing faster and creating new products, structures and processes. The purpose of the paper is to explore literature about organizational culture and its impact on innovation.

    In the paper the method of literature review is used to examine influence of organizational culture on innovation and performance of enterprise.

    Organizational culture is crucial for innovation. Literature reveals that research of organizational culture mostly confirm already existing conceptions and models, but those help to make profile of innovation culture.

    Research summarize previous research of organizational culture as culture which foster innovation and provide profile of innovation culture, which may be used by managers to improve cultural environment to increase performance of their companies. Research also leads to hypothesis for further research.

    Fundamental Variables of Final Account Closing Success in Construction Projects in Malaysia

    Project management process starts from the planning stage up to the stage of completion (handover of buildings, preparation of the final accounts and the closing balance). Seeing as this process is not easy to be implemented efficiently and effectively, the issue of unsuccessful delivery as per contract in construction has become a major problem for construction projects. These issues have been blamed mainly on inefficient traditional construction practices that continue to dominate the current industry. This is due to several factors, such as environments of construction technology, sophisticated design and customer demand, that are constantly changing and influencing, either directly or indirectly, to the practice of management. Among the identified influences are physical environment, social environment, information environment, political and moral atmosphere. Therefore, this paper is emerged to determine the fundamental variables in the final account closing success in construction project. This aim can be achieved via its objectives of identifying the key constraints to the closing of final accounts in construction projects in Malaysia, investigating solutions to the identified constraints and analysing the relative levels of impact of the identified constraints. It is expected that this paper provides effective measures to avoid or at least reduce the problems in final account closing to the optimum level. It is also anticipated that the finding or outcome reported in this paper could address the unsuccessful contributors in final account closing and define tools for their mitigation for the better development of construction project.

    Digitization of Television Broadcasting in Nigeria Review

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has opened up new and robust ways of sending and receiving information at global level. Any type of information including voice and video is sent to the diverse publics, who equally have variety of choices. Thus, the development of any nation is tied to efficient information dissemination. In Nigeria, television broadcasting started in 1959 with the establishment of the Western Nigeria Television (WNTV) by the opposition leader, Chief Obafemi Awolowo. Later on, the government took over the station and fully controlled it. Subsequently, regional stations were opened to propagate government policies and programs. The television industry in Nigeria continued to grow in terms of viewership and number with over fifty national television stations and twenty five private ones. Thus, existing documents on digitization of television broadcasting industry and related literature were used as the main source of information. Therefore, this paper analyses the efforts being made by the Nigerian government through its ICT policy towards digitization of its television broadcasting in order to cope with the global trend. Recommendations are proffered with a view to achieving the target goal.

    Economic Factorial Analysis of CO2 Emissions: The Divisia Index with Interconnected Factors Approach

    This paper presents a method of economic factorial analysis of the CO2 emissions based on the extension of the Divisia index to interconnected factors. This approach, contrary to the Kaya identity, considers three main factors of the CO2 emissions: gross domestic product, energy consumption, and population - as equally important, and allows for accounting of all of them simultaneously. The three factors are included into analysis together with their carbon intensities that allows for obtaining a comprehensive picture of the change in the CO2 emissions. A computer program in R-language that is available for free download serves automation of the calculations. A case study of the U.S. carbon dioxide emissions is used as an example. 

    Application of Scientific Metrics to Evaluate Academic Reputation in Different Research Areas

    In this paper, we address the problem of identifying academic reputation of researchers using scientific metrics in different research areas. Due to the characteristics of each area, researchers can present different behaviors. In previous work, we define Rep-Index that makes use of a profile template to individually identify the reputation of researchers. The Rep-Index is comprehensive and adaptive because involves hole trajectory of the researcher built throughout his career and can be used in different areas and in different contexts. Now, we compare our metric (Rep-Index) with the h-index and the g-index through experiments with researchers in the fields of Economics, Dentistry and Computer Science. We analyze the trajectory of 830 Brazilian researchers from the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq), which receive grants research productivity. The grants are aimed at productivity researchers that stand out among their peers, enhancing their scientific normative criteria established by CNPq. Of the 830 researchers, 210 are in the area of Economics, 216 of Dentistry e 404 of Computer Science. The experiments show that our metric is strongly correlated with h-index, g-index and CNPq ranking. We also show good results for our hypothesis that our metric can be used to evaluate research in several areas. We apply our metric (Rep-Index) to compare the behavior of researchers in relation to their h-index and g-index through extensive experiments. The experiments showed that our metric is strongly correlated with h-index, g-index and CNPq ranking.

    Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    The article presents the research results focused on comparing the level of gross motor skills in children with mild intellectual disabilities and intact children. The data collection used the standard test (Test of Gross Motor Development). The research sample consisted of a total of 114 students with an average age of 10 years. The results present the differences between the two groups of students in locomotor skills and object control skills. The presented results can serve as a basis for better targeting of special-pedagogical support for children with mild intellectual disabilities and as a basis for innovation of the curriculum for this group of children, as well as a basis for further research activities in this area.

    Socio-Demographic Effects on Digital Libraries Preference and Use: A Case Study at Higher Learning Institutions

    Explosion in information management and information system technology has brought dramatic changes in learning and library system environments. The use of academic digital libraries does witness the spectacular impact on academic societies’ way of performing their study in Malaysia, a country with a multi-racial people. This paper highlights a research on examining the socio-demographic differences on the preference and use of academic digital libraries as compared to physical libraries at higher learning institutions. Findings indicate that preference towards digital libraries differed between ethnicity, gender and university. However none of the socio-demographic factors is statistically significant in terms of the use of digital libraries.

    The Investigation of the Possible Connections between Acculturation and the Acquisition of a Second Language on Libyan Teenage Students

    The study investigates the possible connections between acculturation and the acquisition of a second language on Libyan teenage students in Australia. Specifically, the study examined how various socio-psychological variables influenced English oral proficiency (oral communicative competence and native-like pronunciation) of the participants. In addition, it looked at whether or not SLA affects acculturation towards the target language group. This is achieved by analysing data obtained from semi-structured interviews and oral proficiency interviews. The present study found a definite link between the students’ acculturation process and their oral communicative competence but not native-like pronunciation. The results also provided evidence that SLL process has an impact on integration into the host society as well as the acquisition of a second language culture. Yet, it did not draw a clear conclusion with respect to how such a process affects these aspects.

    Towards Creating a Nation of Engineerpreneur

    New conceptualizations were introduced to address the emerging need to develop innovativeness and creativity attitudes in future engineering professional. Thus, entrepreneurial engineering education needs an environment where future engineers can be formed through practical learning and the interaction with forces, ideas and inspirations, in the final perspective of effectively identifying, acquiring, developing, and transferring technology into new business products and services. This paper aims to investigate the characteristics of a successful entrepreneur for engineering students. A questionnaire was used to measure the level of entrepreneurial competencies. The questionnaire was based on the Personal Entrepreneurial Competence Model, developed by McClelland Individual. Participants were recruited from the final year students of eight programs under the Faculty of Engineering. Of the 432 questionnaires distributed, 210 were collected back, giving a response rate of approximately 49%. Findings suggest that final year engineering students have respectable entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviors, and are competent to be engineerpreneur. The study also recommended that we need an environment that does not insist that engineers become entrepreneurs, but one where the two can meet, and business leaders can organize our nation effectively.

    Causes of Final Account Closing Delay: A Theoretical Framework

    Delay can be defined as time overrun or extension of time to complete the project. There are high possibilities that delay issues in final account closing cannot be avoided especially in construction project in Malaysia which is unique and dynamic in the terms of nature of design and technical skill. Delay in final account closing is a situation when the actual planning (time and budget allocation) of a construction project exceeds the planned schedule or on the other hand, final account closing exceeds the time and other provisions specified in the contract. The causes of delay discussed in this paper are appraised from the literature review. There are two main types of delay: excusable delay and non-excusable delay. The literature reviews on the delay in final account closing which is then translated into a theoretical framework are summarized in the context of construction players and academician perspective. It is anticipated that the finding reported in this paper could assist the planning of future strategies and guidelines of final account closing for the betterment of construction projects in Malaysia.

    The Law of Treaties and National Security of Islamic Republic of Iran

    The concept of national security in Iran is a permanently effective factor in acceptance or rejection of many international obligations. These obligations had been defined according to the type of legislation of Iran in many aspects. Therefore, there are several treaties at international level which requires Iran’s security to come in contact with obligations in these treaties in a way that an obstacle to join to them and their passage in parliament. This issue is a typical category which every country pays attention to be accepted in treaties or to include their national security in that treaties and also they can see the related treaties from this perspective, but this issue that 'what is the concept of Iran’s national security', and 'To what extent it is changed in recent years, especially after Islamic Revolution' are important issues that can be criticized. Thus, this study is trying to assess singed treaties from the perspective of Iran’s national security according of the true meaning of treaty and to investigate how the international treaties may be in conflict with Iran’s national security.