Creating a Space for Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Engineering Students through English Language Teaching
The complexity of teaching English in higher
institutions by non-native speakers within a second/foreign language
setting has created continuous discussions and research about
teaching approaches and teaching practises, professional identities
and challenges. In addition, there is a growing awareness that
teaching English within discipline-specific contexts adds up to the
existing complexity. This awareness leads to reassessments,
discussions and suggestions on course design and content and
teaching approaches and techniques. In meeting expectations
teaching at a university specified in a particular discipline such as
engineering, English language educators are not only required to
teach students to be able to communicate in English effectively but
also to teach soft skills such as problem solving skills. This paper is
part of a research conducted to investigate how English language
educators negotiate with the complexities of teaching problem
solving skills through English language teaching at a technical
university. This paper reports the way an English language educator
identified himself and the way he approached his teaching in this
Directed Approach and Resolution of Practical Cases as a Motivation Tool for Self-Learning and Cooperation
The development of competences and practical
capacities of students is getting an important incidence into the
guidelines of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). The
methodology applied in this work is based on the education through
directed resolution of practical cases. All cases are related to
professional tasks that the students will have to develop in their
future career. The method is intended to form the necessary
competences of students of the Marine Engineering and Maritime
Transport Degree in the matter of “Physics".
The experience was applied in the course of 2011/2012. Students
were grouped, and a practical task was assigned to them, that should
be developed and solved within the team. The aim was to realize
students learning by three ways: their own knowledge, the
contribution of their teammates and the teacher's direction. The
results of the evaluation were compared with those obtained
previously by the traditional teaching method.
DEA Method for Evaluation of EU Performance
The paper deals with an application of quantitative analysis – the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method to performance evaluation of the European Union Member States, in the reference years 2000 and 2011. The main aim of the paper is to measure efficiency changes over the reference years and to analyze a level of productivity in individual countries based on DEA method and to classify the EU Member States to homogeneous units (clusters) according to efficiency results. The theoretical part is devoted to the fundamental basis of performance theory and the methodology of DEA. The empirical part is aimed at measuring degree of productivity and level of efficiency changes of evaluated countries by basic DEA model – CCR CRS model, and specialized DEA approach – the Malmquist Index measuring the change of technical efficiency and the movement of production possibility frontier. Here, DEA method becomes a suitable tool for setting a competitive/uncompetitive position of each country because there is not only one factor evaluated, but a set of different factors that determine the degree of economic development.
Intellectual Capital Report for Universities
Intellectual capital reporting becomes critical at
universities, mainly due to the fact that knowledge is the main output
as well as input in these institutions. In addition, universities have
continuous external demands for greater information and
transparency about the use of public funds, and are increasingly
provided with greater autonomy regarding their organization,
management, and budget allocation. This situation requires new
management and reporting systems. The purpose of the present study
is to provide a model for intellectual capital report in Spanish
universities. To this end, a questionnaire was sent to every member of
the Social Councils of Spanish public universities in order to identify
which intangible elements university stakeholders demand most. Our
proposal for an intellectual capital report aims to act as a guide to
help the Spanish universities on the road to the presentation of
information on intellectual capital which can assist stakeholders to
make the right decisions.
Cultural Identity - A (Re)construction?
The study explored the question of who am I? As a (re)construction of cultural identity by delving into globalization, communication, and social change in Malta during a historical moment when Malta became a European Union Member State. Three objectives guided this qualitative study. Firstly the study reviewed European Union (EU) policies that regulate broadcasting and their implementation in Member States, whilst meeting the challenges of globalization and new media technology. Secondly the research investigated the changes of the media landscape via organizational structures, programs and television (TV) content. Finally the study explored the impact of these transformations taking place in the way Maltese live as they (re)construct their cultural identity. Despite the choices available to the Maltese audience, old local traditions and new foreign customs coexist as informants continue to (re)construct their cultural identity and define who they are.
Managing, Sustaining, and Future Proofing the Business of Educational Provision Following Large-Scale Disaster and Disruption
A catastrophic earthquake measuring 6.3 on the
Richter scale struck the Christchurch, New Zealand Central Business
District on February 22, 2012, abruptly disrupting the business of
teaching and learning at Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of
Technology. This paper presents the findings from a study
undertaken about the complexity of delivering an educational
programme in the face of this traumatic natural event. Nine
interconnected themes emerged from this multiple method study:
communication, decision making, leader- and follower-ship,
balancing personal and professional responsibilities, taking action,
preparedness and thinking ahead, all within a disruptive and uncertain
context. Sustainable responses that maximise business continuity, and
provide solutions to practical challenges, are among the study-s
Aggressive Interactions in Hospital Emergency Units
International literature emphasizes on the concern regarding the phenomenon of aggression in hospital. This paper focuses on the reality of aggressive interactions reigning within an emergency triage involving three chaps of protagonists: the professionals, the patients and their carers. The data collection was made from a grid of observation, in which the various variables exposed in the literature were integrated. They observations took place around the clock, for three weeks, at the rate of one week a month. In this research 331 aggressive interactions have been listed and analyzed by means of the software SPSS. This research is one of the very few continuous observation surveys in the literature. It shows the various human factors at play in the emergence of aggressive interaction. The data may be used both for taking steps in primary prevention, thanks to the analysis of interaction modes, and in secondary prevention by integrating the useful results in situational prevention.
The Economic Cost of Health and Safety in Work Places: An Approach on the Costs Calculating Model
One of the important steps in a safety and risk management system is the economical evaluation of occupational accident and diseases costs in order to decrease accidents from reoccurring in the workplace. This study proposed a plausible method for calculating occupational accident costs and illnesses in work place. This method design for cost estimation takes into account both the personnel, organizational level as well as the community level especially intended for an Iranian work place. The research indicates that a using systematic method for calculating costs which also provides risk evaluation can help managers to plan correctly the investment in health and safety measures. Using this method is that not only is it comprehensive, easy and practical and could be applied in practice by a manager within a short period of time but it also shows the importance of accident costs as well as calculates the real cost of an accident and illnesses.
Investigating the Relation between Student Engagement and Attainment in a Flexible Learning Environment
The use of technology is increasingly adopted to
support flexible learning in Higher Education institutions. The
adoption of more sophisticated technologies offers a broad range of
facilities for communication and resource sharing, thereby creating a
flexible learning environment that facilitates and even encourages
students not to physically attend classes. However this emerging
trend seems to contradict class attendance requirements within
universities, inevitably leading to a dilemma between amending
traditional regulations and creating new policies for the higher
education institutions. This study presents an investigation into
student engagement in a technology enhanced/driven flexible
environment along with its relationship to attainment. We propose an
approach to modelling engagement from different perspectives in
terms of indicators and then consider what impact these indicators
have on student academic performance. We have carried out a case
study on the relation between attendance and attainment in a flexible
environment. Although our preliminary results show attendance is
quantitatively correlated with successful student development and
learning outcomes, our results also indicate there is a cohort that did
not follow such a pattern. Nevertheless the preliminary results could
provide an insight into pilot studies in the wider deployment of new
technology to support flexible learning.
Asbestos and Other Man-Made Disasters
Widespread use of asbestos over the last century has left a terrible legacy of lung disease. Doctors knew of the health risks long ago, but almost nothing was done to protect workers and the public. Some aspects of nanotechnology may have risks similar to asbestos.
The Use of Project to Enhance Writing Skill
This paper explores the use of project work in a
content-based instruction in a Rajabhat University, a teacher college,
where student teachers are instructed to perform teaching roles
mainly in basic education level. Its aim is to link theory to practice,
and to help language teachers maximize the full potential of project
work for genuine communication and give real meaning to writing
activity. Two research questions are formulated to guide this study:
a) What is the academic achievement of the students- writing skill
against the 70% attainment target after the use of project to enhance
the skill? and b) To what degree is the development of the students-
writing skills during the course of project to enhance the skill? The
sample of the study comprised of 38 fourth-year English major
students. The data was collected by means of achievement test,
student writing works, and project diary. The scores in the summative
achievement test were analyzed by mean score, standard deviation,
and t-test. Project diary serves as students- record of the language
acquired during the project. List of structures and vocabulary noted in
the diary has shown students- ability to attend to, recognize, and
focus on meaningful patterns of language forms.
Professional Identity Construction in Higher Education: A Conceptual Framework of the Influencing Factors and Research Agenda
We assert here that there might be some factors that
influence professional identity construction at the university/higher
education stage. In accord, we propose a conceptual framework of
intervening factors in professional identity construction at university
from a literature review and preliminary data from a qualitative pilot
study using focus groups. This model identifies several factors that
might influence university students- professional identity
construction and group them into categories. In turn, we describe
how these factors might contribute in strengthening or weakening
their professional identity. Finally, we discuss the implications of
strengthening students- PI for the university, individuals and
organizations and we provide a roadmap for future empirical work in
Accountability Issues and Challenges: The Scenario for Malaysian Cooperative Movement
This paper discusses the issues and challenges
concerning the issues of accountability and regulation systems of
cooperative movement in Malaysia.
Informal Inferential Reasoning Using a Modelling Approach within a Computer-Based Simulation
The article investigates how 14- to 15- year-olds build informal conceptions of inferential statistics as they engage in a modelling process and build their own computer simulations with dynamic statistical software. This study proposes four primary phases of informal inferential reasoning for the students in the statistical modeling and simulation process. Findings show shifts in the conceptual structures across the four phases and point to the potential of all of these phases for fostering the development of students- robust knowledge of the logic of inference when using computer based simulations to model and investigate statistical questions.
The Tort Liability of the State in the Portuguese Administrative Courts
The Portuguese Constitution, in article 22, instituted
the general principle of tort liability of the State and other public law
Consequently, ordinary legislation established the tort liability of
the State into the Portuguese Legal Order, by means of Decree-Law
48051, of 1967.
This decree, which was criticised extensively, was amended by
virtue of Law 67/2007, of 31st December, establishing the regime for
tort liability arising from losses caused by third parties, due to the
acts of public management in relation to all the functions of the State,
i.e. i) administrative, ii) legislative, and iii) jurisdictional.
Momentum Accounting in Public Management: A Case Study in a Brazilian Navy-s Services Provider Military Organization
This study examines the possibility to apply the theory of multidimensional accounting (momentum accounting) in a Brazilian Navy-s Services Provider Military Organization (Organização Militar Prestadora de Serviços - OMPS). In general, the core of the said theory is the fact that Accounting does not recognize the inertia of transactions occurring in an entity, and that occur repeatedly in some cases, regardless of the implementation of new actions by its managers. The study evaluates the possibility of greater use of information recorded in the financial statements of the unit of analysis, within the strategic decisions of the organization. As a research strategy, we adopted the case study. The results infer that it is possible to use the theory in the context of a multidimensional OMPS, promoting useful information for decision-making and thereby contributing to the strengthening of the necessary alignment of its administration with the current desires of the Brazilian society.
The Role of the Shamanistic Music in the Kazakh Folk Culture
The relics of traditional folk culture in Kazakhstan are ceremonies or their fragments - such as weddings, funerals, shamanism. The world of spiritual creatures, spirits-protectors, spirits-helpers, injury spirits, spirits of illnesses, etc., is described in detail in shamanic rites (in Kazakh culture it is called bakslyk). The study of these displays of folk culture, which reflect the peoples` ethnic mentality or notions about the structure, values and hierarchies of the universe, includes collection and recording of the field materials and their interpretation, i.e. reconstruction of those meanings which were initially embodied or “coded" in folklore. A distinctive feature of Kazakh nomadic culture is its self-preservation and actualization, almost untouched the ancient mythologies of the world, in particular, the mythologies connected with music, musical instruments and the creator of music. Within the frameworks of the traditional culture the word and the music keep the sacral meaning. The ritual melodies and what they carry – the holly, and at the same time unexplored, powerful and threatening, uncontrolled by people world – keep on attributing the soul to all, connected with culture.
Women's Political Participation in Korea
This paper deals with the development and obstacles of
Korean women-s political participation in recent years. Since the year
1948 after the declaration of a modern state, Korea has tried to
establish the democracy but still in the field of women-s political
participation it meets a lot of problems such as women-s political
consciousness, male dominated political culture and institutional
constraints. After the introduction of quota system in the list of
political party, women-s political participation began to change its
configuration. More women candidates have willingly presented at
The International Labor Standard on the Elimination of Discrimination in Employment: Response and Prospect of Malaysia
Discrimination in employment has its wider social and
economic consequences other than mere violating a basic human
right. Discrimination involves treating people differently because of
certain grounds such as race, color, or sex, which results in the
impairment of equality of opportunity and treatment. As an essential
part of promoting decent work, combating discrimination through the
principle of non-discrimination has been established by the
International Labor Organization (ILO) through the Declaration on
Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work 1998. Considering
elimination of discrimination in employment as a core labor standard,
member states are expected to respect, promote and implement it to
their national laws and policies. Being a member state, Malaysia has
to position herself align with this international requirement. The
author discusses the related convention together with Malaysia-s
responses on the matter. At the closing stage, the prospect of
Malaysia is presumed taking into account of the current positions and
reports submitted to the ILO.
MC and IC – What Is the Relationship?
MC (Management Control)& IC (Internal Control) – what is the relationship? (an empirical study into the definitions between MC and IC) based on the wider considerations of Internal Control and Management Control terms, attention is focused not only on the financial aspects but also more on the soft aspects of the business, such as culture, behaviour, standards and values. The limited considerations of Management Control are focused mainly in the hard, financial aspects of business operation. The definitions of Management Control and Internal Control are often used interchangeably and the results of this empirical study reveal that Management Control is part of Internal Control, there is no causal link between the two concepts. Based on the interpretation of the respondents, the term Management Control has moved from a broad term to a more limited term with the soft aspects of the influencing of behaviour, performance measurements, incentives and culture. This paper is an exploratory study based on qualitative research and on a qualitative matrix method analysis of the thematic definition of the terms Management Control and Internal Control.
“The Social Destination“: How Social Media Influences the Organisational Structure and Leadership of DMOs
The paper deals with the most important changes that have occurred in business because of social media and its impact on organisations and leadership in recent years. It seeks to synthesize existing research, theories and concepts, in order to understand "social destinations", and to provide a bridge from past research to future success. Becoming a "social destination" is a strategic and tactical leadership and management issue and the paper will present the importance of destination leadership in choosing the way towards a social destination and some organisational models. It also presents some social media tools that can be used in transforming a destination into a social one. Adapting organisations to the twentyfirst century means adopting social media as a way of life and a way of business.
A Study of the Relationship of PSI and LMX to Service Providers' CS in Hospitality Industry
The purpose of the current study is to gain insight into the relative role of professional self-image (PSI) for service providers among leader-member exchange (LMX), career success. Lack of studies demonstrated that PSI of service providers affect on their CS. So, it is necessary to, according to service providers- perspective, explore the relationship among LMX and CS in hospitality industry. The result of the current study can suggest strategic directions for hospitality practitioners in terms of constructing LMX relationship, so as to make service providers realize and build their PSI, and to promote their CS. Implications of these findings for hospitality implementations as well as future research directions are subsequently discussed.
Policies that Enhance Learning and Teaching
Educational institutions often implement policies with
the intention of influencing how learning and teaching occur.
Generally, such policies are not as effective as their makers would
like; changing the behavior of third-level teachers proves difficult.
Nevertheless, a policy instituted in 2006 at the Dublin Institute of
Technology has met with success: each newly hired faculty member
must have a post-graduate qualification in “Learning and Teaching"
or successfully complete one within the first two years of
employment. The intention is to build teachers- knowledge about
student-centered pedagogies and their capacity to implement them.
As a result of this policy (and associated programs that support it),
positive outcomes are readily apparent. Individual teachers who have
completed the programs have implemented significant change at the
course and program levels. This paper introduces the policy,
identifies outcomes in relation to existing theory, describes research
underway, and pinpoints areas where organizational learning has
Medical Negligence Disputes in Malaysia: Resolving through Hazards of Litigation or through Community Responsibilities?
Medical negligence disputes in Malaysia are mainly resolved through litigation by using the tort system. The tort system, being adversarial in nature has subjected parties to litigation hazards such as delay, excessive costs and uncertainty of outcome. The dissatisfaction of the tort system in compensating medically injured victims has created various alternatives to litigation. Amongst them is the implementation of a no-fault compensation system which would allow compensation to be given without the need of proving fault on the medical personnel. Instead, the community now bears the burden of compensating and at the end, promotes collective responsibility. For Malaysia, introducing a no-fault system would provide a tempting solution and may ultimately, achieve justice for the medical injured victims. Nevertheless, such drastic change requires a great deal of consideration to determine the suitability of the system and whether or not it will eventually cater for the needs of the Malaysian population
Why Are Entrepreneurs Resistant to E-tools?
Latvia is the fourth in the world by means of broadband internet speed. The total number of internet users in Latvia exceeds 70% of its population. The number of active mailboxes of the local internet e-mail service Inbox.lv accounts for 68% of the population and 97.6% of the total number of internet users. The Latvian portal Draugiem.lv is a phenomenon of social media, because 58.4 % of the population and 83.5% of internet users use it. A majority of Latvian company profiles are available on social networks, the most popular being Twitter.com. These and other parameters prove the fact consumers and companies are actively using the Internet.
However, after the authors in a number of studies analyzed how enterprises are employing the e-environment, namely, e-environment tools, they arrived to the conclusions that are not as flattering as the aforementioned statistics. There is an obvious contradiction between the statistical data and the actual studies. As a result, the authors have posed a question: Why are entrepreneurs resistant to e-tools? In order to answer this question, the authors have addressed the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The authors analyzed each phase and determined several factors affecting the use of e-environment, reaching the main conclusion that entrepreneurs do not have a sufficient level of e-literacy (digital literacy).
The authors employ well-established quantitative and qualitative methods of research: grouping, analysis, statistic method, factor analysis in SPSS 20 environment etc.
The theoretical and methodological background of the research is formed by, scientific researches and publications, that from the mass media and professional literature, statistical information from legal institutions as well as information collected by the author during the survey.
Combating Money Laundering in the Banking Industry: Malaysian Experience
Money laundering has been described by many as the lifeblood of crime and is a major threat to the economic and social well-being of societies. It has been recognized that the banking system has long been the central element of money laundering. This is in part due to the complexity and confidentiality of the banking system itself. It is generally accepted that effective anti-money laundering (AML) measures adopted by banks will make it tougher for criminals to get their "dirty money" into the financial system. In fact, for law enforcement agencies, banks are considered to be an important source of valuable information for the detection of money laundering. However, from the banks- perspective, the main reason for their existence is to make as much profits as possible. Hence their cultural and commercial interests are totally distinct from that of the law enforcement authorities. Undoubtedly, AML laws create a major dilemma for banks as they produce a significant shift in the way banks interact with their customers. Furthermore, the implementation of the laws not only creates significant compliance problems for banks, but also has the potential to adversely affect the operations of banks. As such, it is legitimate to ask whether these laws are effective in preventing money launderers from using banks, or whether they simply put an unreasonable burden on banks and their customers. This paper attempts to address these issues and analyze them against the background of the Malaysian AML laws. It must be said that effective coordination between AML regulator and the banking industry is vital to minimize problems faced by the banks and thereby to ensure effective implementation of the laws in combating money laundering.
Islam and Values of Kazakh Culture
Unlike Christianity and Buddhism, Islam, being one
of the three universal world religions, actively penetrates into
people-s everyday life. The main reason for this is that in Islam the
religion and ideology, philosophy, religious organizations and state
bodies are closely interrelated. In order to analyze the state of being
of interrelations of religion and civil society in Kazakhstan, it is
necessary to study Islam and its relations with spiritual culture of the
society. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan
the religion is separated from the state, i.e. each performs its own
function without interfering into each other-s affairs. The right of the
citizens of our republic to freedom of thinking and faith is based on
the Constitution of the RK, Civil Code, Law “On freedom of faith
and religious unions in the Republic of Kazakhstan".
Legislatively secured separation of the mosque and church from
the state does not mean that religion has no influence on the latter.
The state, consisting of citizens with their own beliefs, including
religious ones, cannot be isolated from the influence of religion.
Nowadays it is commonly accepted that it is not possible to
understand and forecast key social processes without taking into
account the religious factor.
Gender Perspective Considerations in Disasters like Earthquakes and Floods of Pakistan
From past many decades human beings are suffering
from plethora of natural disasters. Occurrence of disasters is a
frequent process; it changes conceptual myths as more and more
advancement are made. Although we are living in technological era
but in developing countries like Pakistan disasters are shaped by
socially constructed roles. The need is to understand the most
vulnerable group of society i.e. females; their issues are complex in
nature because of undermined gender status in the society. There is a
need to identify maximum issues regarding females and to enhance
the achievement of millennium development goals (MDGs). Gender
issues are of great concern all around the globe including Pakistan.
Here female visibility in society is low, and also during disasters, the
failure to understand the reality that concentrates on double burden
including productive and reproductive care. Women have to
contribute a lot in society so we need to make them more disaster
resilient. For this non-structural measures like awareness, trainings
and education must be carried out. In rural and in urban settings in
any disaster like earthquake or flood, elements like gender
perspective, their age, physical health, demographic issues contribute
towards vulnerability. In Pakistan the gender issues in disasters were
of less concern before 2005 earthquake and 2010 floods. Significant
achievements are made after 2010 floods when gender and child cell
was created to provide all facilities to women and girls. The aim of
the study is to highlight all necessary facilities in a disaster to build
coping mechanism in females from basic rights till advance level
Assessment of EU Competitiveness Factors by Multivariate Methods
Measurement of competitiveness between countries or regions is an important topic of many economic analysis and scientific papers. In European Union (EU), there is no mainstream approach of competitiveness evaluation and measuring. There are many opinions and methods of measurement and evaluation of competitiveness between states or regions at national and European level. The methods differ in structure of using the indicators of competitiveness and ways of their processing. The aim of the paper is to analyze main sources of competitive potential of the EU Member States with the help of Factor analysis (FA) and to classify the EU Member States to homogeneous units (clusters) according to the similarity of selected indicators of competitiveness factors by Cluster analysis (CA) in reference years 2000 and 2011. The theoretical part of the paper is devoted to the fundamental bases of competitiveness and the methodology of FA and CA methods. The empirical part of the paper deals with the evaluation of competitiveness factors in the EU Member States and cluster comparison of evaluated countries by cluster analysis.
Emergency Health Management and Student Hygiene at a South African University
Risk of infectious disease outbreaks is related to the
hygiene among the population. To assess the actual risks and modify
the relevant emergency procedures if necessary, a hygiene survey
was conducted among undergraduate students on the Rhodes
University campus. Soap was available to 10.5% and only 26.8% of
the study participants followed proper hygiene in relation to food
consumption. This combination increases the risk of infectious
disease outbreaks at the campus. Around 83.6% were willing to wash
their hands if soap was provided. Procurement and availability of
soap in undergraduate residences on campus should be improved, as
the total cost is estimated at only 2000 USD per annum. Awareness
campaigns about food-related hygiene and the need for regular handwashing
with soap should be run among Rhodes University students.
If successful, rates of respiratory and hygiene-related diseases will be
decreased and emergency health management simplified.
Increase Success by Decreasing Admission for Maths– Fairytale or Reality?
South Africa is facing a crisis with not being able to produce enough graduates in the scarce skills areas to sustain economic growth. The crisis is fuelled by a school system that does not produce enough potential students with Mathematics, Accounting and Science. Since the introduction of the new school curriculum in 2008, there is no longer an option to take pure maths on a standard grade level. Instead, only two mathematical subjects are offered: pure maths (which is on par with higher grade maths) and mathematical literacy. It is compulsory to take one or the other. As a result, lees student finishes Grade 12 with pure mathematics every year. This national problem needs urgent attention if South Africa is to make any headway in critical skills development as mathematics is a gateway to scarce skills professions. Higher education institutions initiated several initiatives in an attempt to address the above, including preparatory courses, bridging programmes and extended curricula with foundation provisions. In view of the above, and government policy directives to broaden access in the scarce skills areas to increase student throughput, foundation provision was introduced for Commerce and Information Technology programmes at the Vaal Triangle Campus (VTC) of North-West University (NWU) in 2010. Students enrolling for extended programmes do not comply with the minimum prerequisites for the normal programmes. The question then arises as to whether these programmes have the intended impact? This paper reports the results of a two year longitudinal study, tracking the first year academic achievement of the two cohorts of enrolments since 2010. The results provide valuable insight into the structuring of an extended programme and its potential impact.
Chinese Preferences of Hotel Websites: the Differences among Different Regions
The fast technology and economic growth in China has
attracted global attention in its tourism development. This study makes
an effort on investigating China-s online tourism market and the
Chinese online travelers- perceptions of hotel websites. The findings
are expected to better understand Chinese customers- online
preference and identified the differences among online travelers from
different regions in the country. Empirical findings showed online
reservation information is the most important factor to Chinese
customers, and tourists from different regions of China have
perception difference on user-friendly factor. The findings benefit
hoteliers from understanding their websites development and
formulating more appropriate online strategies to meet the
requirements of Chinese travelers.
PRO-Teaching – Sharing Ideas to Develop Capabilities
In this paper, the action research driven design of a
context relevant, developmental peer review of teaching model, its
implementation strategy and its impact at an Australian university is
presented. PRO-Teaching realizes an innovative process that
triangulates contemporaneous teaching quality data from a range of
stakeholders including students, discipline academics, learning and
teaching expert academics, and teacher reflection to create reliable
evidence of teaching quality. Data collected over multiple classroom
observations allows objective reporting on development differentials
in constructive alignment, peer, and student evaluations. Further
innovation is realized in the application of this highly structured
developmental process to provide summative evidence of sufficient
validity to support claims for professional advancement and learning
and teaching awards. Design decision points and contextual triggers
are described within the operating domain. Academics and
developers seeking to introduce structured peer review of teaching
into their organization will find this paper a useful reference.
The Impact of Market-Related Variables on Forward-Looking Disclosure in the Annual Reports of Non-Financial Egyptian Companies
The main objective of this study is to test the
relationship between numbers of variables representing the firm
characteristics (market-related variables) and the extent of voluntary
disclosure levels (forward-looking disclosure) in the annual reports of
Egyptian firms listed on the Egyptian Stock Exchange. The results
show that audit firm size is significantly positively correlated (in all
the three years) with the level of forward-looking disclosure.
However, industry type variable (which divided to: industries,
cement, construction, petrochemicals and services), is found being
insignificantly association with the level of forward-looking
information disclosed in the annual reports for all the three years.
The Effect of Ownership Structure on Stock Prices after Crisis: A Study on Ise 100 Index
Using Turkish data, in this study it is investigated that
whether a firm’s ownership structure has an impact on its stock
prices after the crisis. A linear regression model is conducted on the
data of non-financial firms that are trading in Istanbul Stock
Exchange 100 Index (ISE 100) index. The findings show that, all
explanatory variables such as inside ownership, largest ownership,
concentrated ownership, foreign shareholders, family controlled and
dispersed ownership are not very important to explain stock prices
after the crisis. Family controlled firms and concentrated ownership
is positively related to stock price, dispersed ownership, largest
ownership, foreign shareholders, and inside ownership structures
have negative interaction between stock prices, but because of the p
value is not under the value of 0.05 this relation is not significant. In
addition, the analysis shows that, the shares of firms that have inside,
largest and dispersed ownership structure are outperform comparing
with the other firms. Furthermore, ownership concentrated firms
outperform to family controlled firms.
Why do Clawback Provisions Affect Financial Reporting Quality? - An Analysis of Trigger Effects
We identify clawback triggers from firms- proxy
statements (Form DEF 14A) and use the likelihood of restatements to
proxy for financial reporting quality. Based on a sample of 578 U.S.
firms that voluntarily adopt clawback provisions during 2003-2009,
when restatement-based triggers could be decomposed into two types:
fraud and unintentional error, and we do observe the evidence that
using fraud triggers is associated with high financial reporting quality.
The findings support that fraud triggers can enhance deterrent effect of
clawback provision by establishing a viable disincentive against fraud,
misconduct, and otherwise harmful acts. These results are robust to
controlling for the compensation components, to different sample
specifications and to a number of sensitivity.
Emergency Health Management at a South African University
Response to the public health-related emergencies is analysed here for a rural university in South Africa. The structure of the designated emergency plan covers all the phases of the disaster management cycle. The plan contains elements of the vulnerability model and the technocratic model of emergency management. The response structures are vertically and horizontally integrated, while the planning contains elements of scenario-based and functional planning. The available number of medical professionals at the Rhodes University, along with the medical insurance rates, makes the staff and students potentially more medically vulnerable than the South African population. The main improvements of the emergency management are required in the tornado response and the information dissemination during health emergencies. The latter should involve the increased use of social media and e-mails, following the Taylor model of communication. Infrastructure must be improved in the telecommunication sector in the face of unpredictable electricity outages.
Identification of Factors Influencing Company's Competitiveness
Fast development of technologies, economic globalization and many other external circumstances stimulate company’s competitiveness. One of the major trends in today’s business is the shift to the exploitation of the Internet and electronic environment for entrepreneurial needs. Latest researches confirm that e-environment provides a range of possibilities and opportunities for companies, especially for micro-, small- and medium-sized companies, which have limited resources. The usage of e-tools raises the effectiveness and the profitability of an organization, as well as its competitiveness.
In the electronic market, as in the classic one, there are factors, such as globalization, development of new technology, price sensitive consumers, Internet, new distribution and communication channels that influence entrepreneurship. As a result of eenvironment development, e-commerce and e-marketing grow as well.
Objective of the paper: To describe and identify factors influencing company’s competitiveness in e-environment.
Research methodology: The authors employ well-established quantitative and qualitative methods of research: grouping, analysis, statistics method, factor analysis in SPSS 20 environment, etc. The theoretical and methodological background of the research is formed by using scientific researches and publications, such as that from mass media and professional literature; statistical information from legal institutions as well as information collected by the authors during the surveying process.
Research result: The authors detected and classified factors influencing competitiveness in e-environment.
In this paper, the authors presented their findings based on theoretical, scientific, and field research. Authors have conducted a research on e-environment utilization among Latvian enterprises.
Minaret of Medieval City Aktobe
In the article the remains of the base of the minaret,
found in 2009 at the medieval fortress shakhristan Aktobe, which is
located along the courses of the rivers Balta and Aksu. The minaret,
which consists of two parts: the stylobate in the pit and base part
refers to the XI-XII centuries. The preserved height of the building is
3.6 meters. Volume stylobat quadrangular minaret, the corners of
which are aimed at the four corners of the world amounts to 8,65 x8,
5 m, height – 2.6 m. Diameter octagonal upper cap of 7.85 m and a
height of preserved – 1 m. This minaret is of particular importance
among the historical and architectural monuments of Kazakhstan, as
it is so far the only minaret belonging to Karakhanid epoch in which
Islam was the state religion.
Examining Herzberg-s Two Factor Theory in a Large Chinese Chemical Fiber Company
The validity of Herzberg-s Two-Factor Theory of
Motivation was tested empirically by surveying 2372 chemical fiber
employees in 2012. In the valid sample of 1875 respondents, the
degree of overall job satisfaction was more than moderate. The most
highly valued components of job satisfaction were: “corporate image,"
“collaborative working atmosphere," and “supervisor-s expertise";
whereas the lowest mean score was 34.65 for “job rotation and
promotion." The top three job retention options rated by the
participants were “good image of the enterprise," “good
compensation," and “workplace is close to my residence." The overall
evaluation of the level of thriving facilitation workplace reached
almost to “mostly agree." For those participants who chose at least
one motivator as their job retention options had significantly greater
job satisfaction than those who chose only hygiene factors as their
retention options. Therefore, Herzberg-s Two-Factor Theory of
Motivation was proven valid in this study.
The Perception of Omani E-consumers on the Importance and Performance of Dubai SMHs' Website Dimensions and Attributes
There is no doubt that Internet technology is widely used by hotels and its demand is constantly booming. Hotels have largely adopted website information services through using different interactive tools, dimensions and attributes to achieve excellence in functionality and usability but these do not necessary equate with website effectiveness. One way to investigate the effectiveness of hotel website is from the perspective ofe-consumers. This exploratory research is to investigate the perceived importance of websites effectiveness of some selected independent small and medium-sized hotels (SMHs) located in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, from the perspective of Omanie-consumers by using non-random sampling method. From 400 questionnaire addressed to respondents in 27 organizations in Muscat the capital city of Oman, 173 are valid. Findings of this study assist SMHs management in Dubai with the reallocation of their resources and efforts in order to supportebusiness development and to sustain a competitive advantage.
Remote Employment: Advantages and Challenges for Egypt-s Labor Force (After the 25thJanuary Revolution)
The growing problem of youth unemployment in
Egypt after the 25th January Revolution has directed the attention of
some human resource experts towards considering remote
employment as a partial remedy for the unemployed youth instead of
the unavailable traditional jobs, a trend which will also help with the
congested offices and unsolved traffic problem in Cairo and spread
a flexible work culture, but despite of that, the main issue remains
unresolved for these organizations to deal with the system challenges.
In the past few years, in developed countries, there has been a
growing trend for many companies to shift to remote employment
instead of the traditional office employment for many reasons: due to
the growing technological advances that helped some employees do
their work from home on a part time basis, the need for achieving an
employee-s work balance in the middle of unbalanced complicated
life, top management focus on employee-s productivity rather their
time spent at work. The objective of this paper is to study and analyze
the advantages and challenges that Egypt-s labor force will be facing
in their implementation of remote or virtual employment in both
government and private organizations after the 25th January
revolution. Therefore, the research question will be: What are the
advantages and different challenges that Egyptian organizations
might face in their implementation for remote employment system
and how can they manage these challenges for the system to work
effectively? The study is divided into six main parts: the introduction,
objective and importance of the study, research problem,
methodology, experience of some countries that implemented remote
employment, advantages and challenges of implementing remote
employment in Egypt and then the conclusion which discuses the
results and recommendations of the study.
Mission of Russian Orthodox Church in Kazakhstan in the XIX Century: Activity, Expectations and Results
The focus of this research is in the area of the soviet period and the mission of the Russian Orthodox Church in Kazakhstan in the XIX century. There was close connection of national customs and traditions with religious practices, outlooks and attitudes. In particular, such an approach has alleged estimation by Kazakh historians of the process of Christianization of the local population. Some of them are inclined to consider the small number of Christening Kazakhs as evidence that the Russian Orthodox Church didn’t achieve its mission. The number of historians who think that the church didn’t achieve its mission has thousand over the last centuries, however our calculations of the number of Kazakhs who became Orthodox Christian is much more than other historians think. Such Christians can be divided into 3 groups: Some remained Christian until their deaths, others had two faiths and the third hid their true religions, having returned to their former belief. Therefore, to define the exact amount of Christening Kazakhs represented a challenge. Some data does not create a clear picture of the level of Christianization, constant and accurate was not collected. The data appearing in reports of spiritual attendants and civil authorities is not always authentic. Article purpose is illumination and the analysis missionary activity of Russian Orthodox Church in Kazakhstan.
Synergy in Vertical Transformations of Expert Designers
Existing literature ondesign reasoning seems to give
either one sided accounts on expert design behaviour based on
internal processing. In the same way ecological theoriesseem to
focus one sidedly on external elementsthat result in a lack of unifying
design cognition theory. Although current extended design cognition
studies acknowledge the intellectual interaction between internal and
external resources, there still seems to be insufficient understanding
of the complexities involved in such interactive processes. As
such,this paper proposes a novelmulti-directional model for design
researchers tomap the complex and dynamic conduct controlling
behaviour in which both the computational and ecological
perspectives are integrated in a vertical manner. A clear distinction
between identified intentional and emerging physical drivers, and
relationships between them during the early phases of experts- design
process, is demonstrated by presenting a case study in which the
model was employed.
Relationship between Criminal Behavior and Mental Illness in Teenagers
Minor law breaking seems more and more to be a part
of adolescence behavior. An important risk factor which seems to
influence delinquency appears to be the socio-economic one.
According to Romanian statistics, during the first six months of 2012,
1,378 minors have committed various crimes, the most common
being theft, sexual offenses and violent assaults. Drug-related
offenses did not reach the gravity of those from high income
countries of the European Union, but have a continuous upward
during the last years.
The aim of our research was to examine whether delinquency in
adolescence is correlated to mental disorders or socio-economic and
familial factors. Forensic psychiatric expertise was performed to 79
adolescents who committed offenses between 01 January 2012 and
31 December 2012. Teenagers, with ages between 12 and 17, were
examined by day hospitalization in the University Clinic of
Examining Corporate Tax Evaders: Evidence from the Finalized Audit Cases
This paper aims to (1) analyze the profiles of
transgressors (detected evaders); (2) examine reason(s) that triggered a
tax audit, causes of tax evasion, audit timeframe and tax penalty
charged; and (3) to assess if tax auditors followed the guidelines as
stated in the 'Tax Audit Framework' when conducting tax audits. In
2011, the Inland Revenue Board Malaysia (IRBM) had audited and
finalized 557 company cases. With official permission, data of all the
557 cases were obtained from the IRBM. Of these, a total of 421 cases
with complete information were analyzed. About 58.1% was small and
medium corporations and from the construction industry (32.8%). The
selection for tax audit was based on risk analysis (66.8%), information
from third party (11.1%), and firm with low profitability or fluctuating
profit pattern (7.8%). The three persistent causes of tax evasion by
firms were over claimed expenses (46.8%), fraudulent reporting of
income (38.5%) and overstating purchases (10.5%). These findings
are consistent with past literature. Results showed that tax auditors
took six to 18 months to close audit cases. More than half of tax
evaders were fined 45% on additional tax raised during audit for the
first offence. The study found tax auditors did follow the guidelines in
the 'Tax Audit Framework' in audit selection, settlement and penalty
Repatriates in the Kazakhstan: The Problems of Migration and Adaptation to the Historic Homeland
The article is devoted to Kazakh repatriates and their
migration to Kazakhstan as historical homeland, and also addresses
the problem of migrants- adaptation in the republic, particularly in
Almaty oblast (region). The authors used up-to-date statictics and
materials of the Department of Migration Committee to analyze the
newcomers- number and features of the repatriate-s location in this
oblast. Having studied this region they were able to identify the main
reasons why Kazakh Diaspora in Central Asia, Iran, Avganistana and
Turkey is eager to come back to their historic homeland along with
repatriates adaptation to the republic.
Determinants of Capital Structure in Malaysia Electrical and Electronic Sector
Capital structure is one of the most important financial
decisions in corporate financing strategy. It involves the choice of
debt and equity level in financing a company-s operations. This study
aims to investigate whether the capital structure choice of Malaysian
electrical and electronic manufacturing companies that are listed in
the Bursa Malaysia can be explained by factors that have been found
by most studies as dominant determinants of capital structure
(company size, profitability, asset tangibility, liquidity and growth).
Using debt ratio as the proxy for capital structure and applying
pooled ordinary least square multiple regression estimation, the
results showed that on average, Malaysian electrical and electronic
manufacturing companies used less debt in funding their business
operations. The findings also showed that size and asset tangibility
has a significant positive relationship with debt level, while liquidity
has a negative significant relationship with leverage.
A Survey on Usage and Diffusion of Project Risk Management Techniques and Software Tools in the Construction Industry
The area of Project Risk Management (PRM) has
been extensively researched, and the utilization of various tools and
techniques for managing risk in several industries has been
sufficiently reported. Formal and systematic PRM practices have
been made available for the construction industry. Based on such
body of knowledge, this paper tries to find out the global picture of
PRM practices and approaches with the help of a survey to look into
the usage of PRM techniques and diffusion of software tools, their
level of maturity, and their usefulness in the construction sector.
Results show that, despite existing techniques and tools, their usage is
limited: software tools are used only by a minority of respondents
and their cost is one of the largest hurdles in adoption. Finally, the
paper provides some important guidelines for future research
regarding quantitative risk analysis techniques and suggestions for
PRM software tools development and improvement.
Forecasting Tala-AUD and Tala-USD Exchange Rates with ANN
The focus of this paper is to construct daily time series
exchange rate forecast models of Samoan Tala/USD and Tala/AUD
during the year 2008 to 2012 with neural network The performance
of the models was measured by using varies error functions such as
Root Square mean error (RSME), Mean absolute error (MAE), and
Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Our empirical findings
suggest that AR (1) model is an effective tool to forecast the
Tala/USD and Tala/AUD.
Stagnation in Brownfield Redevelopment
Purpose of this paper is two-folded. At first it explains
the major problems that are causing stagnation in brownfield
redevelopment. In addition, these problems given the context of the
present multi-actor built environment are becoming more complex to
observe. Therefore, this paper suggests also a prospective decisionmaking
approach that is the most appropriate to observe and react on
the given stagnation problems. Such an approach should be regarded
as prescriptive-interactive decision-making approach, a barely
established branch. This approach should offer models that have
prescriptive as well as an interactive component enabling them to
successfully cope with the multi-actor environment. Overall, this
paper provides up-to-date insight on the brownfield stagnation by
gradually introducing the nowadays major problems and offers a
prospective decision-making approach how these problems could be
Cooperative Movements in Malaysia: The Issue of Governance
Cooperative organizations in Malaysia are going
through a phase of rapid growth. They are seen by the government as
another crucial vehicle to drive and boost up the country-s
economical development and growth. Hence, the issue of cooperative
governance is of great importance. Unlike literatures on corporate
governance for public listed companies-, literatures on governance
for social enterprises, in particular the cooperative organizations are
still at the early stage in Malaysia and very scant in number. This
paper will look into current practices as well as issues and challenges
related to cooperative governance. The need for a better solution
towards forming best practices of cooperative governance framework
appears imperative in deterring cases of mismanagement and fraud.
Exploring Inter-Relationships between Events to Identify Strategic Technological Competencies: A Combined Approach
The inherent complexity in nowadays- business
environments is forcing organizations to be attentive to the dynamics
in several fronts. Therefore, the management of technological
innovation is continually faced with uncertainty about the future.
These issues lead to a need for a systemic perspective, able to analyze
the consequences of interactions between different factors. The field
of technology foresight has proposed methods and tools to deal with
this broader perspective. In an attempt to provide a method to analyze
the complex interactions between events in several areas, departing
from the identification of the most strategic competencies, this paper
presents a methodology based on the Delphi method and Quality
Function Deployment. This methodology is applied in a sheet metal
processing equipment manufacturer, as a case study.
The Corporate Integration of Highly Skilled Professionals - A Social Capital Perspective
Not with standing the importance of foreign highly
skilled professionals for host economies, there is a paucity of
research studies investigating the role of the corporate social context
during the integration process. This research aims to address this
paucity by exploring the role of social capital in the integration of
foreign health professionals. It does so by using a qualitative research
approach. In this pilot study the hospital sector forms this study-s
sample and interviews were conducted with HR managers, foreign
health professionals and external HR consultants. It was found that
most of the participating hospitals had not established specific HR
practices and had only partly linked the development of
organisational social capital with a successful integration process.
This research contributes, for example, to the HR literature on the
integration of self-initiated expatriates by analysing the role of HRM
in generating organisational social capital needed for a successful
Using Partnerships to Achieve National Goals
Ireland developed a National Strategy 2030 that
argued for the creation of a new form of higher education institution,
a Technological University. The research reported here reviews the
first stage of this partnership development. The study found that
national policy can create system capacity and change, but that
individual partners may have more to gain or lose in collaborating.
When presented as a zero-sum activity, fear among partners is high.
The level of knowledge and networking within the higher education
system possessed by each partner contributed to decisions to
participate or not in a joint proposal for collaboration. Greater
success resulted when there were gains for all partners. This research
concludes that policy mandates can provide motivation to
collaborate, but that the partnership needs to be built more on shared
values versus coercion by mandates.
Does the Adoption of IFRS Influence Earnings Management towards Small Positive Profits? Evidence from Emerging Markets
This paper investigates the effect of International
Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adoption on the frequency of
earnings managements towards small positive profits. We focus on
two emerging markets IFRS adopters: South Africa and Turkey.
We tested our logistic regression using appropriate panelestimation
techniques over a sample of 330 South African and 210
Turkish firm-year observations over the period 2002-2008. Our
results document that mandatory adoption of IFRS is not associated
with a reduction in earnings management towards small positive
profits in emerging markets. These results contradict most of the
previous findings of the studies conducted in developed countries.
Based on the legal system factor, we compare the intensity of
earnings management between a code law country (Turkey) and a
common law country (South Africa) over the pre and post-adoption
periods. Our findings show that the frequency of such earnings
management practice increases significantly for the code law
Detecting Older Drivers- Stress Level during Real-World Driving Tasks
This paper presents the effect of driving a motor
vehicle on the stress levels of older drivers, indicated by monitoring
their hear rate increase whilst completing various everyday driving
tasks. Results suggest that whilst older female drivers heart rate varied
more significantly than males, the actual age of a participant did not
result in a significant change in heart rate due to stress, within the age
group tested. The analysis of the results indicates the most stressful
manoeuvres undertaken by the older drivers and highlights the tasks
which were found difficult with a view to implementing technologies
to aid the more senior driver in automotive travel.
Relationship between Transparency, Liquidity and Valuation
Recent evidences on liquidity and valuation of securities in the capital markets clearly show the importance of stock market liquidity and valuation of firms. In this paper, relationship between transparency, liquidity, and valuation is studied by using data obtained from 70 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange during2003-2012. In this study, discriminatory earnings management, as a sign of lack of transparency and Tobin's Q, was used as the criteria of valuation. The results indicate that there is a significant and reversed relationship between earnings management and liquidity. On the other hand, there is a relationship between liquidity and transparency.The results also indicate a significant relationship between transparency and valuation. Transparency has an indirect effect on firm valuation alone or through the liquidity channel. Although the effect of transparency on the value of a firm was reduced by adding the variable of liquidity, the cumulative effect of transparency and liquidity increased.
Utilizing Analytic Hierarchy Process to Analyze Consumers- Purchase Evaluation Factors of Smartphones
Due to the fast development of technology, the
competition of technological products is turbulent; therefore, it is
important to understand the market trend, consumers- demand and
preferences. As the smartphones are prevalent, the main purpose of
this paper is to utilize Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to analyze
consumer-s purchase evaluation factors of smartphones. Through the
AHP expert questionnaire, the smartphones- main functions are
classified as “user interface", “mobile commerce functions",
“hardware and software specifications", “entertainment functions" and
“appearance and design", five aspects to analyze the weights. Then
four evaluation criteria are evaluated under each aspect to rank the
weights. Based on an analysis of data shows that consumers consider
when purchase factors are “hardware and software specifications",
“user interface", “appearance and design", “mobile commerce
functions" and “entertainment functions" in sequence. The “hardware
and software specifications" aspect obtains the weight of 33.18%; it is
the most important factor that consumers are taken into account. In
addition, the most important evaluation criteria are central processing
unit, operating system, touch screen, and battery function in sequence.
The results of the study can be adopted as reference data for mobile
phone manufacturers in the future on the design and marketing
strategy to satisfy the voice of customer.
The Impact of Post-Disaster Relocation on Community Solidarity: The Case of Post-Disaster Reconstruction after Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan
Typhoon Morakot hit Taiwan in 2009 and caused
severe damages. The government employs a compulsory relocation
strategy for post-disaster reconstruction. This study analyzes the
impact of this strategy on community solidarity. It employs a multiple
approach for data collection, including semi-structural interview,
secondary data, and documentation. The results indicate that the
government-s strategy for distributing housing has led to conflicts
within the communities. In addition, the relocating process has
stimulated tensions between victims of the disaster and those residents
whose lands were chosen to be new sites for relocation. The
government-s strategy of “collective relocation" also worsened
community integration. In addition, the fact that a permanent housing
community may accommodate people from different places also posts
challenge for the development of new inter-personal relations in the
communities. This study concludes by emphasizing the importance of
bringing social, economic and cultural aspects into consideration for
The Taste of Native Land in Everyday Practices of Repatriates – Variations by the Countries of Origin (by Field Materials)
Practices of food sharing as part of the brotherhood and hospitality interpretation have been essential part of the Kazakh ethnic culture since early times. Dialogue in time and space between Kazakhs through differences in food interpretation among the ethnic repatriates may become a link connecting them and platform for stable relations with the host society or serious barrier on the way of their integration in the Kazakhstani society. The article elucidates by the field materials how some aspects of food culture differences among ethnic Kazakhs living abroad (XUAR of China) and ethnic repatriates in Kazakhstan may influence their integration path.
The Effect of Education Level on Psychological Empowerment and Burnout-The Mediating Role of Workplace Learning Behaviors
The study investigates the relationship between
education level, workplace learning behaviors, psychological
empowerment and burnout in a sample of 191 teachers. We
hypothesized that education level will positively affect psychological
state of increased empowerment and decreased burnout, and we
purposed that these effects will be mediated by workplace learning
behaviors. We used multiple regression analyses to test the model
that included also the 6 following control variables: The teachers'
age, gender, and teaching tenure; the schools' religious level, the
pupils' needs: regular/ special needs, and the class level: elementary/
high school. The results support the purposed mediating model.
Environmental Assessment Methods in Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi is one of the fastest developed cities in the region. On top of all the current and future environmental challenges, Abu Dhabi aims to be among the top governments in the world in sustainable development. Abu Dhabi plans to create an attractive, livable and sustainable managed urban environment in which all necessary services and infrastructure are provided in a sustainable and timely manner. Abu Dhabi is engaged in a difficult challenge to develop credible environmental indicators that would assess the ambitious environmental targets. The aim of those indicators is to provide reliable guidance to decision makers and the public concerning key factors that determine the state of urban environment and identify major areas for policy intervention. In order to ensure sustainable development in UAE in general, and of Abu Dhabi City in particular, relevant and contextual environmental indicators need to be carefully considered. These indicators provide a gauge at a national government scale of how close countries are to establish environmental policy goals. The environment indicators assist city decision-making in such areas as identification of significant environmental aspects and observation of environmental performance trends. Those can help to find ways of reducing environmental pollution and in improving eco-efficiency. This paper outlines recent strategies implemented in Abu Dhabi that aims to improve the sustainable performance of the city-s built environment. The paper explores the variety of current and possible indicators at different levels and their roles in the development of the city.
An Evaluation of the Usability of IT Faculty Educational Portal at University of Benghazi
Evaluation of educational portals is an important
subject area that needs more attention from researchers. A university
that has an educational portal which is difficult to use and interact by
teachers or students or management staff can reduce the position and
reputation of the university. Therefore, it is important to have the
ability to make an evaluation of the quality of e-services the
university provide to improve them over time.
The present study evaluates the usability of the Information
Technology Faculty portal at University of Benghazi. Two evaluation
methods were used: a questionnaire-based method and an online
automated tool-based method. The first method was used to measure
the portal's external attributes of usability (Information, Content and
Organization of the portal, Navigation, Links and Accessibility,
Aesthetic and Visual Appeal, Performance and Effectiveness and
educational purpose) from users' perspectives, while the second
method was used to measure the portal's internal attributes of
usability (number and size of HTML files, number and size of images,
load time, HTML check errors, browsers compatibility problems,
number of bad and broken links), which cannot be perceived by the
users. The study showed that some of the usability aspects have been
found at the acceptable level of performance and quality, and some
others have been found otherwise. In general, it was concluded that
the usability of IT faculty educational portal generally acceptable.
Recommendations and suggestions to improve the weakness and
quality of the portal usability are presented in this study.
U.S. Supreme Court Decision Making in the Area of Religion, 1987-2011
There are many views on how human decision makers behave. In this work, the Justices of the United States Supreme Court will be viewed in terms of constrained maximization and cognitivecybernetic theory. This paper will integrate research in such fields as law, political science, psychology, economics and decision making theory. It will be argued that due to its heavy workload, the Supreme Court is forced to make decisions in a boundedly rational manner. The ideas and theory put forward here will be tested in the area of the Court’s decisions involving religion. Therefore, the cases involving the U.S. Constitution’s Free Exercise Clause and Establishment Clause will be analyzed. Also, variables such as the U.S. government’s involvement in these cases will be considered. The years to be studied will be 1987-2011.
Understanding the Silence: When Courts Don-t Speak About Religion
India recognizes the personal laws of the various
religious communities that reside in the country. At the same time all
the institutions of the state in India are committed to the value of
secularism. This paper has been developed on the basis of a case
study that indicates the dynamics of religion in the working of the
lower judiciary in India. Majority of the commentary on religion and
the judiciary has focused on debates surrounding the existence and
application of personal laws. This paper, through a case study in the
lower judiciary, makes an attempt to examine whether the interface
between religion and the judiciary goes beyond personal laws.
The first part of this paper explains the history and application of
personal laws in social, political and legal contexts in India. The
second part examines the case study located in two courts of first
instance, following into the third part which provides an analysis of
the empirical evidence. The fourth part focuses on preliminary
observations about why there is a hesitancy to speak about religion in
relation to the working of the judicial system.
Royal Mound “Baygetobe“ from the Burial Ground Shilikty
Mounds are one of the most valuable sources of
information on various aspects of life, household skills, rituals and
beliefs of the ancient peoples of Kazakhstan. Moreover, the objects
associated with the cult of the burial of the dead are the most
informative, and often the only source of knowledge about past eras.
The present study is devoted to some results of the excavations
carried out on the mound "Baygetobe" of Shilikti burial ground. The
purpose of the work is associated with certain categories of grave
goods and reading "Fine Text" of Shilikti graves, whose structure is
the same for burials of nobles and ordinary graves. The safety of a
royal burial mounds, the integrity and completeness of the source are
of particular value for studying.
Student Satisfaction Data for Work Based Learners
This paper aims to describe how student satisfaction is
measured for work-based learners as these are non-traditional
learners, conducting academic learning in the workplace, typically
their curricula have a high degree of negotiation, and whose
motivations are directly related to their employers- needs, as well as
their own career ambitions. We argue that while increasing WBL
participation, and use of SSD are both accepted as being of strategic
importance to the HE agenda, the use of WBL SSD is rarely
examined, and lessons can be learned from the comparison of SSD
from a range of WBL programmes, and increased visibility of this
type of data will provide insight into ways to improve and develop
this type of delivery. The key themes that emerged from the analysis
of the interview data were: learners profiles and needs, employers
drivers, academic staff drivers, organizational approach, tools for
collecting data and visibility of findings. The paper concludes with
observations on best practice in the collection, analysis and use of
WBL SSD, thus offering recommendations for both academic
managers and practitioners.
An Analysis of Abortion Laws and Sex Selective Abortion in India: A Case Study of Rajasthan
A son in every Hindu society pays his own father the debt and he owes him for his own life whereas a girl child is treated as a burden mainly in case of first child. Even today in India we have many societies which does not welcome girl child. Although there is an increase in overall sex ratio, there is a continuous decline in child sex ratio. This paper focuses on issues of sex selective abortion in Rajasthan based on secondary data. It is found that 90.0 percentages of women in Rajasthan wants at least one son. Around 34.3 percentages of women wants more sons than daughters and only 1.5 percentages of women wants more daughters than sons. It is very common among the rich and educated people.
The Impact of the Type of Diversification of Listed Construction Enterprises in China on Corporation Performance
The construction industry is the pillar industry in
China, accounting for about 6% of the gross domestic product. Along
with changes in the external environment of the construction industry
in China, the construction firm faces fierce competition. The paper
aims to investigate the relationship between diversified types of
construction firm and its performance in China. Based on generalist
and specialist strategy in organizational ecology, we think a generalist
organization can be applied to an enterprise with diversified
developments, while specialist groups are extended to professional
enterprises .This study takes advantage of annual financial data of
listed construction firm to empirically verify the relationship between
diversification and corporation performance establishing a regression
equation to econometric analysis. We find that: 1) Specialization can
significantly improve the level of profitability of listed construction
firms, and there is a significant positive relationship with corporate
performance; 2) The level of operating performance of listed
construction enterprises which engage in unrelated diversification is
higher than those with related diversification; 3) The relationship
between state-owned construction firms and corporate performance is
negative. The more the year of foundation is, the higher performance
will be; however, the more the year of being listed, the lower
performance will be.
Supplier Sift – A Strategic Need of Modern Entrepreneurship
Supplier appraisal fosters energy in Supply Chain
Management and helps in best optimization of viable business
partners for a company. Many Decision Making techniques have
already been proposed by researchers for supplier-s appraisal.
However, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is assumed to be the
most structured technique to attain near-best solution of the problem.
This paper focuses at implementation of AHP in the procurement
processes. It also suggests that on what factors a Public Sector
Enterprises must focus while dealing with their suppliers and what
should the suppliers do to synchronize their activities with the
strategic objectives of Organization. It also highlights the weak areas
in supplier appraisal process with a view to suggest viable
Cultural Integration as a Factor of Genesis of the Kazakh Nation in the Conditions of Multicultural Society
The article analyses historical aspects of the formation
of the Kazakh nation in the conditions of the multicultural society.
The authors underline cultural integration as a significant stage of the
cultural advancement of the Kazakh nation. The transition to the
modern-style houses, the adoption and development of the secular
education gave a rise to the development of the society and culture
on the whole.
Entrepreneurship, Innovation, Incubator and Economic Development: A Case Study
The objective of this paper is twofold: (1) discuss and
analyze the successful case studies worldwide, and (2) identify the
similarities and differences of case studies worldwide. Design
methodology/approach: The nature of this research is mainly method
qualitative (multi-case studies, literature review). This investigation
uses ten case studies, and the data was mainly collected and
organizational documents from the international countries. Finding:
The finding of this research can help incubator manager, policy
maker and government parties for successful implementation.
Originality/value: This paper contributes to the current literate review
on the best practices worldwide. Additionally, it presents future
perspective for academicians and practitioners.
Computer Graphics and Understanding Semiotics in Design
The objective of the paper was to understand the use
of an important element of design, namely color in a Semiotic
system. Semiotics is the study of signs and sign processes, it is often
divided into three branches namely (i) Semantics that deals with the
relation between signs and the things to which they refer to mean, (ii)
Syntactics which addresses the relations among signs in formal
structures and (iii) Pragmatics that relates between signs and its
effects on they have on the people who use them to create a plan for
an object or a system referred to as design. Cubism with its versatility
was the key design tool prevalent across the 20th century. In order to
analyze the user's understanding of interaction and appreciation of
color through the movement of Cubism, an exercise was undertaken
in Dept. of Design, IIT Guwahati. This included tasks to design a
composition using color and sign process to the theme 'Between the
Lines' on a given tessellation where the users relate their work to the
world they live in, which in this case was the college campus of IIT
Guwahati. The findings demonstrate impact of the key design
element color on the principles of visual perception based on image
analysis of specific compositions.
Fast Lines at Theme Parks
Waiting times and queues are a daily problem for theme parks. Fast lines or priority queues appear as a solution for a specific segment of customers, that is, tourists who are willing to pay to avoid waiting. This paper analyzes the fast line system and explores the factors that affect the decision to purchase a fast line pass. A greater understanding of these factors may help companies to design appropriate products and services. This conceptual paper was based on a literature review in marketing and consumer behavior. Additional research was identified in related disciplines such as leisure studies, psychology, and sociology. A conceptual framework of the factors influencing the decision to purchase a fast line pass is presented.
Liveability of Kuala Lumpur City Centre: An Evaluation of the Happiness Level of the Streets- Activities
Liveable city is referred to as the quality of life in an
area that contributes towards a safe, healthy and enjoyable place. This
paper discusses the role of the streets- activities in making Kuala
Lumpur a liveable city and the happiness level of the residents
towards the city-s street activities. The study was conducted using the
residents of Kuala Lumpur. A mixed method technique is used with
the quantitative data as a main data and supported by the qualitative
data. Data were collected using questionnaires, observation and also
an interview session with a sample of residents of Kuala Lumpur.
The sampling technique is based on multistage cluster data sampling.
The findings revealed that, there is still no significant relationship
between the length of stay of the resident in Kuala Lumpur with the
happiness level towards the street activities that occurred in the city.
Estimating the Costs of Conservation in Multiple Output Agricultural Setting
Scarcity of resources for biodiversity conservation gives rise to the need of strategic investment with priorities given to the cost of conservation. While the literature provides abundant methodological options for biodiversity conservation; estimating true cost of conservation remains abstract and simplistic, without recognising dynamic nature of the cost. Some recent works demonstrate the prominence of economic theory to inform biodiversity decisions, particularly on the costs and benefits of biodiversity however, the integration of the concept of true cost into biodiversity actions and planning are very slow to come by, and specially on a farm level. Conservation planning studies often use area as a proxy for costs neglecting different land values as well as protected areas. These literature consider only heterogeneous benefits while land costs are considered homogenous. Analysis with the assumption of cost homogeneity results in biased estimation; since not only it doesn’t address the true total cost of biodiversity actions and plans, but also it fails to screen out lands that are more (or less) expensive and/or difficult (or more suitable) for biodiversity conservation purposes, hindering validity and comparability of the results. Economies of scope” is one of the other most neglected aspects in conservation literature. The concept of economies of scope introduces the existence of cost complementarities within a multiple output production system and it suggests a lower cost during the concurrent production of multiple outputs by a given farm. If there are, indeed, economies of scope then simplistic representation of costs will tend to overestimate the true cost of conservation leading to suboptimal outcomes. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to provide first road review of the various theoretical ways in which economies of scope are likely to occur of how they might occur in conservation. Consequently, the paper addresses gaps that have to be filled in future analysis.
The Effect of Entrepreneurship on Foreign Direct Investment
Entrepreneurship has become an important and
extensively researched concept in business studies. Research on
foreign direct investment (FDI) has become widespread due to the
growth of FDI and its importance in globalization. Most
entrepreneurship studies examined the importance and influence of
entrepreneurial orientation in a micro-level context. On the other
hand, studies and research concerning FDI used statistical techniques
to analyze the effect, determinants, and motives of FDI on a
macroeconomic level, ignoring empirical studies on other noneconomic
determinants. In order to bridge the gap between the theory
and empirical evidence on FDI and the theory and research on
entrepreneurship, this study examines the impact of entrepreneurship
on inward foreign direct investment. The relationship between
entrepreneurship and foreign direct investment is investigated
through regression analysis of pooled time-series and cross-sectional
data. The results suggest that entrepreneurship has a significant effect
The Analysis of the Software Industry in Thailand
The software industry has been considered a critical
infrastructure for any nation. Several studies have indicated that
national competitiveness increasingly depends upon Information and
Communication Technology (ICT), and software is one of the major
components of ICT, important for both large and small enterprises.
Even though there has been strong growth in the software industry in
Thailand, the industry has faced many challenges and problems that
need to be resolved. For example, the amount of pirated software has
been rising, and Thailand still has a large gap in the digital divide.
Additionally, the adoption among SMEs has been slow. This paper
investigates various issues in the software industry in Thailand, using
information acquired through analysis of secondary sources,
observation, and focus groups. The results of this study can be used
as “lessons learned" for the development of the software industry in
any developing country.
Anti-Money Laundering Requirements – Perceived Effectiveness
Anti-money laundering is commonly recognized as a
set of procedures, laws or regulations designed to reduce the practice
of generating income through illegal actions. In Malaysia, the
government and law enforcement agencies have stepped up their
capacities and efforts to curb money laundering since 2001. One of
these measures was the enactment of the Anti-Money Laundering
Act (AMLA) in 2001. The implementation costs on anti-money
laundering requirements (AMLR) can be burdensome to those who
are involved in enforcing them. The objective of this paper is to
explore the perceived effectiveness of AMLR from the enforcement
agencies- perspective. This is a preliminary study whose findings
will help to give direction for further AML research in Malaysia. In
addition, the results of this study provide empirical evidences on the
perceived effectiveness of AMLR prior to further investigations on
barriers and improvements of the implementation of the anti-money
laundering regime in Malaysia.
Conceptual Frameworks of Carbon Credit Registry System for Thailand
This research explores on the development of the structure of Carbon Credit Registry System those accords to the need of future events in Thailand. This research also explores the big picture of every connected system by referring to the design of each system, the Data Flow Diagram, and the design in term of the system-s data using DES standard. The purpose of this paper is to show how to design the model of each system. Furthermore, this paper can serve as guideline for designing an appropriate Carbon Credit Registry System.
Cut Flower Production: A Source of Incremental Income for the Marginal Farmers of the State of West Bengal in India
The basic objective of this paper is to measure and
compare the profitability of investments made by the small and
marginal farmers of the state of West Bengal in floriculture shifting
from the traditional cultivation of paddy. A comparison of IRR is
made to establish the fact that cultivation of flowers yield higher
returns farmers whose land size is so small that viability of paddy
cultivation is raising a question mark. A detailed study of the price
behavior of the flower crop has been carried out in which the factors
leading to the volatility of the price and the dispersion of the range
have also been discussed. Finally the incremental incomes of the
farmers have been calculated with the help of imputed income from
paddy cultivation and the reported income from the selected flowers.
The study shows that the farmers stand gainers if they opt for flower
Operational Analysis of Urban Intelligent Transportation System and Strategies for Future Development - Taking Calling Service of Taxi in Wuhan as an Example
Intelligent Transportation System integrates various modern advanced technologies into the ground transportation system, and it will be the goal of urban transport system in the future because of its comprehensive effects. However, it also brings some problems, such as project performance assessment, fairness of benefiting groups, fund management, which are directly related to its operation and implementation. Wuhan has difficulties in organizing transportation because of its nature feature (river and lake), therefore, calling Service of Taxi plays an important role in transportation. This paper researches on calling Service of Taxi in Wuhan, based on quantitative and qualitative analysis. It analyzes its operations management systematically, including business model, finance, usage analysis and users evaluation. As for business model, it is that the government leads the operation at the initial stage, and the third part dominates the operation at the mature stage, which not only eases the pressure of the third part and benefits the spread of the calling service at the initial stage, but also alleviates financial pressure of government and improve the efficiency of the operation at the mature stage. As for finance, it draws that this service will bring heavy financial burden of equipments, but it will be alleviated in the future because of its spread. As for usage analysis, through data comparison, this service can bring some benefits for taxi drivers, and time and spatial distribution of usage have certain features. As for user evaluation, it analyzes using group and the reason why choosing it. At last, according to the analysis above, the paper puts forward the potentials, limitations, and future development strategies for it.
Dual-Response Approach to Work Stress: An Investigation of Stressors and Wellbeing Outcomes
This study sought to uncover the complex role of
stress in the workplace by investigating both positive (eustress) and
negative (distress) stress responses. In particular, the study tested a
mediation model in which organisational stressors (person-job fit and
role overload) influence employee affective wellbeing, both directly
and indirectly through stress responses. Participants were recruited
from retail and finance organisations in Australia and New Zealand,
and asked to complete an anonymous online questionnaire. A total of
140 individuals returned completed questionnaires. The results show
that person-job fit influenced eustress, which in turn had a positive
effect on employee affective wellbeing; and role overload impacted
distress, which in turn held a negative influence on affective
wellbeing. These findings indicate that different organisational
stressors have unique relationships with eustress and distress
responses. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed.
Venice 17th Century: The Greek Ethnic Identity in Danger
At the end of the 17th Century the Greek orthodox
Archbishop in Venice -Meletios Typaldos- decided to turn the
doctrine of the orthodox Greeks into Catholicism. More than 5.000
Greeks were living in Venice then. Their leadership -the Greek
confraternity- fought against Meletios. Participants in this conflict
were the Pope, the ecumenical Patriarch in Constantinople and Peter
the Great of Russia. All the play according to my opinion -which is
followed by evidence and theoretical support is a strong conflict
between the two actors -the Archbishop and the Confraternity- and
the object of conflict is the change of the Greek orthodox beliefs to
Catholicism. Ethnicity especially for Greeks of the era is identified
with orthodoxy. So this was a conflict of identity. The results of that
conflict were of tremendous importance to the Greeks in Venice and
affected them for long.
Analysis of Key Factors for Formation of Strategic Alliances in Liner Shipping Company: Service Quality Perspective on Asia/Europe Route after Global Economic Crisis
Strategic alliances generally mean the cooperation or
collaboration between firms which pursue for a synergy that each
member hopes the benefits from the alliances would be much more
than those from individual efforts. Past researches provide us
sufficient theories and considerations for alliance forming in liner
shipping market. This research reviews important academic journals
for the past decade regarding to the most important reasons to form the
alliances. We would explain the motive of alliances and details of
shipping cooperation in literature review.
The paper also empirically investigates the key service quality
requirements improved through alliances by using quality function
deployment (QFD). Moreover, the research investigates famous
shipping reports, shipping consultant websites and most recent
shipping publications to find out the executive-s viewpoint of several
leading carriers among top 20 to assess current shipping strategic
alliance on Asia/Europe route. These comments provide meaningful
managerial reasons to consider alliance formations and search if there
is any gap between the theories and industrial practice. Analysis of the
empirical investigation and top management-s perspective on current
market situation will contribute us some meaningful managerial
suggestions to evaluate these theories applied to current strategic
Asset Management for Educational Buildings in Egypt
In Egypt, the concept of Asset Management (AM) is
new; however, the need for applying it has become crucial because
deteriorating or losing an asset is unaffordable in a developing
country like Egypt. Therefore the current study focuses on
educational buildings as one of the most important assets regarding
planning, building, operating and maintenance expenditures. The
main objective of this study is to develop a SAMF for educational
buildings in Egypt. The General Authority for Educational Buildings
(GAEB) was chosen as a case study of the current research as it
represents the biggest governmental organization responsible for
planning, operating and maintaining schools in Egypt. To achieve the
research objective, structured interviews were conducted with senior
managers of GAEB using a pre designed questionnaire to explore the
current practice of AM. Gab analysis technique was applied against
best practices compounded from a vast literature review to identify
gaps between current practices and the desired one. The previous
steps mainly revealed; limited knowledge about strategic asset
management, no clear goals, no training, no real risk plan and lack of
data, technical and financial resources. Based on the findings, a
SAMF for GAEB was introduced and Framework implementation
steps and assessment techniques were explained in detail.
Optimizing the Project Delivery Time with Time Cost Trade-offs
While to minimize the overall project cost is always
one of the objectives of construction managers, to obtain the
maximum economic return is definitely one the ultimate goals of the
project investors. As there is a trade-off relationship between the
project time and cost, and the project delivery time directly affects the
timing of economic recovery of an investment project, to provide a
method that can quantify the relationship between the project delivery
time and cost, and identify the optimal delivery time to maximize
economic return has always been the focus of researchers and
industrial practitioners. Using genetic algorithms, this study
introduces an optimization model that can quantify the relationship
between the project delivery time and cost and furthermore, determine
the optimal delivery time to maximize the economic return of the
project. The results provide objective quantification for accurately
evaluating the project delivery time and cost, and facilitate the
analysis of the economic return of a project.
Pathological Truth: The Use of Forensic Science in Kenya’s Criminal Justice System
Assassination of politicians, school mass murders, purported suicides, aircraft crash, mass shootings by police, sinking of sea ferries, mysterious car accidents, mass fire deaths and horrificterror attacks are some of the cases that bring forth scientific and legal conflicts. Questions about truth, justice and human rights are raised by both victims and perpetrators/offenders as they seek to understand why and how it happened to them. This kind of questioning manifests itself in medical-criminological-legalpsychological and scientific realms. An agreement towards truthinvestigations for possible legal-political-psychological transitory issues such as prosecution, victim-offender mediation, healing, reconciliation, amnesty, reparation, restitution, and policy formulations is seen as one way of transforming these conflicts. Forensic scientists and pathologists in particular have formed professional groups where the complexities between legal truth and scientific truth are dramatized and elucidated within the anatomy of courtrooms. This paper focuses on how pathological truth and legal truth interact with each other in Kenya’s criminal justice system.
How Stock Market Reacts to Guidance Revisions and Actual Earnings Surprises
According to the existing literature, companies manage analysts’ expectations of their future earnings by issuing pessimistic
earnings guidance to meet the expectations. Consequently, one could expect that markets price this pessimistic bias in advance and penalize companies more for lowering the guidance than reward for beating the guidance. In this paper we confirm this empirically. In addition we show that although guidance revisions have a statistically significant relation to stock returns, that is not the case with the actual earnings surprise. Reason for this could be that, after the annual earnings report also information on future earnings power is given at the same time.